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It的相关句型的用法归纳
发表时间:2009-11-29 13:55:47 来源:荣县中学 编辑:吕国生
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It的用法在高考中也是重现率较高的语言点,尤其是it用于强调句。其考查方式多通过“单项填空”进行,偶尔也出现在“短文改错”和“完形填空”中。
1.(NMET98) It was only when I reread his poems recently ___ I began to appreciate their beauty.
A.until B.that C.then D.so
正确答案:B 此题考查强调句,所以用that。
2.(NMET98) I hate____when people talk with their mouths full.
A.it B.that C.these D.them
正确答案:A 此题考查it作形式宾语的用法,所以选A。
3.(MET91,短文改错)David and I did not agree and David pointed to a path which he thought it would probably lead to a village.
正确答案:去掉it,因为定语从句中已有宾语which。

一、要点点拔
1.代替上文中提到过的人或事物。指代人时,一般用于小孩或身份不十分明朗的人。
1) -Who is the baby?   
     -It‘s my teacher’s son.
2) -Who is that gentleman?
     -It's my friend Tom.He(不可用It) wants to see you.
2.用于表达天气、环境、时间、距离、季节等。例如:
1) It’s half an hour’s walk from here to our school.
2) It‘s nice and warm here.
3) But it's two o'clock now, and it's time for us to go to school.
3.用作形式主语.it 没有具体意义,而只是帮助把真正的主语移至句子后尾,使句子显得平稳一些,能借it 给移至句子后尾的主语有三种:一种由不定式表示,一种由动名词表示,一种由从句表示。
   1).It 替代真正的主语——动词不定式短语.
     It is easier to say than to do .
     It is a good act to help the others.
   2).it 替代真正的主语——动名词短语,以动名词短语做主语的句子,主要在以no good, no use, no harm, dangerous, foolish 等词作表语的句中.
 It’s no harm drinking running water in that area。
 It’s foolish talking like that.
3).it 替代从句作主语,用从句做主语的带it 的句子很多,常见的有下面几类:
 ① It is a pity (a shame ,a fact ,a wonder ,a good thing,etc. )that…
      It is a shame that he didn’t pass the exam.
 ② It is strange ( surprising,obvious ,true, good,possible,clear,etc. ) that… 。
      It was clear that they had no desire for peace.
 ③ It seems (happened ,turned out,etc.)that…
      It seemed that things were not as they expected.
 ④ It is said  ( decided ,expected ,etc)that …    
 It is said that the tickets have been sold out .
4.用作形式宾语。
当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式,-ing短语或从句往往用it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末,句子重心后移。
1) We find it difficult to learn English well in such a short time.
2) We think it no use crying over spilt milk.
3) We made it clear when and where we were going to have the meeting.
5.用于强调句型,即“It is/was+被强调部分+that/who/whom+其它”句型之中。
  使用该句型有以下几点请注意:
① 强调句的谓语is或was永远用单数.     
  It was yesterday that I met your father in the street.
②不管被强调部分是哪种状语,只能用that连接,不得使用where、when等连词.
  It was in the street that I met your father yesterday.
③被强调部分为人时,可用who(主格或宾格)和whom(宾格)代替that,用that也行。
1) It was your father that/whom /who I met in the street yesterday.
2) It was I that/who met your father in the street yesterday.
④强调句中 也要注意主谓一致、人称一致和否定转移的问题。
1) It is they who are our friends.
2) It was not until ten o'clock that we got home last night.
⑤注意不要混淆强调句和其他从句。It is was…that…为强调句标志,去掉后仍可组成一个完整的句子,只是没被强调,而其他从句一般不具备这一特征。
比较:
  1) It was ten o'clock when we got home last night.我们昨晚到家时已十点了。
2) It was at ten o'clock that we got home last night.我们昨晚是在十点到家的。
第一句不是强调句,when不可改为that,因为去掉it was和that后,只能组成“We got home ten o'clock last night.”这样一个不完整的句子;第二句是强调句,that不可改为when.

二、常用句型及考点
I. 形式主语型
  1. It is clear (obvious,true,possible,certain…) that…
  2. It is important (necessary,right,strange,natural…)that…
    掌握本句型,应该记住所列举的形容词,并且记住that后的从句应用虚拟语气  (should+动词原形),should可以省去。
  3. It is no good (use) doing sth.
  4. It is a pity (a shame …) that…
    本句型中,that后的从句一般用虚拟语气  (should十动词原形),should可以省去。表示出乎意料,常译为“竟然”。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。
  5. It is time (about time,high time) that…
    本句型中that后的从句应该用虚拟语气。
  6. It is the first (second…)time that…
  7. It is said (reported,learned….)that…
  8. It is suggested (ordered…) that…
     本句型中的过去分词应该是表示请求、建议、命令等的词,that后的从句要用虚拟语气(should十动词原形),should可以省略。常译为“据建议;有命令……”。
  9. It happens (seems,appears) that…
  10. It takes sb…to do sth.
  11. It doesn’t matter whether…
  12. It is kind (of sb) to do sth.
    本句型中的不定式如果需要逻辑主语,则须要前置介词of,而句型中的形容词必须是能表示逻辑主语特征的形容词,常见的有bad,brave,careless,clever,cruel,foolish,honest,horrible,kind,lazy,modest,naughty, polite,rude,silly, stupid,wise,wrong等。
  13. It is necessary ( for sb) to do sth.
  14. It is (just) like sb to do sth.
    本句型为“某人(恰恰)是……样子”。用来表示赞扬或不满,若用否定式,则表示怀疑。
  例:It's like him to leave the work to others.
  他就是这样的一个人,把工作推给别人。
  15. It is up to sb to do sth.
    本句型表示“谊由某人做……”。
II.强调句型
    It is+ 被强调部分+that/who…
    本句型中被强调部分可以是主语、宾语或状语。强调的主语如果是人,that可以由who换用。
III.其他句型   
    1. It is…since…
    本句型主句中用时间作表语,一般用现在时或完成时,since引导的从句常用瞬间动词的一般过去时态。主句如用一般过去时,则从句用过去完成时。
  2. It is…when…
    本句型中的when引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的it指时间,表语由具体的时间充当。
  3. It looks (seems) as if...
    本句型中的as if引导一个状语从句,常译为“看起来好像……”。如果与事实不相符合,则用虚拟语气.
  例1  It looks as if he is ill (真的病了) .
  例2  It looks as if he were ill  (没有生病) .

来源:荣县中学  编辑:吕国生
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