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连词but, and ,or与高考
发表时间:2009-11-29 13:57:09 来源:荣县中学 编辑:吕国生
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◆and的六点用法◆

(1) 表示联合,意为“和”、“又”、“而且”:

We were cold and hungry. 我们饥寒交迫。

I woke up and got out of bed. 我醒了就起床了。

He played the piano and she sang. 他弹钢琴,她唱歌。

(2) 有时用于连接两个相同的词语,表示连续性:

The train ran faster and faster. 火车开得越来越快。

We waited for hours and hours. 我们一直等了好几个小时。

The boys laughed and laughed. 这些孩子笑个不停。

【注】但有时连接两个相同名词表示不同的质量和种类:

There are dictionaries and dictionaries. 词典很多,有好有坏。

Don’t worry—there are rules and rules. 别担心——规则与规则不一样。

(3) 在口语中用在 come, go, run, stay, stop, try 等之后表示目的,大致相当于不定式符号 to:

Come and have tea with me. 过来跟我一起喝杯茶。

We ought to stop and think. 我们应该停下来想一想。

(4) 有时用在祈使句后,表示结果,意为“那么”:

Work hard and you’ll succeed. 努力干吧,你会成功的。

Arrive late once more and you’re fired. 你再迟一次,你就会被开除。

比较:If you work hard, you’ll succeed. 如果你努力干,你会成功的。

(5) 有时表示对比(有类似but的意思):

He is rich, and (yet) leads a modest life. 他很富有,但却过着朴素的生活。

Robert is secretive and David is candid. 罗伯特深藏不露,而戴维则有啥说啥。

(6) 用在 good, nice, fine 等之后,表示“很”,“挺”:

It’s nice and cool under the tree. 这树下很凉快。

The book is good and expensive. 这本书很贵。

◆or的用法归纳◆

■表示选择,意为“或”“还是”:

Is the radio off or on? 无线电关上了还是开着的?

Would you prefer tea or coffee? 你喜欢茶还是咖啡?

Is he asleep or awake? 他睡着了还是醒着?

Are you going to America by boat or by air? 你到美国是坐船还是坐飞机?

You may go or stay, according as you decide. 是去是留由你自己决定。

Are you from North China or South China? 你是华北人还是华南人?

You can come now or you can meet us there later. 你可以现在来,也可以稍晚和我们在那里碰头。

■表示一种否定的条件,意为“否则”:

Come on, or we’ll be late.  快点,否则我们要迟到了。

Hurry up, or you'll be late for school. 赶快,否则你上学就要迟到了。

Dress warmly, or else you’ll catch cold. 穿暖和点,否则你会感冒的。

Be careful, or you’ll break that vase! 小心,否则你会把那花瓶打碎!

Cross the road very carefully. Look both ways, or you might be knocked down. 过马路要非常小心,要看两边,不然会被车撞倒。

■可表示“要不就是”:

He must be joking, or else he’s mad. 他一定在说笑话,要不就是疯了。

The book must be here, or else you’ve lost it. 这书一定在这儿,要不就是你丢失了。

■用于否定句中代替and。

He was not clever or good-looking. 他不聪明,也长得不好看。

比较:

They sang and danced. 他们既唱歌又跳舞。

They didn't sing or dance. 他们既没有唱歌也没有跳舞。

■用于习语

The work is more or less finished. 工作大体上完成了。

They consist of 1700 or more tribes. 他们由1700个或更多部族构成。

There’s just one or two details I want to make sure about. 还有一两个细节我想弄清楚。

Either your mother or your father may come with you. 你母亲或是你父亲会陪你去。

◆but的用法举例◆

1. 连接词或短语

It was a sunny but not very warm day. 那一天天气晴朗,却不太暖和。

He drives not carefully but slowly. 他开车不是很小心,而是开得很慢。

2. 连接句子

This isn’t a good one but it will answer. 这不太好,但可以将就用。

He looks honest, but actually he’s a rogue. 他看起来很老实,实际他是一个坏蛋。

She has had no answer to him but he gave no answer. 我向他说了早上好,但他没有回应。

The ice remained, but there was no water underneath. 冰还在,但下面却没有水。

Mrs. Brown was about to begin, but Jennie spoke first. 布朗夫人正要开始讲话,珍妮先讲了。

At first he was a little shy, but now he acts more natural. 开始时他有些腼腆但现在他表现得很自然了。

There was a little trouble at first, but things were soon quiet. 起初有点小麻烦后来情况就平静了。

3. 用于句首

But that question doesn’t arise. 但没发生那个问题。

But in secret she was delighted. 但她暗中感到高兴。

But what else can we do? 我们还能做什么?

But in the end he gave in. 但最后他还是让步了。

But there’s one thing we are agreed on. 但有一点大家的意见是一致的。

4. 用于道歉的表达之后

Sorry, but we’re behind schedule. 抱歉,我们落在计划后了。

I’m frightfully sorry, but I can’t see you today. 太对不起了,我今天不能见你。

Excuse me, but I don’t think that’s quite true. 很抱歉,我认为这与事实略有出入。

5. 用于not…but…,表示“不是……而是……”

Not you but I am to blame. 不是你的错而是我的错。

6. 用在某些否定语后,表示“只……”:

He eats nothing but hamburgers. 他只吃汉堡包。

She knows no one but you. 她只认识你。

You have nobody but yourself to blame. 只能怪你自己。

No one but me saw her. 只有我看见他。

7. 用于next (last) but one 中,表示“隔壁再过去”“倒数第……”

He lives in the next house but one. 他住在隔壁再过去一家。

He was the last but one to arrive. 他是倒数第二个到的。

8. can’t help but 不由得不……

You can’t help but respect them. 你不由得不尊敬他们。

When they gave him a ticket to the game, he couldn’t help but go. 他们给了他一张看球赛的票,他不由得不去。

I can’t help but wonder what I should do next. 我不由得不想知道下一步该怎么办。

【注意】不要按汉语意思将“虽然…但是…”直译为although…but…:

误:Though we are poor, but we are happy. (去掉though或but中任一个)



来源:荣县中学  编辑:吕国生
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