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it, that, one, those的用法辨析
发表时间:2009-11-29 13:55:05 来源:荣县中学 编辑:吕国生
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it, that, one, those均可用来替代前面的名词,以避免重复,其用法如下:

一、it和that都替代"the+单数名词(可数或不可数)",都是特指,但it指前面提到的"同一"事物,而that是指前面提到的"同类"事物。如:
1. The Parkers bought a new house but ________ will need a lot of work before they can move in. (全国卷)
A. they   B. it   C. one  D. which
「分析」答案选B.it替代"the + house",指的就是前面提到的the Parkers所买的那座新房子。
2. Few pleasures can equal ________ of a cool drink on a hot day. (全国卷)
A. some   B. any   C. that     D. those
「分析」答案选C.that替代the pleasure,指与前面提到的同属"快乐的事".

二、one替代"a+单数可数名词",表示泛指。特指的the one相当于that;the one复数形式the ones,在口语中也常用those代替;当后面有of短语时,一般用that或those,当有前置修饰语时,只能用one(s),如the red one.one(s), the one(s), those, that都是替代"同类"事物,其中只有that可替代不可数名词。如:
   1. We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made ________ from some wood we had. (广西卷)
A. it      B. one      C. himself      D. another
「分析」答案选B.one替代"a cupboard".

2. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, ________ I will always treasure. (全国卷)
A. that       B. one   C. it        D. what
「分析」答案选B.one替代"a moment",作an unforgettable moment的同位语。后面接的是它的定语从句。又如Cook was a strict but good captain,one who took good care of the sailors on his ship.

3. -Why don't we take a little break?
-Didn't we just have ________ ? (全国卷)
A. it     B. that     C. one           D. this
「分析」答案选C.one替代a break.

4. Mr Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except ________ who had already taken them. (全国卷)
A. the ones   B. ones C. some   D. the others
「分析」答案选A.后面的定语从句是特指,the ones替代the pupils.此处也可用those.

再试试以下的高考题例:

1. (07四川) Little joy can equal ____ of a surprising ending when you read stories.
  A that    B those    C any     D some
2. (07陕西) -There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow _____?
  -No, I'd rather buy ____ in the bookstore.
A it, one    B one, one    C one, it     D it, it
3. (07辽宁) The information on the Internet gets around much more rapidly than ____ in the newspaper.
A it    B those    C one   D that

答案:
1、A.that替代joy,属于不可数性的名词,只能用that.
2、A.第一空it代替the book,是同一本书。第二空代替books的任何一本,等同于a book,所以用one.
3、D.that代替不可数名词information.



来源:荣县中学  编辑:吕国生
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