2008高三英语复习学案SBII Units
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Chapter I SB I   Units 1 - 2
重点句型
1. What should a friend be like? 询问对方的看法
2. I think he / she should be…表示个人观点的词语
3. I enjoy reading / I'm fond of singing / I like playing computer games. 等表示喜好的词语
4. Chuck is on a flight when suddenly his plane crashes.
  “when"作并列连词的用法
5. What / Who / When / Where is it that...? 强调句的
  特殊疑问句结构
6. With so many people communicating in English everyday,
  ... “with+宾语+宾补”的结构做状语
7. Can you tell me how to pronounce...? 带连接副词
  (或代词)的不定式做宾补的用法
重点词汇
1. especially v. 特别地
2. imagine v. 想像
3. alone adv. / adj. 单独,孤独的
4. interest n. 兴趣
5. everyday adj. 每天的,日常的
6. deserted adj. 抛弃的
7. hunt v. 搜寻
8. share v. 分享
9. care v. 在乎,关心
10. total n. 总数
11. majority n. 大多数
12. survive v. 生存,活下来
13. adventure n. 冒险
14. scared adj. 吓坏的
15. admit v. 承认
16. while conj. 但是,而
17. boring adj. 令人厌烦的
18. except prep. 除……之外
19. quality n. 质量
20. favourite adj. 最喜爱的
重点短语
1. be fond of爱好
2. treat…as…把……看作为……
3. make friends with 与……交朋友
4. argue with sb. about / over sth. 与某人争论某事
5. hunt for寻找
6. in order to为了
7. share…with与……分享
8. bring in引进;赚钱
9. a great / good many许多…
10. have difficulty (in) doing做……有困难
11. end up with以……结束
12. except for除……之外
13. come about发生
14. make(a)fire生火
15. make yourself at home别拘束
16. the majority of大多数
17. drop sb. a line给某人写短信
18. for the first time第一次
19. at all根本;竟然
20. have a (good) knowledge of…精通……
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧?
l. be fond ____ 喜欢,爱好 of
2. hunt ____    搜索。追寻,寻找 for
3. in to ____ 为了 order
4. care ____  担心,关心 about
5. such ____  例如,诸如 as
6. drop sb a ____ 给某人写信(通常指写短信) line
7. make oneself at ____  别客气 home
8. ____ total  总共 in
9. except ____  除了……之外 for
10. stay ____   不睡,熬夜 up
11. ____ about  发生 come
12. end ____ with  以……告终 up
13. bring ____ 引进,引来 in
14. a great ____   许许多多,极多 many
15. be ____   对……深感兴趣,深深迷上…… into
16. ____ the Internet  上网 surf
17. ____ classes  逃学,逃课 skip
18. get ____   聚会,相聚,聚集 together
19. be proud ____   为……感到骄傲 of
20. keep an ____ on   照看,注意 eye
21. be curious ____    对……感到好奇 about
22. shut ____   (使)住口 up
23. joke ____   开玩笑 about
24. ____ the name of  以……名义 in
25. ____ the time  总是,一直 all
交际用语
1. I think…
  I like / love / hate...
  I enjoy...
  My interests are...
2. Did you have a good flight?
  You must be very tired.
  Just make yourself at home.
  I beg your pardon?
  Can you tell me how to pronounce...?
  Get it.
单词聚焦
1. argue  v. 的用法
▲构词:argument n. 1. [C]争论 2. [U]讨论.辩论3. [C]论据
▲ 搭配:
① argue with / against sb. over / on / about sth. 与某人  争论某事
② argue for / against sth. 辩论赞成/反对某事
③ argue that... 主张,认为,争辩说
④ argue sb into / out of doing sth. 说服某人做/不做某事
  ▲友情提示:“说服某人做/不做某事”还可表达为:talk / persuade / reason sb. into / out of doing sth.
⑤ settle the argument 解决争端
  ▲友情提示:an argument with sb about / over sth. 为某事和某人而发生的争执
【考例】What laughing ____ we had about the socially respectable method for moving spaghetti (意大利式细面条) from plate to mouth.   (2004全国卷I)
   A. speeches   B. lessons  C. sayings  D. arguments
[考查目标] argue名词形式的词义。
[答案与解析] D  argument的词义是“争辩,辩论”。
2. compare  v. 的用法
▲构词:comparison n. 比较
▲搭配:① compare...to... 比拟;比作 ② compare... with / to... 将……和……相比较 ③ compare notes 对笔记;交换意见
【考例】 ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004湖北)
    A. Compare    B. When comparing
    C. Comparing    D. When compared
[考查目标] compare的用法。
[答案与解析] D  本句compare用在句首作状语,并有“被比较”的意思。
3. consider  v. 的用法
▲构词:consideration n. 考虑,思考;体谅,顾及
▲搭配:① consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 ② consider sb (to be / as)... 认为/觉得某人……③ consider that- clause 认为…… ④ take sth into consideration 考虑 ⑤ under consideration 在考虑中
【考例】Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer.  (NMET 1993)
    A. to invent           B. inventing
    C. to have invented   D. having invented
[考查目标] consider的几种常见用法。
[答案与解析] C consider本身是被动语态时,后接不定式的各种结构。如果表示已经发生的事情.用不定式的完成形式。
4. deserted adj. 空无一人的;被遗弃的;被抛弃的
    (1) 空无一人的a deserted street / area空无一人的街道,地区;The office was quite deserted.办公室里空无一人。
    (2) 被遗弃的  a deserted child 被遗弃的孩子
(3) desert ['dezot] n. 沙漠
desert [dI'zo:t] vt. 丢弃;遗弃
    He deserted his wife and children after becoming rich.
5. difficulty n.
  (1) difficulty (通常作复数) 难事,难点,难题She met with many difficulties when travelling.
  (2) 在以下句型中,difficulty是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。
  have (some) difficulty (in) doing sth.
                                    干某事有困难
there is (some) difficulty (in) doing sth.
  have (some) difficulty with sth.     
在某事上有困难
  there is (some) difficulty with sth.
  do sth. with difficulty / without difficulty 困难地/轻而易举地做某事
  We had a lot of difficulty in finding your house.
  Do you have any difficulty with your English?
  【注意】
(1) 以上句型中,difficulty前可加some, little, much, a lot of, no, any修饰
  (2) 以上句型中,亦可用trouble来代替difficulty。
6. favourite = favorite (A. E) 最喜爱的;最喜爱的人或事物
  (1) adj. 最喜爱的My favorite sport is playing football.
  (2) n. [C] 最喜爱的人或事物He is a favorite with his uncle.
7. fun的用法
▲构词:funny adj. 有趣的.滑稽的,好笑的;奇特的,古怪的
▲搭配:
① make fun of 取笑;嘲弄;开某人的玩笑
② (just)for / in fun = (just) for the fun of it 取乐,非认真地,说/做着玩的
③ be full of fun…… 很好玩
④ have fun with sb. 和某人开一个玩笑
⑤ have (some) fun 玩得(很)高兴,玩得(很)开心
⑥ It's (great) fun to do sth干某事很有趣;干某事真是一件趣事;干某事真开心
⑦ What fun (it is) to do sth! 干某事多么有趣呀!
⑧ have a lot of fun doing sth 干某事玩得很开心
【考例】 (200上海春招) This is not a match. We're play- ing chess just for ____.
    A. habit    B. hobby    C. fun      D. game
[考查目标] fun构成的短语for fun的意思。
[答案与解析]C,for fun 常在句中用作状语,意思是“说/做着玩的”。
8. imagine的用法
▲构词:① imagination n. [C / U] 想像,想像力,想像的事物 ② imaginative adj. 富有想像力的
▲搭配:① imagine sth / doing sth ② beyond (all) imagination (完全)出乎意料地
【考例】 I can hardly imagine Peter ___across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.  (MET 1991)
    A. sail    B. to sail   C. sailing   D. to have sailed
[考查目标] imagine的基本用法。
[答案与解析] C imagine后接动词的-ing形式,本句的Peter是这个动名词的逻辑主语。
9. interest的用法
interest vt. 使……感兴趣 n. 兴趣,爱好 [U] 利息;利润 He has a great interest in politics. 他对政治极感兴趣。/ a broad interest 广泛的利益 / a common interest 共同的利益 / a strong interest 极强的兴趣
▲构词:① interesting 令人感兴趣的(事物) ② interested (某人对某事)有兴趣的
▲搭配:① interest sb in sth 使某人注意,关心或参入某事;使某人对某事感兴趣 ② be interested in 对……感兴趣(关心) ③have an interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面有兴趣 (关心);在……中有股份、权益等 ④ hold one's interest 吸引住某人的兴趣 ⑤ in the interest(s) of 为……利益;为……起见;对……有利 ⑥ lose interest in 对……不再感兴趣 ⑦ show / take (an) interest in / in doing sth. 对……表示关心(有兴趣) ⑧ have / take / feel no interest in 对……不 (不太) 感兴趣 ⑨ with interest 有兴趣地,津津有味地 ⑩develop / find / feel interest in sth. / in doing sth. 在某方面培养/有兴趣 ⑪ lose interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面失去兴趣
有时interest可与不定冠词连用。He developed an interest in science.
另外:interest作“爱好”解时,是可数名词。 His interests include reading and tennis.
【考例】____, they immediately suggested that she put them together to make a single one long story and paid Tracy a $50,000 advance. (2004全国卷 II)
    A. Interested    B. Anxiously
    C. Seriously     D. Encouraged
[考查目标] interest派生词的词义和用法。
[答案与解析] A interested指(出版商)对这件事有兴趣。
10. prove的用法
▲构词:① proof n. 证据。试验,考验,(印刷)校样
▲搭配:① prove sth to sb 向某人证实…… ② prove to sb that 从句向某人证实…… ③ prove (oneself) to be 证明(自己)是,表现出
【考例】It was in the neighboring country — United States that such resistance to spray was first ____. (05长春模拟)
    A. proved   B. killed   C. thought    D. discussed
[考查目标] 考查prove的意思。
[答案与解析] A  本题was proved的意思是“得到证实”,有被动意味。
11. provide的用法
▲构词:① provider n. 供给者,供应者,养家者 ② provided / providing conj. 倘若
▲搭配:provide sb with sth / sth to sb 给……提供;以……装备
【考例】His son ____ the old man with all the food and the money he needed.
   A. provided    B. fed    C. afforded    D. charred
[考查目标]考查provide的词义。
[答案与解析]A provide与with搭配,意思是“向某人提供某物”。
12. share的用法
▲搭配:① share (in) sth. with sth. 和某人分享、分担、共用某物 ② share sth (out) between / among... 将某物分配、分给…… ③ share joys / happiness and sorrows (with sb) (和某人) 同甘共苦 ④ share one's opinion 同意某人的意见
【考例】Let Harry play with your toys as well, Clare — you must learn to ____. (NMET 2000)
    A. support    B. care    C. spare    D. share
[考查目标] 此题主要考查在语境中选择动词的能力。
[答案与解析] D  四个选项的含义分别为:support 支持;care 在意,关心;spare 挤出(时间),匀出某物;share分享,分担,与某人合用。根据语境可知说话者是想让Clare学会与人共享——把玩具(拿出来)和Harry一起玩,share在此意为“合用玩具”,解此题的关键是信息play with your toys as well。故D为最佳答案。
13. solve的用法
▲构词:solution n. 1. [C] (问题的)解答;(困难的)解决方法 2. [U] 解答,解决 3. [U] 溶解
▲搭配:the solution to 解决……的办法
【考例3】In the end, one suggestion seems to be the solution ____ the problem.  (2001北京春招)
    A. with    B. into  C. for    D. to
[考查目标] solve名词solution的相关搭配。
[答案与解析] D “对于……的解决办法”,介词用to。
14. total n. / adj. 全部(的)
  (1) in total 加起来In total, there must have been 20000 people there.
  (2) a total of 总共His expenses (支出) reached a total of $100.
  (3) the total of...……的总数 The total 0f the bill is 230 dollars.
15. when conj.
  when并列连词,= and then,表示“就在那时,突然”,常见以下句型中:
  (1) be doing...when...正在做……突然……I was wandering through the streets when l caught sight of a tailor's shop.
  (2) had done...when...刚做了……突然……I had just sat down when the light went out.
  (3) be about to do...when...刚要做……突然……I was just about to go swimming when our guide saw me and shouted at me.
16. while conj.
  (1) while从属连词,引导时间状语从句,从句动词用延续性动词,主句的动作发生在从句动作发生的过程之中。Come on, get these things away while I make the tea.
  (2) 并列连词,表前后两个分句意义相反或相对,意为“然而”。Some people waste food while others haven't enough.
  (3) 放在句首,表示“尽管;虽然”,相当于although。While we don't agree, we continue to be friendly.
[牛刀小试1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(compare,interest,fun,solve,argue,consider,share)
1. All the novels are considered ____ the young readers in the 1980s. (to have interested)
2. Bob thought it ____ to solve maths problems while others hated it. (fun)
3. The headmaster ignored the ____ between Mrs. Wang and his nephew. (argument)
4. We can't decide. The plan needs to be ____. (considered)
5. ____ with Class Two, ours has more boy students. (Compared)
6. I find a better way ____ this problem. (to solve)
7. Nearly half of the companies ____ the same opinion with the government. (share / shared)
【词语比较】
1. especially, specially
  especially adv. 特殊地;尤其是
  (1)侧重于多种事物或人中比较突出的。I like all the subjects at school, especially English. (尤其是英语)
  (2) especially 后可接介词短语或从句。I like the Yuelu Mountains, especially in spring. (尤其是在春天) Noise is unpleasant, especially when you are trying to sleep.
  specially 侧重特意地、专门地做某事 (后面常接for sb. to do sth.)
I made a chocolate cake specially for you.
2. boring, bored, bore
  boring adj. 令人厌烦的 The book is very boring.
  bored adj. 感到厌烦的 I'm bored with the book.
  bore vt. 令人厌烦  This book bores me.
  有些表示情感的及物动词,有与bore类似的用法。如:interest, excite, surprise, amaze, frighten, astonish, move, inspire, touch, scare, disappoint, puzzle, worry 这类词的现在分词形式,为“令人……”;过去分词形式,为“感到……”。
3. except for, except, but, besides
  表示“除了”的词或短语有:except; but; except for; besides; except that (when...) 等。
  (1) except 和 but 都表示“除了……之外。没有”,二者大多数情况下可以互换;但在no, all, nobody, nothing, no one 等词后多用 but。No one knows our teacher's address except / but him. (排除him)
  (2) besides 除……之外,还……,有附加性。What other foreign languages do you know besides English? (English与other languages都属于know的范围)
  (3) except for 只不过……,整体肯定,部分修正,用于排除非同类事物,for表示细节上的修正。 Your article is well written except for a few spelling mistakes.
4. know, know of, know about
  (1) know 用作动词,意思是“(直接地)获知,懂得,认识,熟悉”。I don't know whether he is here or not. / I know him to be honest.
  (2) know of和know about的意思都是“(间接地)获知”,指听别人说到或从书报上看到,二者没有什么区别。
5. for example; such as
  (1) for example“例如”,用来举例说明某一论点或情况。一般只举同类人或物中的“一个”为例,作插入语,可位于句首、句中或句末。可用for instance替换。For example, air is invisible. / His spelling is terrible! Look at this word, for example.
  (2) such as “例如”,用来列举事物,一般列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。插在被列举的事物与前面的名词之间,as后面不可有逗号。Some of the European Languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.
  [注意]如把前面所述情况全部举出,用that is或namely。
短语归纳
1. all的短语
1) first of all 首先 (强调顺序)
2) in all (=in total=altogether) 总共
3) after all 毕竟,终究
4) at all 到底,根本
5) above all 最重要的是 (强调重要性)
6) not (...) at all (= not (...) in the least) 根本不,一点也不
7) all the time 始终,一直
8) all of a sudden (=suddenly) 突然,冷不防
9) all right 行,可以
10) all at once 立刘,马上
11) all day and all night 日日夜夜
12) all over 遍及
13) all alone 独个儿,独立地
14) all but 几乎,差一点
15) all in all 总的说来
16) all together 一道,同时,总共
17) for all 尽管
[例句] I woke up and didn't hear him at all. 我醒了,一点儿也没有听到他说话。/ He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了很多跤,以至于浑身青一块紫一块的。/ You shouldn't scold her. After all, she is only five years old. 你不应该责怪他,毕竟,她只有五岁。/ Children need many things, but above all, they need love. 孩子需要许多东西,最重要的是,需要爱。/ You must have known it all the time. 你一定一直知道这事。
【考例】 People may have different opinions about Karen, but I admire her. ____, she is a great musician. (2004甘肃、青海)
  A. After all B. As a result C. In other words D. As usual
[考查目标] 主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析] A  after all意为“毕竟.终究”;as a result意为“结果”;in other words意为“换句话说”;as usual意为“像往常一样”。本句意思是:虽然人们对她看法不一。但我还是佩服她。因为她毕竟是一个伟大的音乐家。
【考例】I'd like to buy a house -- modern, comfortable, and ____ in a quiet neighborhood.  (2004福建)
    A. in all    B. above all    C. after all    D. at all
[考查目标] 主要考查all构成的四个短语。
[答案与解析] B   in all意为“总共”;above all意为“最重要的是”; after all 意为“毕竟”;at all 意为“到底”。本句话意思是:我想买一个房子,现代的、舒服的,但最重要的是在一个安静的地区。
2. at all
  (1)用在肯定句中,“竟然” I'm surprised that you came at all.
  (2)用在否定句中,“一点也不” There was nothing to worry about at all.
  (3)用在疑问句中,“到底”“究竟” Have you been there at all?
  (4)用在条件句中,“真的,确实” If you do it at all, do it well.
3. “be + 形容词 + 介词的短语
1) be good at 擅长于
2) be interested in 对……感兴趣
3) be pleased / satisfied / content with 对……满意
4) be famous for 因……而出名
5) be kind / good to 对……好
6) be lost in 沉湎于
7) be active in 在某方面积极
8) be sure about / of 确信
9) be afraid of 害怕
10) be full of 充满
11) be filled with 充满
12) be made of / from 由……组成
13) be generous to 对……慷慨
14) be popular with 受欢迎
15) be confident of 确信
16) be fond of 喜欢,喜爱
17) be angry with / at 对……发脾气
18) be late for 迟到
19) be amazed / surprised / astonished / shocked at 对……感到惊讶
20) be busy doing 忙着做……
21) be excited about 对……感到兴奋
22) be worried about 担心
23) be used for / as 用于
24) be curious about 对……好奇
[例句] Lin Lin is confident of his ability to get work for himself. 林林确信自己有能力做这活。He was generous to everybody with money, as a result, he saved little. 他对谁花钱都很慷慨,结果没有攒到多少钱。She is very active in helping the poor. 在帮助穷人方面,她很热心。Pop music is popular with the young generation. 流行歌曲受年轻一代的欢迎。Lost in thought, he didn't realize that I came in. 他陷入思考之中,没有意识到我进来了。I was amazed at the sight so that I didn't know what to do. 看到这一幕我非常惊讶,不知道该做什么。Students in Senior 3 are busy preparing for the coming final exam. 高三学生在忙于准备即将到来的期末考试。
【考例l】(2005重庆)
-- You know, Bob is a little slow ____ understanding, so...
 -- So I have to be patient ____ him.
   A. in; with   B. on; with   C. in; to   D. at; for
[考查目标] 同定搭配中介词的选择。
[答案与解析] A    be slow in 意为“在……方面反应迟钝”,be patient with 意为“对……有耐心”。
4. end up with...……结束
  (1) end up with + n. 以……结束
  The party ended up with the singing of Auld Lang Syne.
  (2) end up as...最后成为…He will end up as a president some day.
  (3) end up + 地点状语最后(有……结局) If you drive your car like that, you'll end (up) in hospital.
5. “make + 名词短语
① make a noise 吵闹
② make faces 做鬼脸,做苦脸
③ make room for 给……腾出地方
④ make the bed 整理床铺
⑤ make phone calls 打电话
⑥ make friends with 交朋友
⑦ make money 赚钱
⑧ make use of 利用
⑨ make a decision 做出决定
⑩ make a mistake 犯错误
[例句] The boy made a face at his teacher when she turned her back. 老师转身时,男孩朝老师做了个鬼脸。
Working in the kitchen made the boy into a good cook. 在厨房里干活使男孩成为一位优秀厨师。
They were moved out to a nearby hotel, to make room for more important persons. 为了给更重要的人物腾出
地方,他们被搬到了附近的一家旅店。
【考例】 The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____. (2003北京春招)
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it up    D. make it over
[考查目标] 主要考查make短语。
[答案与解析] A  make out意为“领悟、弄明白、发现真相” make off 意为“连忙跑掉”;make up 意为“弥补、打扮、组成”;make over 意为“转让、改造”。因为受到迷惑,所以应该是试图发现真相。
【考例】
-- When shall we start?
-- Let's ____ it at 8:30. Is that all right?  (2002北京)
   A. set     B. meet    C. make    D. take
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 make 短语。
[答案与解析] C  make it“规定时间”为固定短语。本句话意思是“把出发的时间定在8点半”。set意思是“对时间”、“调时间”。
6. make fire点火
  有以下fire (n.) 短语: be on fire 着火了(表示状态) / catch fire 燃着;着火(表示动作) / play with fire 玩火;干冒险的事 / Set sth. on fire = set fire to sth. 放火烧…… / make (a) fire 点火;生火 /  start (cause) a fire引起火灾
  [注意] fire作“火灾”“一堆火”解时,为可数名词。
7. a great / good many许多
(1) a great / good many + 名词复数,中间无“of”。A great many people have seen the film.
(2) a great / good many + of + the / these / those / one's + 名词复数 A great many of the people have seen the film.
8. make yourself at home 别拘束
  (1) make yourself at home 别拘束(主人对客人说的委婉语) -- Good evening, Jim. -- Good evening, Mary. Come in and make yourself at home.
  (2) (all) by oneself 独自(没有别人帮助) You can't possibly do it all by yourself.
  (3) enjoy oneself = have a good time 玩得高兴 Please enjoy yourself while you're spending your holiday in Hawaii.
  (4) for oneself 亲自; 为自己The student wants to think it for himself. / One should not live for oneself alone.
  (5) of oneself 自动地The door closed of itself suddenly.
  (6) be oneself 身体或情绪好 I am not myself today.
  (7) help oneself to + n. / pron. 随便…… Please help yourself to the fish.
  (8) in oneself 本身 This is not a bad idea in itself.
  (9) come to oneself 苏醒The injured man came to him- self in five minutes.
  (10) between ourselves 私下说的话 All this is between ourselves.
9. the majority of... 大多数的……
  (1) a / the majority of + 名词复数,作主语时,谓语动词多用复数。the majority 单独作主语,谓语动词用单数或复数形式均可。The majority of people seem to prefer watching games to playing games./ The majority were (was) in favour of the proposal.
  (2) by a majority of + 数字,以超过……票的多数She won the election by a majority of 900 votes.
10. treat … as … 把…看做… The kind lady treated me as her own daughter.
  【比较】 表示“认为”的短语还有:
  regard…as…     consider…(as)…    think of…as…
look on / upon…as…                take…for…
  [注意] 在consider…as…短语中as可省略,其他短语中不可。
[牛刀小试2]
1. If you are ____ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr. Johnson.
A. interested   B. anxious     C. upset   D. curious
2. Her son, ____ whom she was so ____, went abroad 10 years ago.
A. of; loved           B. for; cared
C. to; devoted         D. on; affected
3. In order to continue to learn by ourselves when we have left school, we must ____ learn how to study in the school now.
A. in all   B. after all    C. above all    D. at all
4. -- I am sorry I didn't do a good job.
-- Never mind. ____, you have tried your best.
   A. Above all          B. In all
   C. At all             D. After all
5. Since we can't find a bigger apartment, we'll have to ____ what we have.
A. hope for the best      B. make room for
C. make the best of       D. lay our hope on
(DCCDC)
【句型归纳】
1. I don't enjoy singing, nor do I like computers. 我不喜欢唱歌,也不喜欢电脑。/ Rock music is OK, and so is skiing. 摇滚音乐还可以,滑雪也行。
这两句中nor与so用于倒装结构。例如:I don't know, nor do I care. 我不知道,也不关心。so的常见句型有:
(1) so + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语 (意为“主语也 ……” )
(2) neither / nor + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语(意为“主语也不……” )
(3) so it is / was with sb / sth和so it is / was the same with sb / sth (意为“主语也……” ) (用在前文有两个或以上的从句,而且分句有不同的谓语或既有肯定又有否定以及既有系动词义有行为动词的情况)
(4) so + 主语 + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 (意为“主讲确实如此”),表示进一步肯定。
(5) 主语 + did + so (意为“主语按照吩咐做了”)。
【考例】 Mary never does any reading in the evening, ____. (2005全国 III)
A. so does John       B. John does too
C. John doesn't too    D. nor does John
[考查目标] nor表示“也不”引导的倒装结构。
[答案与解析] D  由never可以判断该句为否定句。空格处句意为“约翰也没读书”。nor, so, neither可引起倒装句。
2. Chuck is a businessman who is always so busy that he has little time for his friends. 查克是个生意人,他总是那么忙,几乎没有时间和朋友在一起。
该句中so...that... 和such...that... 都能连接结果状讲从句,但要注意词序不同。例如:Joan is such a lonely girl that all of us like her. = She is so lovely a girl that we all like her.
常见句型:
(1) such + a / an + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + that clause
(2) such + 形容词 + 复数可数名词 + that clause
(3) such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that clause
(4) so + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + that clause
(5) so + 形容词 / 副词 + that clause
(6) so + many / few + 复数可数名词 + that clause
(7) so + much / little + 不可数名词 + that clause
注意:① 当little不表示数量“少”而表示“小”的意思时,仍然  要用such。② 当so + adj. / adv. 或 such + n. 位于句首时,主句需要倒装。
【考例】 So difficult ____ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (2001上海)
A. I have felt           B. have I felt
  C. I did feel             D. did I feel
[考查目标] so + adj. 位于句首时,主句倒装。
[答案与解析] D  A、C语序不对,排除。B时态不对。
3. One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes. 一天,查克在飞越太平洋时.他的飞机突然坠毁了。
该句中的“when”表示“正在这时”,相当于and just或and at that time. 这时不能用while / as 替换。
常见句型:(1) be about to do sth when... (2) be doing sth when... (3) be on the point of doing sth when...
【考例】We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started. (2004北京春招)
A. when    B. while    C. until    D. before
[考查目标] "when" 作连词,表示“正在这时”。
[答案与解析] A  意为“我正在湖中游泳,突然暴风雨来了。”只有when才能用于这种句型。
4. He has to learn how to collect water, hunt for food, and make fire. 他不得不学会收集淡水.寻找食物,生火什么的。
该句中的“how I to collect...”为动词不定式短语作宾语。例如:We must decide which one to buy. 疑问词which, what, how, when, where等与小定式构成不定式短语。
【考例】 I've worked with children before, so I knew what ____ in my new job.  (NMET 2000)
A. expected B. to expect  C. to be expecting D. expects
[考查目标] what to do sth 不定式短语作宾语。
[答案与解析] B  该句需要填非谓语动词。排除A、D。句意为“以前我与孩子在一块儿工作过。因此我知道我的新工作需要什么。”C不表示进行,排除C。
5. In order to survive, Chuck developed a friendship with an unusual friend — a volleyball he called Wilson. 为了生存下去,查克和一位不寻常的朋友--“排球建立了友谊,查克叫他威尔森。
1. 该句中的"in order to",意思为“为了,以便”,作目的  状语。在句子中作同的状语的常见句型有五种结构:to do sth / in order to do sth / so as to do sth / in order that clause / so that clause
注意:(1) so as to do sth 不能位于句首。(2) 如果主句与从句的主语一致时,四个结构可以相互转换。(3) 在in order that / so that 引导的从句中,谓语动词常与can, could, may, might 等情态动词连用。
【考例】(2005北京) I'd like to arrive 20 minutes early ____ I can have time for a cup of tea.
    A. as soon as  B. as a result   C. in case  D. so that
[考查目标] 目的状语。
[答案与解析]D  as soon as “一…就…”;as a result“结果是”;in case “万一”;so that“以便,为的是”。句意:“我想提前二十分钟到以便有时间喝杯茶”。
2. 该句子中 volleyball 是作同位语。例如:He advised farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones that had the best color.
注意:这种同位语(不是同位语从句)与非限制性定语从句的区别。
【考例】(NMET 2002) Meeting my uncle after these years was an unforgotten moment, ____ I will always treasure.
   A. that    B. one    C. it    D. what
[考查目标] one作同位语,指代a moment。
[答案与解析] B  that不能引导非限制性定语从句,排除A;if不能作同位语,排除C;what既不能引导非限制定语从句,也不能作同位语。可以填which,这样就成了非限制性定语从句。
6. For a long time the language in America stayed the same, while the language in England changed. 长期以来,美国英语保持不变,但英国英语变化了。
1. 该句中的“while"用作并列连词.表示前后对比,意为  “然而”。“while"充当连词,还能引导时间状语从句。意为“during the time that…”;引导让步状语从句,意 为“although…”。
2. 该句中的 "stay" 为系动词。后接表语 (the same)。 除了stay外,常见的系动词还有: become, get, turn, grow, go, come, run, fall, keep, stay, remain。
【考例】(NMET 2003) Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ____ fresh for several days.
  A. be stayed   B. stay  C. be staying   D. have stayed
[考查目标] 系动词的用法。
[答案与解析] B  系动词没有被动语态,一般不用进行
时态,排除A、C;句意不是表示完成,排除D。系动词表示状态。
7. for the first time 第一次
(1) for the first time 第一次,后面不加从句,在句中作状语 They came to Beijing for the first time.
(2) the first time 名词短语,在从句中充当连词,后接时间状语从句,不接that,when等连词。有同样用法的短语还有:every time; next time; the last time
They liked Beijing the first time they went there.
(3) It's / This is the first time that + 从句(用现在完成时)这是……的第一次 It's the first time that I have ever been abroad at all.
8. What is it that...? 是什么……?
强调句的用法:
(1) 结构:It is / It was (过去时间) + 被强调部分 + that / who (专指人) + 其他部分
(2) 用法:除了谓语动词不能强调,句子的每部分均可强调。  Jim met the student in the street last week.
         主语      宾语    地点状语 时间状语
    强调主语:It was Jim who / that met the student in the street last week.
    强调宾语:It was the student whom / that Jim met in the street last week.
    强调地点状语:It was in the street that Jim met the student last week.
    强调时间状语:It was last week that Jim met the student in the street.
(3) 注意点:
    一般疑问句的强调句:
    Was it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now?
    特殊疑问句的强凋句:
    Who is it that will visit our class?
    Where is it that he has gone?
    When was it that she went?
    not … until … 用于强调句:
    It was not until then that I realized I was wrong.
[牛刀小试3]
1. -- I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!     -- ____. (2004广西)
A. Nor am I            B. Neither would I
C. Same with me        D. So do I
2. We can't imagine ____ little mice can eat up ____ many crops every year.
A. so; so   B. such; so  C. such; such  D. so; so
3. Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park ____ she was bitten on the leg by a lion.
A. when     B. while    C. since     D. once
4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the govern- ment knows ____. (NMET 2002)
A. it what to do with    B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it    D. to do what with it
5. Roses need special care ___they can live through winter.
(2004 天津)
A. because  B. so that  C. even if     D. as
(BBACB)
【交际速成】
1. Talking about likes and dislikes. 谈论喜欢和不喜欢
-- I enjoy Chinese food very much. -- ____. (03东北三校)
A. Please taste quickly    B. Have more, please
C. Help yourself         D. Eat slowly while it is hot
[答案与解析]C本题主要考查具体语境下“对事物喜好”的表达及应答。A项不礼貌,B、D两项属汉语习惯,C项符合此时英语语境。
【归纳】英语中常见表达喜欢和不喜欢态度的用语有:
(1) This book is very interesting.
(2) I like / love the movie (very much).
(3)I like / love to play computer games.
(4) I like taking photos.
(5) I enjoy listening to music.
(6) I'm interested in science. My hobbies / interests are...
(7) He is fond of music.
(8) This song is bad / awful.
(9) I don't like the movie very much / at all.
(10)I don't enjoy collecting stamps.
(11)I hate to do homework. I hate dancing,
(12)I'm not into classic music.
(13)I think that classic music is terrible / boring.
2. Making apologies 道歉
-- I'm sorry I'm calling you so late. -- ____ Okay. 
(2003北京春招)
A. This is   B. You're     C. That's     D. I'm
[答案与解析] C 本题主要考查英语中道歉及应答用语。A、B、D三项不符合交际英语的习惯,故C项正确。
【归纳】英语中常见道歉用语有:
(1) I'm very sorry. I didn't mean to (hurt your feelings).
(2) I'm terribly sorry about that.
(3) I'm afraid I've brought you too much trouble.
(4) Please excuse me coming late.
(5) Please forgive me.
(6) Excuse me, please.
(7) I beg your pardon.
应答表达有:
(1) That's / It's all right.
(2) That's / It's OK.
(3) Never mind.
(4) It doesn't matter.
(5) It's nothing.
(6) Forget it.
(7) Don't worry about that.
(8) Don't mention it.
3. Talking about language difficulties in communication 谈论语言交际困难
-- I'm sorry. I can't catch you. ____
-- OK, it's B—L—A—C—K.
    A. Would you please walk slowly?
    B. I don't understand you.
    C. What's the meaning of this word?
    D. Would you please repeat it more slowly?
[答案与解析] D本题主要考查语言交际困难的功能意念。catch 在整个语境中是“听见,听清”的意思,A项错误理解了catch 在此处的意思,B、C两项语义不连贯, 故正确答案是D。
【归纳】英语中常见的谈论语言交际困难的用语有:
(1) Pardon? / I beg your pardon.
(2) Sorry, I can't follow you.
(3) Can you speak more slowly, please?
(4 )How do you say...in English.'?
(5) I don't know how to say that in English.
(6) I don't know the word in English.
(7) How do you spell it, please?
(8) I'm sorry I only know a little English.
(9) Could you repeat that, please? Could you say that
  again, please?
(10) What do you mean by killing time?
[牛刀小试4]
1. -- ____ I didn't hear you clearly. It's too noisy here.
-- I was saying that the party was great.
A. Repeat.               B. Once again.
C. Sorry?                D. So what?
2. -- Do you like a house with no garden?
-- ____. But anyhow, it's better to have one than none.
A. Not a bit            B. Not a little
C. Not really            D. Not specially
3. -- I'm sorry for stepping on your foot?  -- ____.
A. It's OK              B. You are welcome
C. It's your fault         D. Never you mind
4. -- What you said at the meeting hurt me badly!
-- Sorry. But ____.
A. I didn't mean it       B. I didn't mean to
C. I don't mean it        D. I don't mean to
5. -- You seem to show interest in cooking.
-- ____? On the contrary, I'm tired of it.
A. Really   B. Pardon   C. OK     D. What
(CCABD)
【精典题例】
1. -- David has made great progress recently.
  -- ____, and ____.
  A. So he has; so have you   B. So has he; so have you
  C. So he has; so you have   D. So has he; so you have
【解析】选A  答句中的he指David,不倒装。“So have you” 意为“你也一样(取得了进步)”。
2. Little ____ what others think.
A. does he care about      B. care he about
C. about he eared         D. about cared he
【解析】选A little为否定副词,置于句首时,句子使用部分倒装。
3. At school, what he enjoys ____ football.
A. playing  B. to play  C. is playing  D. played
【解析】选C what he enjoys为主语从句,谓语动词为be,表语为playing football。不要误以为playing是enjoy的宾语而误选A。
4. At the ____news, all the women present burst out crying.
A. unexpecting          B. disappointing
C. disappointed          D. interesting
【解析】选B联系语境,所有在场的妇女都哭了,因此为disappointing"令人失望的(消息)”。
5. He was about to tell me the secret ____ someone patted him on the shoulder.
A. as   B. until       C. while      D. when
【解析】选D "when"表示“就在这时,突然”。
6. The wolf said in a ____ voice and the scholar felt ____.
A. frightening; frightened   B. frightened; frightened
C. frightened; frightening   D. frightening; frightening
【解析】选A frightening“令人害怕”;frightened“感
到害怕”。
7. In our ____ life, English is ____ used.
A. everyday; wide     B. everyday; widely
C. every day; wide     D. every day; widely
【解析】选B everyday“日常的,每天的”;widely“广泛地”。
8. -- Hello, Mary. I've got a girlfriend.  -- What's she like?
-- ____.
A. I don't know    B. She's like her mother, not father
C. She likes music  D. Not had! Quite pretty
【解析】选D表外表给人的印象。
9. The fire ____ for half an hour before the fire fighters arrived.
A. had put out         B. was put out
C. had been out        D. had broken out
【解析】选C be out"火熄灭”,表示状态。
10. It has been suggested that the land ____ equally among the peasants.
A. be shared          B. should be spared
C. saved              D. be spent
【解析】选A suggest后用虚拟语气。be shared前可
省略should。
11. She took ____ in physics and read ____ on the subject.
A. interest; as books many as she could
B. an interest; as many books as she could
C. interested; as many books as she can
D. interests; as books as she could
【解析】选B根据短语搭配和时态一致可知。
12. -- How's the young man? -- ____.
A. He's twenty        B. He's a doctor
C. He is much better   D. He's David
【解析】选C how is sb. “某人身体如何”。
13. Let Harry play with your toys as well. Clare, you must learn to ____.
A. support   B. care   C. spare   D. share
【解析】选D share“分享”;support“支持”;care“在意”;spare“抽出(时间)。节余”。
14. The new dress looks wonderful on you ____ the collar.
A. besides  B. except  C. beside  D. except for
【解析】选D“美中不足的是领子”,表示部分修正。
15. -- What about your classmate, Susan?
-- Our teacher ____ her a good and clever student.
A. regards   B. believes  C. suggests   D. considers
【解析】选D consider as…“认为……是……”,as可省略。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 2 SB I Units 3 - 4
重点句型
1. Instead of spending your vacation on a bus, ... you may want to try hiking. Instead和instead 0f的用法
2. Say "Hi" / "Hello" / "Thanks" to sb. (for me) 问候的句型
3. Is anybody seeing you off? 进行时表将来
4. She struggled and struggled, and could not get on her feet. (= keep struggling)
5. You should not go rafting unless you know... unless引导条件状语从句,相当于if... not
6. By staying at..., tourists can help the villagers make money so that they can take care of the fiver and the birds. 目的状语从句
7. She was so surprised that she couldn't move. 结果状语从句
8. Tree after tree went down, cut down by water. 过去分词作状语
9. The next moment, the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. 现在分词作状语
10. However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. It didn't take long before the building was destroyed.     before的用法
重点词汇
1. means n. 方法;途径
2. experience n. 经验
3. equipment n. 设备
4. successful adj. 成功的
5. protect v. 保护
6. handle v. 处理
7. consider v. 考虑
8. benefit n. 利益
9. particular adj. 特别的
10. effect n. 效果
11. combine v. 合并
12. unforgettable adj. 不会忘记的
13. advance v. 前进
14. seize v. 抓住
15. struggle v. 奋斗
16. fear v. & n. 害怕
17. strike v. 敲打
18. destroy v. 毁掉
19. publish v. 出版
20. naughty adj. 调皮的
重点短语
1. get away from 逃离
2. watch / look out 注意,当心
3. go for a hike / go hiking 去徒步旅游
4. as with 正如……一样
5. see off 为某人送行
6. on the other hand 在另一方面
7. take care of 照顾
8. get close / near to 接近,凑近
9. tree after tree 一棵又一棵的树
10. as wall as 也,和……一样(好)
11. protect…from 保护……不受……的伤害
12. be surprised at 因……而吃惊
13. be caught / trapped / struck in 被……困住
14. take place 发生
15. go through 通过,经过;经历(痛苦的事)
16. be upon 临近,逼近
17. hold on to 紧紧抓住
18. refer to 提到,说到;查询(信息)
19. look into 注视……的内部;检查,调查
20. for fear of (doing) sth. 惟恐……
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才能过关,你一定能过关.做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧?
l. get ____ from 逃离  away
2. watch ____ 注意,当心 out
3. protect sb / sth ____ 保护/保卫某人(某事物) from
4. see sb ____ 到火车站、飞机场等某处为某人送行 off
5. on the other ____ 另一方面 hand
6. as ____ as也,还,而且 well
7. ____ place发生,产生 take
8. ____ fire失火 on
9. pull sb ____ 把……往上拽 up
10. get ____ one's feet站立起来;站起身来 on
11. go ____  通过,经受。仔细检查 through
12. ____ holiday在度假 on
13. travel ____ 旅行社代理人 agent
14. be ____ 逼近,临近 upon
15. ____ exercise 进行体育锻炼 take
16. ____ "Hi" to sb for / from sb 代某人向某人问候 say
17. come ____ with提出 up
18. go ____ a hike 去远足 for
19. be caught ____  受困于……,陷于…… in
20. ____ a second 马上,一会儿 in
21. look ____ 往……里面看,调查 into
22. refer ____ 提到.涉及;参考 to
23. hold ____ 抓住,握住 onto
24. sweep ____ 冲走,刮走 away
25. sweep ____ 冲倒,吹倒 down
交际用语
1. Where would you prefer going...?
2. How would you like to go to...?
3. Have a nice / pleasant trip !
4. Well, I must be off.
5. It's all right.
6. I'm afraid.
7. Come on !
8. It scares me.
9. Don't worry.
10. First..., next..., then..., finally...
单词聚焦
1. advance的用法
▲构词:advanced adj. 高等的.先进的,高深的
▲搭配:
① in advance 在前头,预先,事先
② in advance of 在……前面;比……进步;超过
③ on the advance (物价)在上涨
【考例】It is said that Miss White had some difficulty in studying the ____ maths.
    A. improved B. developed C. advanced D. increased
[考查目标] 本题考查形容词advanced与近义词的区别。
[答案与解析]C  “高等数学”的英译是advanced maths,advanced意思是“先进的。高级的”。
2. before 的特殊用法
  (1) He had run out of the room before I could stop him.我还没来得及拦住他,他就跑出了屋子。
  (2) Three weeks went by before We knew it. 三周过去了,我们才意识到。(或:时间不知不觉已过三周了。)
  (3) It wasn't / didn't take long before he returned.他没过多久就回来了。
  It won't be long before we graduate. 不要过多久我们就要毕业了。
3. chance的用法
▲搭配:
① by any chance 万一,碰巧,或许
② by chance 偶然,意,外地
③ take a / one's chance 冒一冒险,碰碰运气,利用一下机会
【考例6】 (2005南京模拟)Most of the ___are in seasonal work, mainly connected with tourism and agriculture.
    A. work    B. luck    C. chances    D. services
[考查目标] chance的词义。
[答案与解析] C   chance在本句的词义是“机会”。
4. consider v.
  (1) 考虑
  A) consider + n. / doing
  I consider going abroad.
  B) consider + 疑问词 + to do
  You have to consider what to do next.
  (2) 认为
  A) consider + n. (+as / to be) + n. / adj.
  I consider Mary as / to be my best friend.
  They considered Paris the brain and heart of the country.
  B) consider + n. + to have done
  I consider him to have acted disgracefully.
  除了consider…as…表认为外,还有regard…as
  …,look on…as…,take…as…,think of…as…
5. cost的用法
▲ 构词:costly adj. 昂贵的,贵重的
▲ 搭配:
① cost sb. sth. 花费某人(多少钱);让某人付出(代价)/牺牲……
② at all costs 不惜任何代价.无论如何
③ at any cost 不惜任何代价,无论如何
④ at cost (price) 按成本价格,按原价
⑤ at the cost of 以……为代价,用……换来的;丧失;牺牲
【考例】They wondered how much this kind of car would ____ them.
    A. pay    B. spend    C. cost    D. waste
[考查目标] 本题考查cost和它的几个近义词的区别。
[答案与解析] C  cost的意思是“耗费”,主语是指物的
名词.而pay和spend等的主语是指人的名词。
6. effect n. 效果;作用
have an effect on sth.
  His words had a great pushing effect on his students.
  (1) be of no effect 无效
  (2) come into effect 开始生效;开始实行
  [比较] affect vt. 影响 The climate affected the amount of the rainfall.
7. experience的用法
▲构词: experienced adj. 有经验的,熟练的
▲搭配:
① by experience 凭经验;从经验中
② from experience 凭经验;从经验中
③ gain experience in… 获得……经验
④ be experienced in… 某方面有经验
友情提示: experience这个词作为可数名词用时,解释为“经历”,作为不可数名词用时解释为“经验”。
【考例】 (2005山西模拟) ____teaches that he was right. Good friendship is just not easily formed.
    A. Knowledge B. Teachers C. Experience D. Parents
[考查目标] experience的意思。
[答案与解析] C   experience常为不可数名词,意思是“经验”。
8. fear n. & vt.
  (1) n. 恐惧 (多作不可数名词)
  His face was growing pale with fear.
  忧虑;担心的事(可数)
  There is no reason for your fears.
  for fear of 由于怕……,以防
  He left an hour earlier for fear of missing his train.
  for fear (that) 惟恐;怕的是;以防
  She worried for fear that the child would be hurt.
  in fear of 害怕;担心
  The thief  was in fear of the police.
  (2) v. 恐惧;害怕,接 n. / pron.
  Cats fear big dogs.
  恐惧;害怕,接to do
  Don't fear to tell the truth.
  恐怕;担心,接从句
  She feared that she might not find him in his room.
▲构词:fearful adj. 可怕的,严重的;惧怕的,胆怯的;担心的,忧虑的 fearless adj. 不怕的,大胆的,勇敢的,无畏的
▲搭配:
① be in fear (of) (为……而)提心吊胆
② for fear of 因为怕;以免,怕的是
③ for fear that-clause 生怕;为了防止(某事发生)
④ have a fear that-clause 担心/怕(发生某事)
⑤ with fear 吓得,怕得
⑥ fear (vi.) for... 担心/忧虑……
【考例】(2004江苏)He got to the station early, ____ missing his train.
    A. in case of    B. instead of
    C. for fear of    D. in search
[考查目标] fear构成的短语的用法和意思。
[答案与解析]C   for fear of 常在句中作状语,意思是 “怕的是……。担心……”。
9. fun n. 高兴;乐趣;有趣的人或事
  (1) for fun 为了高兴;为着好玩
  I only did it for fun.
  (2) make fun of 开……的玩笑;取笑
  It is wrong to make fun of a cripple.
  [比较]
  (1) laugh at 笑(某人);嘲笑
  It's unkind to laugh at a person who is in trouble.
  (2) play a joke on 开(某人的)玩笑
10. means n. 手段;办法
  (1) by means of 用……;依靠……
  The water may be carried by means of a pipe.
  (2) by all means 一定;务必;(表示同意)当然可以,没问题:务必,无论如何,千方百计地
  Try by all / every means to persuade him to come.
  (3) by no means 完全不是;一点也不;决不
  This is by no means the first time you have been late.
  还有: by this means 用这种方法; by any means 用一切可能的方法或手段
【考例】(MET 1991)Students sometimes support them- selves by ____ of evening job.
    A. ways    B. offers    C. means   D.helps
[考查目标] by means of 短语的意思。
[答案与解析] C by means of 的意思是“通过某种手段”。
11. normal adj. 正常的;正规的
    the normal temperature, normal behavior
    (1) regular 规则的;有规律的
    keep regular hours 生活有规律;按时作息
    (2) common普通的;常见的
    Tom is a common name in Britain. 共有的;共同的
    have a common interest 有着共同爱好
    (3) usual 惯常的;惯例的
    It's usual with him to go to the office on foot.
    (4) ordinary 平凡的;普通的  in ordinary dress
12. once的用法
▲ 搭配:
① all at once 突然;同时
② at once 立刻,马上;同时
③ (every) once in a while 偶尔,有时,间或
④ for this once (= for once,just for once) 就这一次;  破例一回
⑤ more than once 不止一次,多次
⑥ not once 一次也不
⑦ once again / more再一次
⑧once and again一再,再三
⑨ once or twice 一两次;有时,偶尔
⑩ once too often又(多了)一次
⑪ once upon a time从前
【考例】(2004上海) ____ we have learned something, additional learning increases the length of time we will remember it.
    A. Before    B. Once    C. Until    D. Unless
[考查目标] 连词once的用法和词义。
[答案与解析] B  once在作连词使用时意思是“一旦”。
13. prefer v. 宁愿;更喜欢
  (1) prefer + n. / pron.
  The boy preferred a detective story.
  (2) prefer + v. -ing
  Do you prefer living abroad?
  (3) prefer + to do
  She prefers to live among the working people.
  (4) prefer sb. to do sth.
  She preferred him to stay at home.
  (5) prefer + n. / pron. / doing + to + n. / pron. / doing 喜欢……而不喜欢  I prefer the town to the country. / While he was in the office he preferred doing something to doing nothing.
  (6) prefer to do...rather than do = would rather do ... than do... 宁愿……而不愿 I prefer to walk there rather than go by bus.
  (7) prefer + 从句(谓语动词用should do,should可省略)  She preferred that he should do it in the kitchen.
14. protect的用法
▲ 构词:protection  n. 保护(者/物),防御
▲ 搭配:protect sb from / against 防止……遭受……;使……免于,保护……使不受
【考例】 (MET 1992) Clarke was greatly admired at the club for the successful ____.
    A. self-satisfaction    B. self-protection
    C. self-respect          D. self-service
[考查目标] protect及其派生词的词义。
[答案与解析]B  self-protection是名词,意思是“自我保护”。
15. separate的用法
▲ 构词:separation n. [U]分开,分离
▲ 搭配:
① separate A from B 把A和B分开
② A is separated from B by… A和B为……所分开/阻隔
③ separate sth (up) into… 把……分成(几分)
▲辨析:separate; divide; part 都含“分开”的意思。
separate 指“把原来在一起的人或物分开”。例如: Separate those two boys who are fighting, will you? (你)把那两个打架的孩子拉开,好吗?
divide 指“施加外力或自然地把某人或某物由整体分成若干部分”。
part指“把密切相关的人或物分开”,还有“分手”之意。
【考例】(NMET 2001)As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends.
    A. separated    B. spared    C. lost    D. missed
[考查目标] 动词separate的词义。
[答案与解析] A  separated和get搭配有被动意义,表
示“被隔开;被分隔”。
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(advance, means, cost, protect, fear, separate)
1. The teacher improved the students'  English by ____ of dictation and recitation. (means)
2. All the goods ___me almost half a million dollars. (cost)
3. We must ____ the wild animals from the hunting. (protect)
4. Every baby should be ____ after he is horn. (separated)
5. None of them ____ death when the enemy came into the village. (feared)
6. There are too many people, so you should have bought a ticket in ____. (advance)
词语比较
1. wear, put on, have on, dress, be in, try on
  (1) wear v. 穿着;戴;蓄须(发);磨损;(脸容)呈现,显出 He is wearing an overcoat today.
  * wear out (把) 穿破;(把) 用坏;(使) 疲乏;(使) 耗尽I have worn out my shoes. / My patience wore (was worn) out.
  (2) put on 穿上;戴上(侧重穿着的动作)
  Put on your sweater, otherwise you will feel cold.
  (3) dress vt. 给……穿衣服  n. 衣服;连衣裙
  dress sb. (in sth.) 或 be dressed (in sth.) 注意:穿的衣服接在in之后。Mother dressed her baby and then they went downstairs.
  (4) have on 表示穿着的状态,注意不能用进行时。
  At the Spring Festival, all children have on new clothes.
  (5) be in表示穿着的状态 There was a girl in red.
  (6) try on 试穿  Mother was trying on a new dress.
2. strike, hit, beat
  (1) hit vt.
  ① 打;敲;击;击中;射中 He hit a ball over the fence. / The stone hit him on the head.
  ② 使……受到打击 The bad news hit every one hard.
  (2) beat vt. & vi.
  ① 连续有节奏地打;敲
The rain heat against the window.
  ② (心)跳动 His heart had stopped beating.
  ③ (鸟翼) 扑动
 The bird beat its wings rapidly as it flew on.
  ④ 打败;打赢;取胜
  Our champion can beat all runners in the country.
  (3) strike vt. & vi.
  ① 打;敲;击;砍;打中;击中
  He struck me with his fist.
  The house was struck by lightning.
  ② 发起进攻;袭击
  He moved away as the animal struck.
  ③ 撞;触(礁)
  His head struck the table as he fell.
  ④ 擦(火柴)
  I struck a match and held it to his cigarette.
  ⑤ (某种想法) 忽然出现;忽然想起,相当于occur to。
  A happy thought struck her.
  ⑥ 给人深刻印象(常用于被动语态)
  I was struck by her beauty.
  ⑦ 罢工  They are striking for higher pay.
  ⑧ (钟)敲(响) We waited for the clock to strike six.
3. complete, finish
complete 可作形容词,表示“彻底的;全面的”。
complete与finish表示“完成”时的区别。
(1) complete 作及物动词,只接 n. 或 pron.,常用于完成预定的任务,工程建设等The railway is not completed yet.
(2) finish vi. / vt. 指完成,结束一件事情;可接 n. 或doing。如:finish one's homework / middle school / writing the book
短语归纳
1. cut down
  (1) 砍倒 If you cut down all the trees you will rain the land.
  (2) 减少;削减 I have decided to cut down my smoking.
2.get的短语
① get back 回来,恢复,送回
② get off下来,动身,起飞  ③ get up 起床,站起来
④ get on 上(车)
⑤ get on / along with 与某人相处.某事的进展
⑥ get together 聚首,碰头   ⑦ get away from 逃离
⑧ get on one's feet 站起来   ⑨ get down 下来
⑩ get on well with 与……相处融洽
⑪ get married 结婚         ⑫ get to 到达
⑬ get through 通过,接通
⑭ get down to 开始着手做某事
⑮ get across (使)通过      ⑯ get(a)round 传开,说服
⑰ get in 进入。收获      ⑱ get out 出去,逃脱
[例句]How are you getting along with your business? 生意进展如何? / If you take Mary out for a drive you must promise to get her back for her music lesson. 如果你带玛丽去兜风的话,你必须答应带她回来上音乐课。/ I can't get my boots off, for they are too tight. 我脱不掉靴子,它太紧了。/ We all try to get together at least once a year at Christmas time. 在圣诞期间我们尽量一年至少聚会一次。/ When one has business on hand it is hard to get away from home. 如果一个人手头有事,离开家很难。
【考例】(2004辽宁) The final examination is coming up soon. It's time for us to ____ our studies.
    A. get down to B. get out  C. get back for D. get over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查get短语。
[答案与解析]A  get down to 意为“开始着手做某事”;get out 意为“离开,摆脱”;get back for 意为“回去拿”;get over意为“克服,渡过”。本句话意思是:期末考试就要到了,我们该开始学习了。
【考例】(NMET 1993)Readers can ____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.
    A. get over  B. get in  C. get along  D. get through
[考查目标]此题主要考查get短语。
[答案与解析]C   get over 意为“痊愈,克服”;get in 意为“插话”;get along 意为“进展.继续”;gel through 意为“接通。办完”。本句话意思是:读者不必准确知道每个词的意思就能继续下去。
3. get away (from)
  (1) 摆脱 Ways must be found to get away from poverty.
  (2)走开;离开 She didn't get away until nine last night.
  (3)逃走,使离开The bank robbers used a stolen car to get away.
  (4)拿走 Get all thee party dishes away!
4. get close to
  (1) close adj. 靠近;接近
  The church is close to the shops.
  亲密;密切
  Are you a close friend of theirs?
  (2) close adv. 靠近;接近
  He was standing close to the door.
  (3) close v. 关上;关闭(不开发);结束
  She closed her eyes. / Her eyes closed. (闭上)
  (4 ) closely adv. 紧密地;仔细地;密切地
  He got closely in touch with the magazines of today.
  The little baby was closely looked after by her.
[比较]
  (1) close 与 closely 作副词时,close含具体之意,closely 含抽象之意。
  (2) 类似的词组有 high (高) -- highly (高度地),deep (深深地) -- deeply (深入地),wide (很开,宽) -- widely (广  泛地),low (低的)-- lowly (低贱的) (作形容词)
5. hand in 交上去(给老师或上级);交来(hand v.)
  Each student has to hand in a composition once a week.
[比较]
  (1) hand down 传下来;传给 Our father handed down these customs to us.
    (2) hand on…to…传给,传递They will hand the photograph to those who have not seen it.
    (3) hand out 发给大家;散发 The teacher handed out the books at the beginning of the lesson.
6. instead of 代替……
  (1) instead of + n. / pron.
  Give me the red one instead 0f the green one.
  (2) instead of + doing
  We walked down the stairs instead of taking the elevator.
  (3) instead of + 介词短语
  He studies in the evening instead of during the day.
  [比较]
  (1) instead adv. 作为替代 (……而),代替 If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead.
  (2) rather than 而不是,与其……宁愿 He ran rather than walked.
  (3) in place of 代替,……而不用The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks.
7. take的短语
① take a picture 照相,拍照
② take a taxi / bus, etc. 打的(坐公交车等)
③ take away 拿走,夺取,使离去
④ take care of 小心,照料,保管
⑤ take off 脱,去掉,取消,起飞
⑥ take out 拿出,带……出去
⑦ take one's place 就坐,坐某人的座位,代替某人的位置
⑧ take place 发生,产生
⑨ take exercise 做运动
⑩ take a seat 坐下
⑪ take turns 轮流
⑫ take an active part in 积极参加
⑬ take a message 捎口信
⑭ take on 从事,呈现
⑮ take the place of 取代,代替
⑯ take apart 拆开
⑰ take down 拿下,记下
⑱ take...for... 误认为……
⑲ take in 吸收,接纳
⑳ take up 拿起.从事.占据
[例句] Father was convinced that Peter was unhappy at boarding school, and made arrangements to take him away. 父亲确信彼得在寄宿学校不开心,决定把他带走。/ Will you lake care of buying the wine for tonight's party? 你负责为今晚的晚会买酒水好吗? / The boys got into the car and took off for the drug store. 男孩们进到车里,开车去了药店。/ He took my place in the queue so that I could go and get something to eat. 他替我排好了队,以便我能够回
去弄点儿吃的。
8. used to
  (1) used to do sth. 过去常常……(现在已不如此)
  We used to grow beautiful roses.
  注意:否定句和疑问句有两种
  You usedn’t to make that mistake.
  She didn't use(d) to do it, did she?
  You used to smoke a pipe, didn't you? / use(d) n't you?
  (2) be / get / become used to + n. / doing 习惯于
  I have always been used to hard work.
  He got used to living in the country.
  (3) be used to do 被用来做……
  This knife is used to cut bread.
  表示过去常常……”时,used towould区别:
  (1) would 只强调“过去常常……”,used to 说明现在不是如此。
  The old woman would sit there for hours doing nothing.
  (2) would 只接行为动词,used to 可接行为动词和表状态的词。如:be, like, know, have。There used to be a temple at the foot of the mountain.
9. watch out 当心;注意
  You'll be cheated if you don't watch out.
  (1) watch out for = look out for 提防;当心
  You must always watch out for the traffic here!
  (2) watch over 照看;看守;负责
  The mother bird is watching over her young.
10. 动词 + out”短语
① come out 出来,出版,传出
② go out 出去,熄灭,不时兴
③ look out 当心,注意
④ take out 拿出,取出,带……出去
⑤ rush out 冲出去,匆忙大量生产
⑥ try out 尝试,试验
⑦ watch out 小心
⑧ wear out 穿破,用坏,(使)疲乏,消磨
⑨ find out 找出,查出
⑩ make out 填写,完成.设法应付
⑪ get out 出去,逃离,泄露,公布
⑫ pick out 看出,选出
⑬ think out 想出
⑭ give out 发出,筋疲力尽
⑮ set out出发,陈述
[例句]Please go out and tell the children to make less noise. 请出去告诉孩子们不要吵闹。/ These bicycles have been rushed out and not up to our usual standard. 这些自行车匆忙大量生产,没有达到我们的正常标准。/ Watch out. The train is coming. 小心,火车来了。/ Your will wear out your patience in time, my friend. 朋友,最终我们会没有耐心的。
【考例】(2005湖北) This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder if you can ____ my father.
     A. find out              B. pick out
     C. look out              D. speak out
[考查目标]此题主要考查out构成的短语意思区别。
[答案与解析]B  pick out意为“挑选,辨别出”;find out意为“找出.发现”;look out意为“留神,注意”: speak out意为“大声说出”。
[牛刀小试2]
请根据句意,选用所给短语的适当形式填空:
(get away,take up,take on,think out,get down to)
1. -- Shall we set off right now?  -- Sorry. I'm too busy to ____ for the moment. (get away)
2. The final examination is coming: you really must ____ your studies. (get down)
3. The manager doesn't have much free time as his work ____ nearly all his spare time. (takes up)
4. We also shared a number of qualities which we fell were in our favor when we ____ the task. (took on)
5. He might have ___his idea about the art exhibition much better, if he had planned what he wanted to say.  (thought out)
句型归纳
1. You shouldn't go rafting unless you know how to swim, and you should always wear a life jacket. 除非你会游泳,而且要一直穿着救生衣,否则就不应该去做漂流运动。
该句中的unless引导状语从句。例如:One can't learn a foreign language well unless he studies hard.
unless引导的条件状语从句,一般可以与if...not...互换。还要注意unless引导的从句经常可以省略。
【考例】(200l北京春招)The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster.
    A. if    B. unless    C. whether    D. that
[考查目标]状语从句。
[答案与解析]B  句子意思是“如果医生不快点工作,
这些人将不得不等一整天。”应该选unless。
2. Eco-travel is a way to find out what can be done to help animals and plants as well as people. 生态游可以找到既帮助别人.又帮助动植物的途径。
该句中的as well as是连词,连接两个并列成分。例如: He can speak German as well as French.
常见的用法:
1. well是副词,意思是“好,优秀”,as well as是形容词  同级比较结构。
2. as well as是固定短语,意思是“和”,相当于"not only … but also..."。
3. as well as连接两个并列成分作主语时,句子的谓语动词应该与前面那个名词或代词的人称或数保持一致。
4. as well as还可当作复杂介词用,意思是“除了……之外,还有”;相当于"besides,apart from"。
5. as well,是副词短语,意思是“也”,相当于“too / also”常位于句尾,与too位置相当。
6. may / might as well do sth 表示“还是……的好”。
【考例】(NMET 1994) John plays football ____, if not better than David.
A. as well   B. as well as   C. so well   D. so well as
[考查目标] as well as连接比较状语从句。
[答案与解析]B  该句中 if not better than相当于插入语,起干扰作用,如果不予考虑,原句就变成了同级比较结构 "John plays football as well as David"。
3. Before she could moveshe heard a loud noise. 她还没有来得及动弹,就听见很响的声音。
However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. 但还没有回过身来,洪水便逼近了她。
该两句中的before用作连词,后接时间状语从句。before用作连词,接时间状语从句时,表示“在……之前”。但在不同的语境中,往往有比较灵活的译法。例如: He knocked me down before he saw me. 他差一点把我撞倒,才看到我。
【考例】(2005广东) The American Civil War lasted four years the North won in the end.
    A. after    B. before    C. when    D. then
[考查目标] 时间状语从句的引导词选择。
[答案与解析]B   before 表示“直到……”。
4. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 洪水想必深达三米,树一棵接一棵地倒了,被洪水冲断了。
该句中的must have been表示推测。例如:You look so tired. You must have stayed up last night.
情态动词may,might,most.can,could常用来表示推测。may,might,must多用在肯定句中,can,could多用在否定句和疑问句中。may,might,must,can,could后接动词原形表示对现在的推测;may,might,must,can,could后接have done。表示对过去的推测。例如:
You may be a professor. / She must have met a fairy.
【考例】(2005辽宁)This cake is very sweet. You ____ a lot of sugar in it.
    A. should put    B. could have put
    C. might put    D. must have put
[考查目标] 情态动词表示推测。
[答案与解析] D  前文说蛋糕很甜,由此可知一定是糖
放多了。对于过去的动作的推测应使用have done的
结构,所以应在B、D之间做选择,又因为could have
done表示本可以做而没有做,所以选择D。
5. ... she heard a loud noisewhich grew to a terrible roar. ……她听见了很响的声音,接着就变成了可怕的隆隆轰鸣声。
该句中的which引导非限制性定语从句。例如:He bought some reference books, which were all about science. 他买了许多的参考资料.都是有关理科的。
which 作为关系代词.既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。例如:The train which left for Beijing pulled in on time. 前往北京的火车按时进站了。His dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.他的狗,现在老了,生病死了。
【考例】(2005浙江) Jim passed the driving test, ____ surprised everybody in the office.
    A. which    B. that    C. this    D. it
[考查目标]非限制性定语从句。
[答案与解析]A  which引导非限制性定语从句。指代
前面整个句子。that不能引导非限制性定语从句。
句型诠释
现在进行时的用法(is / am / are + doing)
1. 表示现在(说话的瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。 Look! The monkey is climbing the banana tree.
2. 表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。(说话时动作不一定正在进行。) We are preparing for the meeting to be held next Friday now.
3. 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表示赞叹、惊讶、厌恶等。(常与always, constantly, continually, all the time, forever 等副词连用),表反复的动作。He is always think- ing of others. (表赞许) She is always asking the same question. (表厌恶) You are always changing your mind. (表抱怨)
4. 表示在最近计划或安排要进行的动作。常用于go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, work, stay 等表移动、方向的动词。He is starting the work in a few minutes. / He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow morning.
 [注意]
  1. 不用进行时的词有:
  (1) 系动词: feel, sound, smell, taste, look, appear, seem, remain, prove 等。
(2) 表结果的感官动词: see, notice, hear 等。
(3) 非延续性的动词,此动作开始即是结束:enter, accept, receive等。
(4) 表心理状态,存在状态,拥有的动词:love, like, hate, care, dislike, respect, prefer, know, understand, forget, remember, believe, want, wish, hope, mind, agree, belong to, depend on, own, have等。
2. 用进行时的特殊词有系动词get, turn, grow, become, go, come, fall 等表由一种状态转入另一种状态时,用进行时表示渐近。Today, many rivers that were polluted are getting cleaner and cleaner. 当今,许多过去遭污染的河流又变得越来越清澈了。
[比较]
现在进行时表将来的用法与一般将来时的区别:
(1) 现在进行时表近期的,事先已经计划安排好的
-- How are you getting to the airport?
-- By taxi. Bob is coming with me to the airport.
(2) will do 和 shall do
① 表客观将来。shall用于第一人称,will用于第一、
二、三人称。I will / shall finish middle school next month.
② 表有科学根据的预测。The weather report says it will rain tomorrow.
③ 表客观必然。Man will make mistakes.
(3) be going to
① 表现在打算在近期或将来要做某事。I'm going to finish my homework tonight.
② 表根据已有迹象的预测。It's so dark outside, I think it's going to rain.
③ be going to不与come, go连用,而用be coming, be going 形式。Mary is coming here this evening.
[注意]
表计划、安排、规定要做的事,用“be + to do”。此外,表示按时刻表运行的动作常用一般现在时表将来。The meeting is to be held at 9:00 a. m. / Our plane leaves at 6:00 a. m. .
[牛刀小试3]
1. ____ you call me to say you're not coming, I'll see you at the theatre. (2004 吉林)
A. Though    B. Whether  C. Until   D. Unless
2. Now that you've got a chance, you ____ make full use of it. (NMET 1999)
A. had better to         B. might as well
C. might as well as      D. would rather
3. It was evening ____ we reached the little town of Winchester. (2004 天津)
A. that    B. until  C. since    D. before
4. There is no light in the dormitory. They must have gone to the lecture, ____? (2004  上海春招)
A. didn't they           B. don't they
C. mustn't they          D. haven't they
5. The result of the experiment was very good, ____ we hadn't expected. (2000 北京春招)
A. when    B. that     C. which     D. what
DBDDC
交际速成
【考点1】Talking about intentions and plans. 谈论意愿和打算 (2004江苏)
  -- How long are you staying?  -- I don't know. ____.
    A. That's OK    B. Never mind
    C. It depends    D. It doesn't matter
[答案与解析]C  本题考查具体语境下被询问打算时的应答。A项用于回答感谢和道歉,B、D两项用于回答道歉,C 项表示“看情况而定”。
【归纳】英语中常见表达意愿和打算的用语有:
① I'll go with you.
② I'm going to see my head teacher this afternoon.
③ I'd like to make a phone call to her after class.
④ I want / hope to find an English pen friend.
⑤ I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer.
⑥ We are ready to move to a new house.
⑦ Bill intends to spend his vocation in California.
⑧ I'm thinking of driving to Beijing.
⑨ Where would you prefer going...?
⑩ How would you like to go to...?
⑪ When are you going off to...?
⑫ How are you going to...?
【考点2】Expressing good wishes祝愿
(2005广东)
Tom: Mike, our team will play against the Rockets this weekend. I'm sure we will win.   
Mike: ____!
A. Congratulations      B. Cheers
   C. Best wishes         D. Good luck
[答案与解析]D  考查祝愿用语。在比赛前表示祝愿的话用Good luck。Congratulations用于成功之后的祝贺。Cheers意为“干杯”。Best wishes多用于书面语,表示“万事如意”的意思。
【归纳】英语中常见表达祝愿的用语有:
① Have a good day / time!
② Have a good journey / trip!
③ Good luck!
④ Enjoy yourself!
⑤ Best wishes to you!
⑥ Happy New Year!
⑦ Happy birthday!
⑧ Merry Christmas!
应答语有:
① Thank you.
② You, too.
③ The same to you.
【考点3】Describing emotions 描述人物的情感
(2001上海春招)
-- I'm afraid I can't finish the book within this week.
-- ____.
    A. Please go ahead    B. That's all right
    C. Not at all    D. Take your time
[答案与解析]D  本题考查时表示遗憾情感的应答。A项表示“请吧,说吧”,用于回答许可或让对方先行。B、C两项是感谢或道歉的答语,D项表示“别着急,慢慢来”,符合语境。
【归纳】中学英语中描述人物情感的用语有:
① (恐惧) Help! / How terrible! / I'm afraid of... / I'm afraid to... / You scared me! / It scares me!
② (高兴) (It's) well done! / How wonderful! / That's great! / I'm pleased to...
③ (惊奇) Really! / Oh dear! / Is that so? / What a surprise! / How surprising!
④ (忧虑) What's wrong? / what's the matter? / Anything wrong? / What should we do?
⑤ (安慰)There, there. / Don't be afraid. /Don't worry. / It's (quite) all right. / It'll be OK / all right.
⑥ (满意) Good! / Well done! / Perfect! / That's fine. / That's better.
⑦ (遗憾) I'm so sorry! / It's a great pity! / What a shame! / That's too bad!
⑧ (同情) I'm so sorry! / I'm so sorry (about your illness). / I'm sorry to hear that.
⑨ (愤怒) Damn! / How annoying!
⑩ (鼓励) Well done! / Come on! / Keep trying. / You can do it!
[牛刀小试4]
1. -- I'd like to take a week's holiday.
-- ____, we're too busy.
A. Don't worry         B. Don't mention it
C. Forget it            D. Pardon me
2. -- I was so sure that our experiment was going to succeed, but something went wrong at the last moment.
-- ____, but don't give it up.
A. Find out the reason       B. Never mind
C. I'm sorry to hear that      D. You don't 'mean that
3. -- I just heard that the tickets for tonight's show have been sold out.  -- Oh no! ____.
A. I was looking forward to that  B. It doesn't matter
C. I knew it already  D. It's not at all interesting
4. -- We are going to travel to Italy.  -- ____.
A. Good bye             B. Go ahead
C. I like to go, too        D. Have a good time
5. -- I'd rather have some tea, if you don't mind.
-- ____.
A. Thank you very much  B. Yes, I like so
C. No, it's nothing     D. Of course, anything you want
    CCADD
精典题例
1. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. (NMET 2002春上海)
    A. cut  B. are cut  C. are being cut  D. had been cut
【解析】选C  本题是在语境中考查现在进行时的被动语态。本句意为“雨林以这样的速度被砍伐和焚烧,会导致它在不久的将来从地球上消失。”体会语境和句意便知此处选择C项,表示现阶段在进行的动作。
2. Twenty-three hours has passed after the explosion in the mine, but rescue efforts to recover the missing ____ carried out.
    A. are still being    B. have already been
    C. are always    D. will soon be
【解析】选A本句意为“矿井爆炸已过23小时了,但对失踪人员的搜索还在进行中。”
3. -- When are you leaving?  -- My plane ____ at 10:45.
A. takes off            B. took off
    C. is about to take off    D. will take off
【解析】选A飞机是按时刻表运行的。
4. -- Excuse me, what time is it now?
    -- Sorry, my watch ____. It ____ at the shop.
    A. isn't working; is being repaired
    B. doesn't work; is being repaired
    C. isn't working; is repaired
    D. doesn't work; is repaired
【解析】选B doesn't work说明“手表不工作”的状态,而不只是现在才坏了。后句意为“手表正在商店里修理”,故应用is being repaired。
5. John, who is considered ____ a warm-hearted man, is considering ____ his neighbor out of trouble.
A. to be; to help    B. to be; helping
C. being; to help    D. being; helping
【解析】选B be considered to be “被认为是……”;consider doing “考虑做某事”。
6. He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation ____ it got worse.
A. until    B. when    C. before    D. as
【解析】选C意思是“在事情还未变得更糟之前及
时纠正错误”。
7. -- There is something wrong with my bike.
-- It doesn't matter. I ____ lend you mine.
A. am to  B. am going to  C. was going to   D. will
【解析】选D be to表示按计划安排将来的动作,be going to 表示最近打算做某事,will 在此是情态动词,表示“意志;意愿”。如:I will tell you all about it.
8. Children at the beginning of this century ____ a lot and ____ themselves greatly even without television.
A. used to read; enjoying    B. used to read; enjoyed
C. were used to reading; enjoy
D. were used to read; enjoying
【解析】选B  前后时态要保持一致。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 3 SB I Units 5 - 6
重点句型
1. While still a student, she played roles in many plays.
  连词 + 名词做时间状语
2. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said…    连词+过去分词做时间状语
3. When drinking to someone's health, you raise your glasses.    连词 + 现在分词做时间状语
4. It's a custom in China to have some tea before the meal is served.     It 做形式主语
5. Many people like this film not just because..., but also
  because... 并列连词
6. Having good table manners means knowing...
动名词做主宾语
重点词汇
1. comment v. 评论
2. marry v. 结婚
3. create v. 创造
4. attack v. 进攻
5. cruelty n. 残酷
6. escape v. 逃跑
7. advice n. 忠告;建议
8. afford v. 花得起(钱、时间)
9. encourage v. 鼓励
10. research n. 研究
11. interrupt v. 打断;打扰
12. apologize v. 道歉
13. pray v. 请求;祈祷
14. forgive v. 原谅;宽恕
15. match v. 相配;相适应
16. manners n. 礼貌
17. impression n. 印象
18. live adj. & adv. 活的;直播的(地)
19. custom n. 习惯;风俗
20. introduce vt. 介绍;引进
重点短语
1. take off 脱掉;起飞;成功
2. go wrong 出错;出问题
3. can't help doing 情不自禁做某事
4. take one's place 代替某人
5. run after 追逐;追踪
6. win a prize 获奖
7. think highly of 赞扬……;对……高度评价
8. call for 需要;索取
9. in all 总共
10. play a role 扮演角色(作用)
11. make money 挣钱
12. win over 争取过来
13. work on 从事,致力于
14. owe success to 把成功归功于某人
15. start with 以……开始
16. run away from school逃学
17. on the air 正在播出的
18. do research 进行调查
19. speed up 加速
20. follow the fashion 追随时尚
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才
能过关。你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
l. ____ screen 银幕,电影(业)
2. take ____ 成功;成名;脱掉(衣服);(飞机)起飞
3. ____ wrong 走错路;误入歧途;不对头;出毛病
4. owe sth ____ sb 把……归功于某人
5. ____ all 总共;总之
6. stay ____ 不在家,外出
7. ____ school 小学
8. lock sb ____ 将某人锁于某处不得进出;将某人监禁起来
9. run ____  追赶
10. bring sb ____ 送回某人
11. ____ the air正在播出的
12. think highly ____ 对……高度评价
13. leave ____ 省去;遗漏;不考虑
14. stare ____ 盯着
15. make ____ about sb 以某人为笑柄
16. drink (a toast) ____ 为……祝酒;为……干杯
17. win ____ 战胜
18. ____ comments on对……加以评论
19. look sb ____ 看望,拜访某人
20. ____ a role in 在……中扮演角色;在……方面起作用
21. ____ a prize获奖
22. to sb for (doing) sth因某事向某人道歉
23. make a good impression ____ 给……留下好印象
24. ____ silent 保持沉默
25. pay a visit ____ 拜访
交际用语
1. What do you think has happened?
2. What do you know about…?
3. How do you like…? / What do you think of…? / What db you feel...?
4. May I interrupt you for a moment?
5. Excuse me / Forgive me for... / I apologize for…
6. I'm (very / so / terribly) sorry. It's all my fault.
7. That's all right. / That's OK. / No problem.
8. I wish you all the best.
9. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to...
10. Let's drink (a toast) to...!
单词聚焦
1. afford
  (1) (和can,could,be able to连用) 有 (时间、经济等)  条件(做某事) + to do
  We can't afford to pay such a price.
  afford + n. / pron. (出得起;买得起等)
  They donot consider whether they can afford it or not.
  (2) 经得起 (做某事或发生某事) (多+to do)
  He could not afford to lose his fortune entirely.
2. apologize的用法
▲ 构词:apology n. 辩解,道歉
▲ 搭配:
① apologize to sb for (doing) sth = make an apology的 sb for (doing) sth向某人为某事(为做了某事)道歉
② apologize for oneself 为自己辩解或辩护
【考例】[NMET 1993]The captain ____ an apology to the passengers for the delay caused by bad weather.
    A. made    B. said    C. put    D. passed
[考查目标] apologize及其名词的用法和搭配。
[答案与解析]A make an apology的意思是“道歉”。
3. choice的用法
▲搭配:
① make a choice 选择
② make choice of 挑选,选择,选定
③ make / take one's choice 任意挑选
④ have no choice but to do sth 非……不可,除……之外别无他法
【考例】[MET 1993] We've missed the last bus, I'm afraid we have no ____ but to take a taxi.
    A. way   B. choice  C. possibility    D. selection
[考查目标] choice的意思和习惯搭配。
[答案与解析]B  choice是choose的名词形式.意思是
“选择”,在本句中构成固定搭配have no choice but to
do sth“不得不干……”。
4. determine的用法
▲ 构词:determination n. 决心,决断,决意;决定,确定
▲ 搭配:
① determine to do sth 决定做某事
② determine on / upon (doing) sth 决定
③ a man of determination 有决断力的人
▲ 辨析:decide;determine这两个词都有“决定”的意思。decide的含义是“不再迟疑不定”,而
determine含义是“把某件事确定下来”。
在be determined to do…这个固定的结构中。过去分词determined的词义为“下定了决心”。
decide的名词为decision,determine的名词为determination。例如:At first,she decided to go to the police,…起初,她决定去找警察……
▲ 友情提示: decide后跟宾语从句时,其含义有时是“断
定”。I decided that I must have taken a wrong turning somewhere. 我断定我一定是在某处拐错弯了。The determination of the meaning of a word is often difficult without a context. 脱离上下文来确定一个词的含义常常是困难的。
注:在determine to do...,determine on (upon)... 和determine that...。(宾语从句)三个搭配中,determine的词义和decide几乎没有多大差异。He determined / decided to learn medicine. 他决定学医。
注:decide sb to do sth 决定使某人做某事What decided you to give up your job? 什么因素使你决定放弃你的工作?
【考例】[2001京皖春招] Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he must know why it does not work. For example, he must ____ the parts that are wrong.
    A. check   B. determine   C. correct   D. recover
[考查目标]determine的用法。
[答案与解析]B  determine和decide在一般情况下意思相同。
5. encourage的用法
▲ 构词:
① encouraging adj. 鼓励的,给予希望的,振奋人心的。令人欢欣鼓舞的
② encouraged adj. 被激励的,受到鼓舞的
③ encouragement n. 鼓励,激励
④ discourage v. 使泄气;劝阻
▲ 搭配:① encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事 ② be encouraged by 受……鼓励/鼓舞
【考例】 [2004北京]My advisor encouraged ___a summer course to improve my writing skills.
    A. for me taking     B. me taking
    C. for me to take    D. me to take
[考查目标] encourage的用法。
[答案与解析]D encourage sb to do sth鼓励某人干某事。句意为:我的导师鼓励我参加一个夏季课程来提高我的写作技巧。
6. escape (vi, vt ) escaped, escaping
  (1) 逃走;跑掉 + from / out of = run away from
  The soldier escaped from the enemy's prison.
  (2)逃脱;逃避 + n. / doing
  He narrowly escaped death / being killed.
  There's no way to escape doing the work.
  escape还可表示:
①(液体等)漏出 gas escaping from the pipe 煤气从管中漏出Water escaped rapidly from the drainpipe. 水从排水管中迅速流出。
② 避免escaped death 免于一死There is no escaping him. 怎么也避不开他。
③ 疏忽,忽略 Nothing escaped his attention. 什么也逃不过他的注意。 You cannot expect that something may escape the teacher's attention. 你不要奢望有什么能逃过老师的注意。
escape n
① 逃走The thief made his escape. 小偷逃走了。
②(气体)漏出,泄出;解闷She reads love stories as an escape. 她读爱情小说解闷。
7. hunt的用法
▲ 构词:hunter n. 猎人,搜寻者
▲ 搭配:
① hunt for / after追猎;寻找,搜寻
② hunt out 找出;调查出
【考例】He wandered in the street, ____ a new jacket for his nephew.
    A. hunting for    B. waiting for
    C. shooting for    D. aiming for
[考查目标]本题考查hunt for的意思。
[答案与解析]A hunt for原来是“猎取”的意思,引中为“搜寻,寻找”。
8. impression n. 印象
  (1) impression (on sb.) (给某人)印象His speech made a strong impression on his audience.
  (2) impression (of sth.) (对某事物)印象;想法That's my first impression of the new college.
  (3) impress sb. with sth. 给予某人深刻印象 = impress sth. on sb. 使某人铭记 The teacher impressed on his students the importance of speaking. = The teacher impre- ssed his students with the importance of speaking.
9. interrupt的用法vt, vi
① 阻断;中断 Don't interrupt me. 别打断我。Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm. 市内交通被暴风雪所阻断。
② 打岔;插嘴 It is rude to interrupt. 打断别人的话,是不礼貌的。 “Don't interrupt,” he said.“别插话, ”他说。
▲构词:
① interrupter n. 打岔者,打断者
② interruption n. 打岔.打断,使中断的事物
【考例】[2005山西模拟] Be quiet! It's rude to ____ people when they are talking.
    A. stop   B. introduce   C. prevent    D. interrupt
[考查目标] interrupt的词义。
[答案与解析]D  interrupt的意思是“打断;使中断”.
后接指人或指物的各种名词。
10. marry
  (1) vi. 结婚  He didn't marry until he was fifty.
  (2) vt. 和……结婚  Jean is going to marry Hubert.
  (3) vt. (父母)嫁(女儿) He married his daughter to a businessman.
  (4) vt. (教士等) 为……主持结婚仪式 We've come to ask if you will marry them.
  [比较]
  (1) get married (to sb.) 强调动作
  His oldest girl got married last month.
  (2) be married (to sb.) 强调状态
  How long have you been married?
11. moment的用法 n.
① 片刻;瞬间 He will be here in a moment. 他一会儿就来。At the moment I am working.  此刻我正在工作。
② 时机;机遇;时宜 Choose your moment to visit him. 你选个合适的时机去拜访他。
③ 重要性 a matter of great moment
一件极重要的事情
▲搭配:
① at any moment 随时;在任何时候;马上
② at the last moment 在最后关头
③ at the moment 此刻;(正当)那时
④ every moment 时时刻刻
⑤ for a moment 片刻
⑥ in a moment 一会儿,不久;立即,马上
⑦ the moment(that)... 一……就……
【考例】[NMET 2004 II] "Can I? I don't think I can," Racy said with a laugh. "But I do have ____ when things come to me for no reason."
    A. events  B. chances   C. feelings    D. moments
[考查目标] moment的词义。
[答案与解析] D moment可以指“时刻”,在本句中用了复数,意思是“一些次”。
12. owe的用法owed, owing
▲ 搭配:
①(常与for连用)欠,欠债I owe you for your help.我感谢你的帮助。(也可以是owe sth.或owe sb. sth) The food cost £4 , but I only paid £3 so I still owe £1. 食品要4英镑,可我只付了3英镑,因此我还欠1英镑。I owe you an apology. 我该向你道歉。
☆ owe sb sth for sth 或 owe sth to sb for sth 为…欠某人…
② 对…负有义务;感恩;感激We owe our parents a lot. 我们十分感激父母。
③(常与to连用)归功于;由于She owes her success to good luck. 她把成功归功于幸运。The young writer owed his success to his teacher's encouragement. 年轻作家把自己的成功归于他老师的鼓励。
【考例】[2004湖北] "How much do I ____ you?" "Oh, no," Paul said.
    A. Owe    B. lend    C. give    D. offer
[考查目标]考查owe的词义和,用法。
[答案与解析]A owe表示“欠”的时候是及物动词,可以接双宾语。
13. reason n. 原因;理由
  (1) + to do sth. You haven't any reason to leave me.
(2) + for sth. / doing People must have a reason for saying such things.
(3) + 从句;从句用why / for which引导 That is the reason why you should leave.
(4) for + reason,为了某种原因He is retiring for reasons of health.
[比较] cause“原因;起因
 the cause of the fire 火灾的起因(引起某种后果的起因)
 the reason for being late 迟到的理由(做某件事的理由)
14. role
  (1) (戏剧中的) 角色Oliver played (acted) the role / part of Hamlet.
  (2) (现实生活中的) 身份;作用
  What is your role on the Committee?
(3) play a...role in... = play a...part in在……中扮演……角色或作用The headmaster plays an important role / part in the good running of a school.
15. serve v.
  (1) 为……服务/工作 A slave serves his master.
  (2) 接待(顾客) The shop assistant is serving a customer.
  (3) 侍候吃饭,端(菜);供应(饭菜) Lunch is served now.
  (4) serve as 充任(某职务)作……用 She served as a model for several painters. / This box will serve as / for a seat.
16. speed的用法
▲搭配:
① at a high speed 以很大的速度
② at full / top speed 用全速,开足马力,尽力(快)地;
③ with great / an speed 用全速,开足马力
④ speed up 加速,快点
【考例】We had tried our best but the boss still shouted, " ____!"
    A. Speed up       B. No hurry
    C. Wait a minute    D. Slow down
[考查目标]本题考查speed及其构成的短语的意思。
[答案与解析]A  speed up意思是“加速,快点”的意思。
17. stare的用法 vi, vt -- stared, staring 凝视,注视
He stared at the word trying to remember what it meant. 他盯着这个单词,努力想记起它的意思。
[习惯用语] stare one in the face 近在眼前;摆在眼前
▲辨析:gaze;stare;glare这组动词的一般含义是“凝视”。
gaze表示“目不转睛地看”,并含有“惊叹”、“羡慕”或“入迷”的意思。例如:She gazed at the carpet for some time, and then added, "You don't need bookcases at all." 她对地毯凝视了一会儿,然后补充说:“你根本不需要书柜。”
stare 特别表示睁大眼睛凝视,并含有惊奇傲慢茫然的意思。例如:The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds. 那位贵族对那张空白纸凝视了几秒钟。
glare 表示“凶狠而且带有威胁性的瞪眼睛”的意思。例如:The trapped eagle glared at his captors. 被诱捕到的雄鹰凶狠地瞪着捕获它的人。
【考例】[NMET 1999] ____ him and then try to copy what he does.
    A. Mind    B. Glance at   C. Stare at    D. Watch
[考查目标] stare 等近义词辨别。
[答案与解析]D  watch意思是“观察”,是长时问关注;而stare at却是“盯着”。含有惊奇、傲慢的感情色彩。
18. trouble
  (1) 麻烦;烦恼;烦心的事 (可数,不可数) It is a pity to give you so much trouble. / Life is full of troubles.
  (2) 困难;费事 (不可数) have trouble with sth. / have trouble (in) doing sth. (= difficulty)  Did you have much trouble in finding the post office? / I hope you won't have any trouble with the work.
  [相关短语]
  (1) ask for trouble 自寻烦恼;自找麻烦 What made you write such a letter? It was asking for trouble.
  (2) (be) in trouble 有烦事;有困难;出事;惹麻烦 He never came except when he was in trouble.
  (3) put sb. to trouble 给某人造成麻烦;增添麻烦 I am sorry for putting you to so much trouble.
  (4) take trouble to do sth. 费心做某事;费心 It was good of you to take the trouble to help us.
[牛刀小试1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空:(speed,owe,encourage,decide,moment,apologize)
1. will never forget the ____ given by Mr. Wang, which helped me overcome a lot difficulty.
2. I have made a ___that every department in our company should buy a computer of this kind.
3. I recognized the man the ____ I saw him at the corner.
4. Since it was a bit later,we had to ____ up.
5. We must ____ our success to our parents and teachers.
6. The parents came from the far-away village, making an ____ for their naughty son.
词语比较
1. win, beat, defeat  表示获胜、取胜的词语
  (1) win v. 赢……,获胜,接比赛或奖项 win a game / a prize / an honor / a race. / Our team won the game 8 to 7. / He won by five points. / He won her love at last. / He won the first place in the competition.
  (2) beat + 对手,表打败(尤指体育比赛)  I can easily beat him at golf.
  (3) defeat 表战胜,接对手The enemy was defeated in the battle.
2. in the end, finally, at last
  三者均可表示“(经过周折、等待、耽误)最后,终于”之意。不同的是:
finally 一般用在句中动词前面,而 at last 与 in the end 的位置则较为灵活;
三者中at last 语气最为强烈,且可单独作为感叹句使用。After putting it off three times, we finally managed to have a holiday in Dalian. / At last he knew the meaning of life. / At last! Where on earth have you been? / But in the end he gave in.
  另外,finally还可用在列举事项时,引出最后一个内容,相当于lastly。 Firstly, we should make a plan; secondly, we should carry it out; finally we should make a conclu- sion.
3. by sea, by the sea, in the sea, on the sea, at sea
  (1) by sea “走海路,乘船”,用来表示交通方式,同 by ship 同义。 These heavy boxes should be sent by sea.
  (2) by the sea “在海边”,相当于 by (at) the seaside。The children enjoyed themselves by the sea on Children's Day.
  (3) in the sea “在海里,在海水中” There are many plants and animals in the sea.
  (4) on the sea “在海面上”,“在海岸边”。I want to live in a town with a beautiful position on the sea.
  (5) at sea 在海上;在航海 When he woke up, the ship was at sea.
4. be afraid, be afraid to do sth., be afraid of (doing) sth.
  (1) be afraid 意为“担心,害怕”,多用于口语,常用来表示一种歉意,或遗憾,后可接 so 或 not,也可接 that 从句。I'm afraid (that) 其语意相当于 I'm sorry, but...。
  -- Are we on time? 我们准时吗? -- I'm afraid not. 恐怕不准时。I'm afraid you'll get caught in the rain.
  (2) be afraid to do sth 常表示“由于胆小而不敢做某事”。She is afraid to be here alone. / He is afraid to jump into the river from the bridge.
  (3) be afraid of (doing) sth. 常表示“担心或害怕某事(发生)”。I was afraid of hurting her feelings.
5. live, living, alive, lively
  (1) live adj.
  ① 活的;活生生的;(只修饰生物;只作前置定语) The laboratory is doing experiments with several live monkeys.
  ② 实况直播的 (不是录音)It wasn't a recorded show. It was live.
  ③ 带电的;燃着的;可爆炸的 This is a live wire.
  (2) living adj. 活着的,有生命的(作表语或定语) She was, he thought, the best living novelist in England. / The old man is still living. (或alive)
  (3) alive adj. ① 活着的;② 有活力的;有生气
作后置定语:Who's the greatest man alive?
  作表语:Was the snake alive or dead? / My grandmother is more alive than a lot of young people.
  作补语:Let's keep the fish alive.
  (4) lively adj. 活泼的;有生气的;活跃的(作表语或定语) The music is bright and lively.
6. take off, take down, take in, take on, take up
  (1) take off
  ① (飞机)起飞 A helicopter is able to take off and land straight up or down.
  ② 脱下(衣裳等);取下 He took off his wet shoes. / Who took the knob off the door?
  ③ 休假;请假;歇工 When his wife was sick he took off from work.
  ④ (指观念、产品) 大受欢迎;(事业)突然发达,成功The new type of cell phones has really taken off. / His business began to take off when he was in his forties.
  (2) take down
  ① 拿下来;取下来 He reached up to the third shelf of the bookcase and took down a dictionary.
  ② 记下来 He read out the names and his secretary took them down.
  (3) take in
  ① 接受 (房客,客人等);收留 The farmers took in the lost travelers for the night.
  ② 理解;领会;明白 The boys could not take in his meaning.
  ③包括;涉及 The study of physics takes in many different subjects.
  ④使上当;欺骗We were completely taken in by her story.
  (4) take on
  ① 接受;从事(某工作) After his father died, Bill took on the management of the factory.
  ② 雇用Is the supermarket taking on any more assis- tant?
  ③ 具有(新面貌、意思等) The city has taken on a new look.
  (5) take up
  ① 从事某项活动;发展某种爱好 So many young men want to take up writing.
  ② 开始做(某项工作);开始学习(某个课程) Then she took up the task of getting the breakfast. / He dropped medicine and took up physics.
  ③ 占去 (时间或空间) The meeting took up the whole morning. / The table takes up too much room.
  ④ 接受I'd like to take up your offer of a ride into town.
7. call for, call on, call up
  (1) call for
  ① 来找(某人);来取(某物) I'll call for you at your house.
  ②要求;需要Success in school calls for much hard work.
  (2) call on
  ① call on / upon sb. 拜访;去会(某人) I hope to call on you at your office at 3 o’clock today.
  ② call on / upon sb. to do sth. 请/叫某人做某事He called upon me to speak immediately.
  ③ 号召;呼吁;要求 The President called on his people to serve the country.
  (3) call up
  ① 给……打电话 (英 ring up) I tried to call you up last night, but no one answered the phone.
  ② 征召入役;调用 (后备部队) Three boys in our street were called up last week.
8. too much, much too
  (1) too much “太多”之意,可以作形容词,修饰不可数  名词,也可作副词,修饰动词。 There is too much rain here in spring. / She talked too much at the meeting.
  (2) much too “简直太,过于”,只能作副词,用来修饰  形容词或别的副词,不能修饰动词。This book is much too difficult for me. / The old man walks much too slowly.
9. custom, habit
  (1) custom 指传统风俗、习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接不定式。They broke some of the old customs. / It is the custom in China to eat dumplings during the spring Festival.
  (2) habit 指个人生活习惯。“(有)养成……习惯”常
  用be in / fall into / get into / form / have the habit of doing sth. 句型;“戒掉……习惯”常用 give up / kick / break away from / get out of the habit of doing sth. 句型。It's easy to get into a bad habit but its hard to give it up. / The drug easily get one into the habit of smoking.
10. arise, rise, raise
  raise vt.“使……上升;升起;提高”等;
rise vi.“上升;升起”;
arise vi.“站起来(stand up)”,“起床(get up)”,rise和arise用作站起,起床都属正式用法;arise主要表示“出现、发生”等意思。She raised her voice in anger. (抬高) The wind raised the fallen leaves from the ground. (刮起) The child rose from the ground and ran to his mother. (=The child raised himself from the ground and ran to his mother.) (爬起) She rises before it is light. (起床) Difficulties will arise as we do the work. (出现)
短语归纳
1. can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事,不由得不做某事
  She couldn't hep smiling.
  [比较]
  (1) can't help but do 不得不……;不能不 When the streets are full of melting snow, you can't help but get your shoes wet.
  (2) cannot but 不能不,只能He could not but feel disappointed.
[归纳]
(1) help (sb.) (to) do sth. Help me get him back to bed at once. / By helping them we are helping save ourselves.
(2) help...with sth. 帮助……做某事 In those days he used to help her mother with her gardening.
  (3) help oneself / sb. to sth. 给自己 / 别人夹菜 / 拿烟
  等;擅自拿用 May I help you to some more vegetables?
  (4) help...in sth. 在……方面帮助某人 She offered to help Rose in the housekeeping when I am not here.
  (5) help out 帮忙 (做事;克服困难等) I've often helped Bob out when he's been a bit short of money.
2. go的短语
① go around 到处走/跑.(疾病)流传,(谣言)传开;go after 追求;go ahead 说吧,请吧,做吧;go away 离开,出去
② go back 走网头路,翻悔改变;go bad 变坏;go boating 去划船
③ go fishing 去钓鱼;go for a walk去 散步
④ go hiking 去徒步旅行;go home 回家
⑤ go in for 喜爱,从事于;go into 进入,加入
⑥ go mad 发疯
⑦ go off 离去,去世;go on 继续,进展,依据;go on doing 继续做;go out 出去,发出去,熄灭,不时兴;go over 研究,检查,搜查
⑧ go shopping 去商店;go skating 去滑冰;go straight along 沿着;go swimming 去游泳
⑨ go through 通过,经受,仔细检查;go to bed 上床
⑩ go up 上升
⑪ go wrong 走错路,误入歧途
[例句] We'll go through the items one by one. 我们要逐条研究。She has gone back to her old habits. 她又回到了已往的习惯。Come on Sunday by yourself - we can go over the house together. 星期天你要过来.我们一起检查一下房子。His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的演讲持续很长时间,结果人们开始想睡。That expression has gone out. Nobody Uses it today. 那个短语已经过时了,现在没有人在用它。The young fellow hasn't realized that he has gone wrong. 这个年轻人还没有意识到他已经误入歧途。Tired of going shopping with his wife,Mr. Liu pretended to have something important to do. 厌烦与妻子一起去购物,刘先生假装有重要的事情要做。
【考例2】(2004北京) I don't ____ rock' n' roll. It's much too noisy for my taste.
    A. go after       B. go away with
    C. go into       D. go in for
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个动词短语的意思。
[答案与解析]D   go after 追求;go away with 带走;go into进入,加入;go in for 喜爱,爱好。根据句子意思“摇滚音乐太嘈杂。不合乎我的口味.所以我不喜欢”。
【考例】(NMET 1998) Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ____.
    A. be put up    B. give in
    C. be turned on    D. go out
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析] D   put up 挂起;give in 屈服;turn on 打开;go out 熄灭。本句话意思是“没有人注意到贼溜进了屋子,因为灯碰巧熄灭了”。
3. go wrong
  (1) 走错路;弄错方向
  (2) 失败;不顺利All our plans went wrong. / Everything went wrong in those days.
  (3)发生故障  The clock went wrong.
  [比较]表示变为的系动词
(1) go 表示由积极向消极方面变化Fish soon goes bad in hot weather. 又如:go mad / pale / blind / hungry
  (2) become / get 表示由积极向消极或消极向积极方
  面变化 The weather is getting quite warm. / Gradually he became silent.
  (3) turn 多接表颜色的词 This ink turns black when it dries. / He used to be a teacher till he turned writer.
  注意:become a writer
  (4) grow 侧重变化过程 The sea is growing calm.
  (5) fall 进入某种状态  All three children fell asleep.
4. owe...to... 受到恩惠;归功于……
(1) 欠(钱)owe sb. money = owe money to sb.
I owe £50 to my tailor. = I owe my tailor £50.
(2) 得过(某人的)好处;欠(某人的)人情债
We owe a great deal to our parents and teachers.
(3) 应当给予 You owe me an apology.
(4) ……应归功于;……都亏得
We owe the general theory of relativity to Einstein.
[拓展]表示“由于”的词组:owing to / because of / thanks to / due to / as a result of
5. take one's place
(1) 入座,站好位置,取得地位Take your places, please. We are about to start.
(2) take one's place = take the place of sb. 代替(职务或工作等);接替Electric trains have now taken the place of steam trains in England.
[比较]
(1) in place (of)代替;……而不用The grown-ups had coffee but the children wanted milk in place of coffee.
(2) take one's seat 在自己座位上坐下;有时等于 take one's place:More men entered and took their seats.
6. think highly of 赞扬
表赞赏的词有:
(1) think / speak highly / well / much...of: The people think very highly of him.
表认为不好的词有:
(2) think little / badly / poorly / nothing...of: Joan thought little of walking two miles to school.
7. 动词 + away”的短语
① do away with 去掉
② get away 逃脱,(使)离开
③ go away 离去,出去
④ put away 放好,把……收拾起来,存(钱)以备它日之用
⑤ run away 逃走,离开
⑥ smooth away 去除,克服
⑦ stay away (from) 不在家,外出
⑧ take away 拿走,带走,夺去,使离去
⑨ throw away 扔掉.浪费.坐失(良机)
[例句]Don't throw away such a good chance. Or you'll regret. 不要放弃这么好的机会,不然的话,你会后悔
的。Put away the tools before you leave. 离开前把工具收拾好。Why did you stay away from school? 你为什么不去上学? I had hoped to take a good holiday this year but I wasn't able to get away. 我本打算今年好好去度假,但是我离不开。
【考例】(2004重庆)Before the war broke out, many
people ____ in safe places possessions they could
not take with them.
    A. threw away    B. put away
    C. gave away    D. carried away
[考查目标]此题主要考查“动词+away”四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析]B throw away 扔掉;put way 放好,把
……收拾起来;give away 分发.泄露;carry away 冲
走。本句话意思是“在战争爆发以前,许多人把他们不
能带走的财产藏在了安全的地方”。
8. 动词 + off”的短语
① drop off 放下,下车
② fall off (从……)掉下来
③ get off (从……)下来,动身,起飞,脱下来
④ give off 发出,放出
⑤ jump off 跳离
⑥ put off 推迟,延期
⑦ set off 出发,引起,启程
⑧ see sb off 为某人送行,为……送行
⑨ switch off 关掉
⑩ take off 脱,去掉,起飞,匆匆离开,成名
⑪ throw off 匆忙脱掉
⑫ turn off 关掉,避开,拐弯
[例句]The electricity supply must be turned off at the mains before you change the lighting circuit. 在改变火线前,主干线的电力供应必须切断。 Mrs Garey as usual went to the door to see him off. Garey夫人像通常一样把他送到门口。He had to put off an appointment with me on account of illness. 因为疾病的缘故,他不得不推迟了与我的约会。Before the body of the car can be properly repaired, all the external fittings must be taken off. 车身适当修理前,所有外部的配件必须拿下来。The fire doesn't seem to be giving off much heat. 这炉火好像不大热。
【考例】(2005广东) John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will ____ him ____ at the airport.
    A. send...away    B. leave...off
    C. see...off       D. show...around
[考查目标]此题主要考查短语see off的用法。
[答案与解析]C   see off 意为“给某人送行”;send away意为“派遣”;leave off意为“停止,不再穿”;show around意为“带领某人参观”。
[牛刀小试2]
在下列句子的空白处填上适当的介词或副词。
1. My grandmother had put ____ over$50,000 when she was sixty—five years old.
2. His mother had thought it would be good for his charac- ter to get ____ home and earn some money on his own.
3. The market was filled ____ salted fish, giving the worst smell that you can imagine.
4. -- What do you think the contest? -- I was told that the English Speech Contest went ____ successfully last night.
5. If you had gone ____ your test paper carefully before handing it in you would have made fewer mistakes.
句型诠释
1. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low. 他没能上电影学院是因为他的分数太低了。
该句巾的why引导一个定语从句,而that引导表语从句。
1. 句中that引导的表语从句说明主语reason的具体内容,往往被看作是固定句型:The reason is / was that clause. 当主语是reason / cause时,一般不能用because或why引导表语从句,以免造成语意重复。当主语是This / That时,可以由because / why引导表语从句。例如:One reason is that people traveled to America from all European countries.
【考例】(NMET 1999)
-- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
-- Is that ____ you had a few days off?
    A. why  B. when  C. what  D. where
[考查目标] 表语从句。
[答案与解析]A  句子的意思是“那就是你请了几天假的原因吗?”因此可知答案为why。
2. why在句中是关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰先行词reason,同时它在定语从句中作状语,此时why = for which,但要注意:关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,要用关系代词that或which。
【考例】(2002上海春招)Is this the reason ____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
    A. he explained        B. what he explained
    C. how he explained    D. why he explained
[考查目标]定语从句。
[答案与解析]A  what,how不能引导定语从句,排除B、C两项;the reason在定语从句中作explained的宾语,可填that / which,或者也可以省略。
2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 好多看过这个片子的人一想起片中鲨鱼食人的场面.就不敢下海游泳了。
该句是一个复杂长句,从when到句子末尾是状语从句,在从句中包含一个由which引导的定语从句,修饰先行词scenes; 在前面的主句里面。包含一个由who引导的定语从句,修饰先行词people。例如:Those who want to go camping next Sunday sign your name here before class is over.
定语从句关系词的选择,要遵循“瞻前顾后”的原则,所谓“瞻前”即看前面的先行词指人还是指物;“顾后”即后面的定语从句,看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。例如:This is the factory where he works. (状语) / This is the factory (that / which) he visited. (宾语)
【考例】(NMET 1992)In the dark street,there wasn't a single person ____ she could turn for help.
    A. that    B. who   C. from whom    D. to whom
[考查目标]定语从句。
[答案与解析]D “turn to sb for help”为固定短语,意思是“向某人求助”,所以选to whom。
3. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children. 当有人问起他成功的秘诀时。史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格说起他的成功和幸福主要来自于妻子和孩子。
该句中的 "when" 是时间状语从句的省略形式。在状语从句中,如果从句主语与主句主语一致或从句主语是it,而且从句谓语动词是be或包含be时,常常将从句主语与be省略。例如:Although born in Chicago, the author is famous for his stories about New York.
【考例】 (2003上海春招) Unless ___to speak,you should remain silent at the conference.
    A. invited         B. inviting
    C. being invited    D. having invited
[考查目标]状语从句的省略现象。
[答案与解析]A unless为连词,后面省略了you are,所以选invited。
4. Having good table manners means knowing, for example, how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table. 在餐桌上,懂礼节意味着你知道如何使用刀叉,何时祝酒以及如何在用餐时举止得体。
该句中having good manners为v-ing形式作主语。例如:Collecting stamps is one of his hobbies.
▲友情提示:在v -ing 形式前加形容词性物主代词或名词所有格,构成v -ing复合结构,在句中作主语、宾语。
【考例5】(2001上海)Fishing is his favorite hobby, and ____.
    A. he'd like to collect coins as well
    B. he feels like collecting coins, too
    C. to collect coins is also his hobby
    D. collecting coins gives him great pleasure
[考查目标]v -ing 作主语。
[答案与解析]D   A、B、C三项句法都无错误,但在and连接的并列句中,两个简单句的主语要保持一致的形式 fishing and collecting coins分别做两个简单句的主语。
5. It's polite to finish eating everything on your plate, so don't take more food than you need. 餐盘里的东西要吃光才礼貌,所以不要多拿。
该句中的it为形式主语,真正的主语为to finish eating …例如:It's not right to tell lies. 撒谎是不对的。
it作为形式主语,真正的主语是动词不定式短语。常见的句型有:
1. It + be + adj. + to do sth  2. It + be + n. + to do sth
3. It + be + PP. to do sth
【考例】(2001上海) In fact ____ is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match.
    A. this    B. that    C. there    D. it
[考查目标] 形式主语。
[答案与解析]D  只有it才可以作形式主语。
【句型归纳】
1. When / While / Though / Unless / If + n. / adj. / 现在分词/过去分词……
状语从句有些成分有时可省略,一般是主语和be省略;有时it和be可以省略: He made no answer when (he is) spoken to. /Though (he was) born in Chicago, the author is most famous for his stories about New York. / Come back early if (it is) possible.
[注意]用法详见Chapter 10语法活用“省略和插入语”。
2. Not only / just…but (also) 连接相同的句子成分
Not only the teacher but all the students are going to visit the Science Museum. (连接主语时根据就近原则) / They not only sang but (also) danced for a whole night. / Many people go to see this film not just because the film is interesting, but also the leading actors and actresses are all world famous. / Not only do we learn for our country, but we'll work for her in the future. (连接句子时,not only后的句子要部分倒装)
[牛刀小试3]
1. The reason ____ you failed, I think,  was ____ you had turned a deaf ear to your mother's advice.
A. that; because         B. why; because
C. why; that            D. for that; that
2. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. (2004 全国卷I)
A. for which             B. at which
C. in which              D. on which
3. When ____, the museum will be open to the public next year. (2002 上海春招)
A. completed             B. completing
C. being completed        D. to be completed
4. ____ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. (2003 上海)
A. The president will attend
B. The president to attend
C. The president attend
D. The president's attending
5. I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.  (NMET 1990)
A. this    B. that    C. its    D. it
    【交际速成】
1. Giving opinions and Making comments 询问看法与作出评价
(2003北京西城)
-- How do you find the talk given by Mr.Smith? -- ____.
    A. Very well  B. Excited   C. Boring  D. Not at an
[答案与解析]C  本题考查对事物提出看法或作出评价的用语。A、B两项词法错误,若改为Very good或Exciting,就可回答提问了。D项不合语境。此句完整为:(It's) Boring.
【归纳】英语中询问看法的用语有:
① How do you like / find...?
② What do you think of / about...?
③ What do you feel about...?
2. Describing sequences按次序描述事件发生的过程
Mother first did some washing and then did some cooking, ____ she had a rest.
    A. finally    B. in the end
    C. by the end    D. at last
[答案与解析] A   本题考查如何描述事情发生的顺序。finally 用于在列举一系列内容之后。要引出最后一项内容的场合;也可与at last互换,表示所盼望的事迟迟到来。in the end强调结果。有时可与口at last意义相同。
【归纳】英语中常见描述事件发生次序的用语有:
① First,.... Next,....Then.... Finally, ....例如:
  First, we went to Leshan. Next, we climbed Mount Emei. Then we played with some moneys. Finally, towards evening we were on the way back to Chengdu.
② What did you do next?
3. Thanks致谢
(2002北京)  -- It's been a wonderful evening, Thank you very much.  -- ____.
    A. My pleasure    B. I'm glad to hear that
    C. No, thanks     D. It's OK
[答案与解析]A  本题考查英语中如何表达感谢及应答。My pleasure是回答感谢的客套话。
【归纳】英语中表达感谢的用语有:
① Thank you (very much).
② Thanks a lot.
③ Thank you for your help.
④ It's very kind / nice of you.
⑤ Many thanks.
⑥ I appreciate your help.
⑦ I can never thank you enough.
⑧ I'm extremely grateful to you.
应答用语有:
① It's a pleasure.
② My pleasure.
③ That's OK / all right.
④ You're welcome.
⑤ Not at all.
⑥ Don't mention it.
⑦ No trouble at all (没什么).
⑧ At your service (愿为你效劳).
⑨ Think nothing of it.
[牛刀小试4]
1. -- Thank you ever so much for your help. -- ____.
A. Glad to hear that      B. Not worth thanking
C. Think nothing of it    D. You're too polite
2. -- How did you find your visit to the museum, Jane?
-- ____.
A. Oh, wonderful, indeed  B. By taking a No. 3 bus
C. I went there alone
D. A classmate of mine showed me the way
3. -- ____ the articles of Times?  -- I'm not sure. I glanced through them but I haven't formed an opinion yet.
A. How do you think of    B. What did you like
C. How did you like       D. What do you think of
4. -- Thank you very much for the meal. -- Not at all. ____.
A. I'm very glad to hear that B. I'm glad you could come
C. Make yourself at home  D. With pleasure
精典题例
1. Generally speaking, ____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003年上海)
A. when taking    B. when taken
C. when to take    D. when to be taken
【解析】选B take和drug是动宾关系,要用过去分词作状语。可看作是when it is taken的省略。
2. Unless ____ to speak,you should remain silent at the conference. (2003年春季上海)
A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited
【解析】选A you与invite是动宾关系,要用过去分
词invited作状语。
3. The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it. (NMET 2002)
A. begins            B. having begun
C. beginning          D. begun
【解析】选D once begun 在句中作状语;once这里是连词,“一旦”。
4. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004年 湖北)
A. Compare           B. When comparing
C. Comparing         D. When compared
【解析】选D  相当于when it is compared。
5. ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (2004年 上海)
A. Not only they brought   B. Not only did they bring
C. Not only brought they    D. Not only they did bring
【解析】选B not only...but also引导的并列句;以not only开头的句子要部分倒装。
6. ____, he used to helped his father on the farm.
A. When was a boy     B. As he was a boy
C. As a boy           D. During a boy
【解析】选C   as在这里是连词;as a boy = when (he was) a boy。
 
 
 
 
Chapter 4 SBI  Units 7- 8
重点句型
1. Where there is a river, there is a city.
where 引导地点状语从句
2. Strong, proud and united, the people of St. Petersburg are the modem heroes of Russia.  形容词作状语
3. We would do everything we can to save our city.
表示“竭尽全力”的说法
4. I'd rather watch it than play it.
would rather的用法
5. Every four years, athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games.    表示“每隔……”的说法
6. To make it the best ever games, the capital city will make several big changes.     不定式作目的状语
7. It is true / certain...that...  it作形式主语代替主语从句
8. Yao Ming has more than just size.  more than 的用法
重点词汇
1. cultural adj. 文化的
2. represent vt. 代表;表现
3. include vt. 包括;包含
4. beauty n. 美;美景
5. portrait n. 肖像
6. recreate vt. 再创造
7. period n. 一段时间
8. damage n. & vt. 损害;伤害
9. website n. 网址
10. ancient adj. 古代的
11. project n. 计划;方案;工程
12. official n. & adj. 官员;官方的
13. pollution n. 污染
14. limit vt. & n. 限制;有限
15. sincerely adv. 真诚地
16. continent n. 大陆;陆地
17. athlete n. 运动员
18. competitor n. 竞争者;对手
19. motto n. 座右铭
20. rank vi. 分等级;排名
21. prepare vt. 准备
22. profile n. 简介
23. weight n. 重力;重量
24. position n. 位置;职位
25. facial adj. 面部的
26. gesture n. 手势;姿态
27. effect n. 影响;效果
28. title n. 题目;头衔
重点短语
1. give in 让步;投降
2. in ruins废墟;遗迹
3. bring...back to life 使苏醒;使生动
4. pull down 拆毁;推毁
5. set up 设立;建立
6. stand for 代表;代替
7. because of 因为;由于
8. in preparation for 为……准备
9. in one's opinion 以某人看来
10. under attack 被袭
11. with the help of 在……的帮助下
12. In modem times 在现代;在近代
13. as follows 如下
14. change one's mind 改变主意
15. live one's dream 实践某人的梦想
16. in pieces 碎片
17. track and field 田径
18. take part in 参加
19. so far 到目前为止
20. have great effects on sb. 对某人有深刻的影响
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词5分,80分才
能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
1. give ____   让步;投降;屈服
2. ____ ruins 成为废墟;遭到严重破坏
3. bring...back to ____  使苏醒;使生动;使活泼
4. pull ____ 拆毁,摧毁;推翻
5. set ____ 设立,创立
6. stand ____ 代表;代替;象征;支持
7. because ____ 因为,由于
8. ____ skating 速滑
9. ____ and field 田径
10. would ____ 宁愿,宁可
11. take ____ 参加
12. ____ preparation for 为……准备
13. ____ four years 每四年
14. look ____ over俯视;面朝……
15. ____ modern times(在)现代
16. do / try one's ____ 尽全力
17. live one's ____ 实现梦想
18. be ____ on建立在……基础上
19. ____ one's opinion在某人看来
20. ____ attack受到攻击
交际用语
1. You should take the advice of your teacher.
2. It might be, I suppose.
3. Good try, but not quite right.
4. Thanks for your advice but I have to consider it myself.
5. What about…?   How about…?    Why not…?
6. What's your favorite sport?
7. Which would you prefer  or ... ?
8. Are you interbred in ... ?
9. I prefer fishing to swimming.
10. What position do you play?
词汇短语
【考点2】effect的用法
▲构词:effective adj. 有效的.被实施的,给人深刻印象
的,实际的.现行的
▲搭配:
① be of no effect 无效,没有作用。不中用
② bring / carry / put into effect实行,实施,使生效,实
  现
③ come / go into effect 开始生效,开始实施
④ have (an) effect on / upon 对……有影响;对……起
  作用,产生效果
⑤ have / take effect 见效,生效;开始发生作用;实施,
  实行
⑥ in effect 实际上;(规律,法律等)生效,有效,在实行
  中
【考例2】[2004辽宁] Deciding on the amount of water
that will be used in any particular period requires care—
ful planning, so that people can manage and use water
more ____.
    A. effectively    B. easily
    C. conveniently    D. actively
[考查目标]考查effect及其派生词的词义。
[答案与解析]A  effectively是effect的副词形式.
意思是“高效地”。
【考点5】escape的用法
▲搭配:
① escape from / out of 从……漏出/逸出;从……逃脱
② escape doing sth 避免做某事
【考例5】The fire was too strong that nobody could
____ from the building.
  A. rescue    B. escape
  C. set free    D. let out
[考查目标] 本题考查escape的词义。
[答案与解析]B  escape意思是“逃脱,逃跑”,常和
厂tom等介词连用。
【考点6】feed的用法
▲搭配:
① feed...on / with sth 以某物喂(养)……
② feed sth to... 把某物喂给……
③ feed on sth 以某物为食
【考例6】The news came that the baby ____ very
 well, so the parents stopped worrying.
    A. was fed    B. was fed on
    C. fed    D. fed on
[考查目标] 本题考查feed以及feed on的用法。
[答案与解析]A  on的后面接表示“食品”的名词或代
词,本句没有这类名词。因此on不能保留。
【考点3】free的用法
▲构词:
①freedom n. 自由,自主,无拘束,率直,随便
②freely adv.
▲搭配:
① be free to do sth 可以自由/随便做某事
② for free = free of charge 免费地,无偿地
③ set sb. free 释放某人,使某人获得自由
【考例3】[2000京皖春招] The new ones always went
wild at first,but this never lasted long. The ____
took some getting used to.
    A. freedom    B. habit
    C. time    D. people
[考查目标]考查free及其派生词的意思。
[答案与解析]A freedom是free的名词形式,意思是
“自由,随便”。
【考点4】hold的用法
▲搭配:
① get / take / catch / lay / keep / seize hold of 抓住
② lose hold of松手放开.放弃
③ hold back 踌躇,阻止.抑制(情感、情绪),隐而不宣
④ hold down 保有(一份T作);压迫;压低;控制
⑤ hold in 抑制,压抑
⑥ hold oneself in 压抑自己的情感
⑦ hold off (使)保持距离
⑧ hold on 坚持,保持坚定;(打电话时)等一下。别挂断
⑨ hold on to 不丢掉;保持
【考例4】[NMET 2002] We thought of selling this old
furniture, but we've decided to ____ it. It might be
valuable.
    A. hold 0n to    B. keep uD with
    C. turn to    D. look after
[考查目标] hold构成的词组的意义。
[答案与解析] A  hold on to意思是“保存.不丢弃”。
1. include vt. 包括;包含;列在里面
  I think you'll find the plan includes most of your
  suggestions.
  我想你会发现这个计划包括了你的大部分建议。
  I included eggson the list of things to buy.
  我把鸡蛋列在要买的东西中了。
  My job doesn't include making coffee for the boss.
  为老板煮咖啡不是我工作份内的事。
  [比较] including “包括”,表主动;included “包括”,表被动
  I'm ordering some extra office equipment.
   some new desks and a word processor included.
   including some new desks and a word processor.
  我准备额外订购一些办公室设备,包括一些新的办
  公桌和一台文字处理机。
【考点7】limit的用法
▲构词:limited adj. 有限的
▲搭配:
① go beyond / over the limit 超过限度
② reach the limit of 达到……的极限
▲辨析:limit;restrict这两个动词的一般含义为“限
制”或“局限”。
limit 指时、空、程度、蟹等方面的“限定”。其内涵是如果
超出了这种限度就会受罚或遭到令人不快的后果;此
外,这个词也常用来表示“局限”。例如:
You should limit your speech to 15 minutes. 你必须把
你的讲话限制在15分钟内。
restrict 区别于 limit 的地方在于:restrict"限制”的是范
围,而limit侧重于表示“限制”到某个点。例如:
ln democratic countries any efforts to restrict the free—
dom of the Press are rightly condemned. 在民主的国家
里,限制新闻自由的任何努力都要受到公正的谴责。
The trees restrict our view. 这些树局限了我们的视野。
【考例7】Mark said his English was so ____ that he
wasn't too sure about some of the idioms.
    A. limit    B. limited
    C. limiting    D. limitless
[考查目标] 本题考查limit相关分词的用法。
[答案与解析] B  limited是limit的过去分词,意思是
“有限的”。
【考点8】point的用法
▲搭配:
① at this point 在此地,在此刻
② be on the point of doing sth 正要做某事
③ to the point 切题,说中要害
④ off the point 离题,走题
【考例8】Every time we were on the ____ of giving
up, the captain called us back.
    A. edge    B. top    C. point    D. centre
[考查目标]本题考查point及其构成的短语的意思。
[答案与解析]C on the point of... 意思是“就要(差点)
做了某事”。
【考点1】prepare的用法
▲构词:
①preparation n. 准备,预备
②prepared adj. 准备好的.精制的
▲搭配:
① prepare (sth) for.../ to do sth 为……作准备(……)
② prepare sb / oneself for... / to do sth 使某人/自己准
  备好……
③ be prepared for... / to do sth 准备好……
④ be in preparation 在准备中;在编辑中
⑤ in preparation for 作为……的准备
⑥ make preparations against 为对付……作准备
⑦ make preparations for 为……作准备
【考例1】[2004北京]
-- What's that terrible noise?
-- The neighbors ____ for a party.
    A. have prepared    B. are preparing
    C. prepare D. will prepare
[考查目标]考查prepare在作谓语时的用法。
[答案与解析]B  从上句叙述的情况来看,“准备”正在
进行。
2. prepare vt. / vi. 准备
  [拓展] preparation n. 准备;make preparations for...
  为……做准备
  [词组] prepare sb. for / to do sth. 使某人对……作
  好准备
  The teachers are preparing the students for the final
  examinations.
  老师们正在让学生准备期末考试。
  prepare sb. sth. 为某人准备……
  The host and the hostress prepared us a ddicious meal.
  主人为我们准备了美味佳肴。
  prepare for sth. 准备做……
  The students are busy preparing for the college entrance
  examination.
  学生们正忙于准备考大学。
  be prepared for... 为……准备;对……做好了准备,
  表示结果
  The students are well prepared for the sports meeting.
  学生们为运动会做好了充分的准备。
  [比较】
  prepare sth. 宾语必须是动作的直接承受者。例如:
  prepare the lesson / a speech / a meal。
  prepare for sth. 中for的宾语是表示准备的目的。例
  如:prepare for the exanl / an operation / a trip。
[牛刀小试 1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(enjoy, prepare, effect, limit, point)
1. Few students in this college got ____ for the fu-
   ture work.
2. The medicine left no ____ on the patient, so he
   left the hospital at last.
3. The emperor walked on the street, ____ up his
   head high.
4. The driver said to the policeman that he didn't know
   the speed ____.
5. Long. long ago the scientists ____ out it is
   wrong to go against nature in the agriculture produc-
   tion.
☆词语比较☆
1. realize,come true
  realize 和 come true都有“实现(理想/愿望等)”之意,
  但两者用法不同。realize是及物动词,常用于sb.
  realize sth. 这种结构;come true 是不及物动词词组,
  通常用来表示“理想、愿望等”的名词作句子的主语。
  The Chinese people ale working hard to realize the
  meAemizations.
  中国人民正在为实现现代化而努力工作。
  His dream of becoming a teacher came true.
  他当教师的理想实现了。
2. be able to, can (could)
  (1) be able to 可用于多种时态,can 只有现在时和过
  去时eould。
  One day people will be able to run a kilometre in two
  minutes.
  总有一天人们会两分钟跑完一千米的。(一般将来
  时)
  He has not been able to come.
  他没能来。(现在完成时)
  (2) can 和 could 除了表示“能力”,还可表示“可能
  性”。
  My grandmother can be very unpleasant at times.
  我的祖母有时候会让人非常不愉快。
  (3) be able to 的过去式was / were able to 表示在过去
  某时的某一场合设法做成了某事,相当于managed
  to do;而could则无此意义。
  The fire was very big; only a few people were able to
  escape from it.
3. ruin, destroy, damage
  三个词都有“毁灭”、“破坏”之意,但它们的含义不
  同:ruin强调毁灭的彻底性,并且是一次性地行动。
  这种毁灭也许力量不是很大,但其严重性却使其不
  能修复。它强调的是破坏的长期结果;destroy指通
  过某种有力的或粗暴的手段使之毁灭或无用,一般
  不能或很难修复,有时用于比喻意义;damage则指
  对价值和动能的破坏,多用于无生命的东西,一般还
  可以修复。
  You'll ruin your health if you go On like that.
  这样下去你会毁了你的健康。
  The earthauake destroyed many lives.
  这次地震夺走r许多人的生命。
  The strong wind damaged several houses.
  强风损坏了几间房子。
4. join in, take part in, attend, join
  (1) take part in + activities / work, discussion /
  research等。
  take parr in 强调参与性,特别是有众多人参加的活
  动,含在活动中起一定作用,负有责任之意。
  Millions of workers took part in (=joined in) the
  strike / revolutionary movement / fighting.
  数以百万计的工人参加了罢工/革命运动/斗争。
  He took an active part in (joined actively in)
  international academic exchanges.
他积极参加国际学术交流活动。
We'll take part in social activities during summer
vacation.
这个暑假我们将参加社会活动。
(2) join可表示参加一个组织或成为其中一员或与人
为伴,和某人一起做某事,而take part in则不这样
用。
He joined the army / League / Part / club / students
union.
他参军/入团/入党/参加俱乐部/学生会。
Pleasejdn us / my family / Mary.
和我们/家人/玛丽作伴。
(3)join in + activities (相当于take part in) 或 join sb.
in + activities. 指和他人一起参加活动、比赛等。
I didn't join them in writing that book.
我没有参编那本书。
All of us joined in the English speech competition.
我们都参加了英语演讲比赛。
(4) attend v.“参加”是正式用语,指出席会议,参加
婚礼,典礼等,又可指上学,上课,听报告。
He was invited to attend Mary's wedding ceremony.
他被邀请参加玛丽的婚礼。
5. competition, game, race, match
  (1) competition 意为“比赛”,“竞争”,可指各种形式
  上的竞赛。
  (2) game意为“游戏”,“比赛”,通常指有一定规则,
  凡参加者均需遵守,可指连续的游戏或比赛活动中
  的一局。说球赛时,一般用game,美国人用game,英
  国人则用match。另外game用作复数时可指大型体
  育运动会,如:Olympic Games 奥运会,the Asian
  Games 亚运会。
  (3) race 通常指一种跑的竞赛,可以是人也可以是动
  物,一般不指短距离赛跑 (短距离赛跑用dash),如:
  赛跑,赛马,赛车,赛船等。
  (4) match 常指体育代表团之间的较重大的公开赛,
  在有些情况下与game相同,一般指竞技比赛。如:
  拳击,网球,高尔夫球等。
6. hold, take place, happen
  (1) hold为及物动词,“举行;召开”。
  The meeting will be held next Sunday.
  (2) take place指按计划或安排所要发生的事情,它是
  不及物动词短语,不能带宾语,没有被动语态。
  The meeting is going to take place tomorrow.
  (3) happen多指偶然发生的事,不及物动词,无被动
  形式。
  Do you know what has happened over there?
7. more than, more…than
  (1) more than主要有以下用法:
  ① 后接名词,表示超出该名词之所指,意为“不只是,
  不止”。
  Bamboo is used for more than building.
  竹子不仅仅用于建筑。
  ② 后接形容词或动词,用来加强语气,“很;非常”。
  She is more than pleased with her daughter's
  performance.
  她对女儿的演出十分高兴。
  ③ 后接副词,加强语气,表“十分”,“不止”之意。
  He was dressed more than simply.
  他穿的岂止是朴素,简直近乎破烂了。
  ④ 后接含有情态动词Carl的从句,其本意是“超过”,
  常用来表示否定意义,可译为:“简直不”,“远非”。
  The beauty of this city is more than words can describe.
  这城市之美是无法用语言描述的。
  ⑤ 后接数词,表示超出该数,意思是“多于;大于”。
  The factory turns out more than one ,hundred cars
  daily.
  该厂日产汽车一百多辆。
  (2) more...than 结构中间常插入形容词或副词,表
  示以下两种含义:
  ① 表示普通的比较级,指两种不同的事物(人)在同
  一属性上的比较。
  This coat is more expensive than that one.
  ② 表示“与其说是……不如说是……”,指对同一事
  物的两种属性进行选择。
  She is more diligent than wise.
  与其说她聪明,不如说她勤奋。
8. weigh,weight,weighty
  weigh vt. 称……;vi. 重
  weight n. 重量;重要性
  weighty adj. 重的
  They weighed the apples they picked from the trees.
  他们把从树上摘下来的苹果过了秤。
  The goods were carefully weighed before they were
  shipped off.
  货物在用船运走之前仔细过了称。
  -- Howmuch doesthe boxweigh?
  -- It weighs six pounds.
  “这个箱子重多少?”“重六磅。”
  What is your weight? = How much do you weigh?
  你的体重有多少?
    【短语归类】
4. bring...back to life 使恢复;使苏醒;使生动
  They did all they could to bring him back to life.
  他们尽一切努力以使他苏醒。
  A great actor can bring a character to life.
  一个伟大的演员能使角色生动起来。
  [拓展] bring...back to health 使……恢复健康
  come back tolife 苏醒过来
  与bring构成的词组:
  bring about 引起;造成
  bring up 提出;抚养大
  bring together 使和解
  bring back 使回想起
  bring down 降低;减少
  bring in 有收入;请来;引进
  bring on 引起;使发生
5. change one's mind改变主意
  Nothing could change her mind, so the meeting broke
  up.
  什么也改变不了她的主意,所以会议解散了。
  [词组]bring back to mind 使回想起
  keepinmind 记住
  have something / somebndy in mind 心里想着某事/某
  人
  make up one's mind 下决心(mind在此可数)
  read one's mind 看出某人的心思
  take something off one’s mind去掉某人的心事
6. in modem times 在现代
  time 做“时代”解时,通常用复数形式 (times)。
  Times have changed, and we shouldn't fall behind
  them.
  时代变化了,我们不应该落后于时代。
  Inancient times, people lived on wild fruits and wild
  beasts.
  在古代,人们靠吃野果和野兽为生。
  [词组]
  in no time 立刻;马上  at one time 曾经
  on time 按时    in time 及时
  at a time 一次    for a time 一度
  behind the times 落伍  at all times 一直;经常
  at times 有时候    from time to time 不时;有时
【考点2】set短语
① set off 出发,动身,启程
② set one's mind to 一心想做……
③ set free 释放
④ set up 设立.创立
⑤ set out 出发.陈列,陈述
⑥ set down (使)放下;写下,记下
⑦ set to work 开始工作
[例句]They have set off on a journey round the world.
他们已经开始环游世界。
The government has set up a working party to look into
the problem of drug abuse. 政府已经成立T作组调查滥
用毒品问题。
Liu Xiang has set up a new world record in men's 110m
hurdles. 刘翔创下了新的110米栏世界纪录。
You could be a very good writer if you set your mind to
it. 你只要专心.就可能成为优秀作家。
【考例2】(2004江苏) It's ten years since the scientist
    ____ on his life's work of discovering the valuable
 chemical.
    A. made for    B. set out
    C. took off    D. turned up
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的辨析。
[答案与解析]B  make for走向,有利于;set out开始,
着手;take off 脱下,起飞;turn up 出现,到达。本句话
意思是“从这位科学家开始发现有价值的化学药品的
工作已经十年了”。
3. under attack 遭受攻击。under 表示“在……(状态)
  中”;“在……(情况)下”
  [词组] under repair 在修理中
    under study 在研究着
    under construction 在建设中
【考点3】动词 + down的短语
① come down 下来
② fall down 倒下,跌落,从……落下,失败
③ go down 下降,下跌
④ get down 下来
⑤ put down 把……放下来;平定,镇压
⑥ sit down 坐下
⑦ shut down 把……关上
⑧ turn down 关小,调低,拒绝
⑨ slow down 减缓,减速,放慢
⑩ write / set / note / put down写下,记下
⑩ pull down 拆毁,摧毁.推翻
⑩ get down to business 言归正传
[例句] The plan fell down because it proved to be too
expensive. 这项计划因费用过高而告吹。
More American troops were sent to Iraq to put down
the rebellions. 很多美国军队被派往伊拉克去镇压反
抗。
Turn the radio down — I'm trying to get some sleep. 把
收音机声音调小点儿 — 我想睡会觉。
He can't do heavy work, for he has been pulled down
by his long illness. 他不能干重活,因为长期患病使得
他的身体很虚弱。
The road was slippery, so Mr. Jones slowed down the
car. 公路滑,所以琼斯先生放慢了车速。
Make sure you write down every word the speaker
says. 务必记下讲话者所说的每一个单词。
【考例3l(2003全国)News reports say peace talks be—
tween the two countries ____ with no agreement
reached.
    A. have broken down
    B. have broken out
    C. have broken in
    D. have broken up
[考查目标]此题主要考查break的动词短语。
[答案与解析]A  break down失败.坏了}break out突
然发生。爆发;break in 闯入;break up分开,分解。本
句话意思是“有新闻报道说,两国间的和平谈判因没有
达成一致意见而失败了”。
【考点1】动词+up短语
① clean up 清除,收拾干净
② eat up 吃光
③ get up 起床
④ give up 放弃
⑤ grow up 长大,成长
⑥ hurry up 赶快
⑦ lock sb. up将某人监禁起来
⑧ look up 向上看,抬头看,好转,有气色,查寻
g) make up 弥补.拼凑成
⑩ pick up 拾起.捡起,学会。获悉,听到,见到,恢复健康
⑩ pull up 往上拽
⑩ put up 举起,张贴,为……提供食宿
⑩ ring up 打电话
⑩ stay up 不睡.熬夜
⑩ wake up 醒来.唤醒
⑩ open up 开设,开业,开放
⑩ set up 建立.开创.使某人有钱创业
@ clear up 放晴
[例句] She soon picked up French when she went to live
in France. 她到法国居住后很快就学会了法语。
You don't look up well today. What's the trouble? 你
今火气色不太好,怎么了?
These days many girls make up when they are still quite
young. 如今许多女孩还很年轻就化装。
When he was twenty-one, his father set him up in the
clothing business. 他21岁时,他父亲把他安顿在服装
店。
I've an important meeting to attend. Be sure to wake
me up at seven o'clock. 我有一个重要的会议要参加,一
定要在七点钟叫醒我。
Now that it was raining heavily, they decided to put us
up for the night. 由于雨下得很大,他们决定留我们过
夜。
Ring me up if you learn the truth. 一了解到真相就给我
打电话。
She promised the children they could stay up for their
favourite TV programme. 她答应孩子们可以晚点睡,看
他们最喜爱的电视节目。
【考例1】(2004上海)To keep healthy,Professor John—
son ____ cycling as a regular form of exercise after
he retired.
    A. took up    B. caught on
    C. carried out    D. made for
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]A take up开始从事;catch on 继续下
去、坚持下去;carry out完成、履行;make for走向、有
利于。本句话意思是“为了保持健康·教授退休后开始
把骑自行车当作锻炼方式”。
[牛刀小试2]
句子改错,每句仅一处错误。
1. Everyone in the hospital hoped that he gave up after a
  few days' treatment, and she was optimistic.
2. There are thousand dollars, but we still need one
  thousand dollars to eat up the sum we ask for.
3. You make a good singer if you set your mind to sing—
  ing.
4. -- Jack, how was it come about that you made so
    many mistakes in your homework?
  -- I myself haven't figured it out yet!
5. The lift had broke down yesterday. We'll have to
  walk up to the eighth floor this evening.
   
    【句型归纳】
【考点1】Where there is a river, there is a city. 凡有河
流的地方。必有城市。
该句中的where引导地点状语从旬,兼有条件状语从
句的含义。例如:
Where is water, there is life.
可以引导地点状语从句的有where,wherever,绝对不
能用in which来替换;使用时,注意与定语从句中关系
副词where的区别,引导定语从句的where有时可以用
in which来替换。
【考例l】(NMET 1997) After the war, a new school
building was put up ____ there had once been a
theatre.
    A. that    B.where  C. which    D. when
[考查目标]地点状语从句。
[答案与解析]B  根据句子意思“战后在原来戏院的地
方,盖了一座新的教学大楼。”需要引导地点状语从句
的引导词where。
【考点2】Which one would you like to see most? 你最想
去看哪一个?
该句中的would like表示“想,打算”。
would like是表示“打算,想”的常用短语,后常接名词.
代词,不定式,复合宾语等。也可以写成would love;而
表示“想要的”feel like后接doing sth。例如:
Would you like a glass of beer?来杯啤酒怎么样?
He feels like being invited to give all kinds of lectures.
他喜欢被人邀请去作各种各样的讲座。
How would you like sth? 这一句型用来“询问某人对
某事物的印象或看法。” 例如:
-- How would you like Guilin?
-- Good. It is worth visiting again.
你认为桂林怎么样?不错,值得再去玩一次。
而“What be + 主语 + (look) like?”则表示“主语看起来
怎么样?”like是介词.意思是“像”.必须与系动词连用,
才能做谓语,what为它的宾语。例如:
-- What was the earthquake like? 地震像什么?
-- It was like being on a boat. 像坐在船上。
【考例2】(NMET 1997)1 would love ____ to the
party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a
report.
    A. to go    B. to have gone
    C. going    D. having gone
[考查目标]句型“would love to do sth"。
[答案与解析]B  首先排除C、D两项;A项表示对将
来的打算;would love / like to have done 表示“本来打
算做某事,然而却没有做”;句子的意思是“昨天晚上我
本来打算去参加聚会,然而我不得不加班完成一份报
告”。
【考点3】Most of the sports were the slime as they are
now. 许多项目跟现在一样。
该句中as为连词,引导状语从句。例如:
Do in Rome as the Romans do. 人乡随俗。
as 作为连词,可以引导5种从句。
1. 时间状语从句。例如:
  As time went by, it became colder and colder.
2. 原因状语从句。例如:
    As he developed a bad cold, he didn't go to school
    yesterday.
3. 方式状语从句。例如:
  Do as I tell you to.
4. 让步状语从句。例如:
  Child as he is, he knows a lot.
5.比较状语从句。例如:
  lt is not as hot in Beijing as in Wuhan
【考例3】(NMET 1990) ____ the day went on, the
weather got worse.
    A. With    B. Since  C. While    D. As
[考查目标]状语从句。
[答案与解析]D  句子的意思是“随着岁月的推移,天
气越来越糟”。应该选as引导时间状语从句。
【考点4】In sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals,
ranking third of all the competing countries. 在悉尼奥运
会上。中国队共获28枚金牌,在所有的参赛国中,金牌
总数名列第三。
该句中的ranking为v-ing形式作状语。例如:
He went away.Ieaving the door open他走了,没有关
门。
v-ing在句中作状语,常常表示时间、原因、伴随、方式、
结果等。
【考例4】(2004吉林) "We can’t go out in this weather,"
said Bob, ____ out of the window.
    A. looking    B. to look
    C. looked    D. having looked
[考查目标]wing形式作状语。
[答案与解析]A  句子意思是“鲍勃看了看窗外,说这
种天气我们不能出去”。
☆句型诠释☆
1. Where there is a river, there is a city.
  有河流的地方,就有城市。
  在这个句子中,where 引导了一个地点状语从句,意
  思为“有……的地方,就有……”。
  Where there is a will, thereis a way.
  有志者,事竟成。
  Where there is enough sunlight and water, crops grow
  well.
  阳光和水充足的地方,庄稼就长得好。
  Go where he tells you to go.
  他让你到哪儿,你就到哪儿。
  [拓展] where 引导的状语从句与定语从句的区别
  where引导状语从句时,其前面无先行词,where也
  不能换成“介词+which”。
  where 引导定语从句时,其前面有名词做先行词,
  where 可以换成“介词 + which"。
  Make marks where you have any questions. (状语从
  句)
  Make marks at the places where you have any
  questions. (定语从句)
  在你有问题的地方做上标记。
2. Strong, proud and united, the people of St.
    Petersburg are the inodenl heroes of Russia.
    坚强,骄傲,团结,圣·彼得堡的人们是俄国现代的
    英雄。
    本句中strong,proud and united是形容词作状语,
    说明句子主语的特征和性质。
    Helpless, we watched the house being destroyed by
    the strong wind.
    眼睁睁地看着房子被狂风摧毁,我们无能为力。
    The thief hid himself in the corner, afraid of being
    caught.
    小偷躲在角落里,担心被人捉住。
    do what one can to do sth.
3. do au one can to do sth.
  do everything olle caIl to do sth.
  do one's best to do sth.
  这几个句型结构都表示一个意思“尽某人最大努力
  做某事”。do what one carl to do sth. 中的 what 引导
  一个宾语从句;do all one can to do sth. 和 do
  everything one can to do sth. 中省略了定语从句的关
  系代词that,all 和everything 做先行词。在这几个
  句型中的不定式表目的,做目的状语。
  We should do everything / we can / what we can / our best to learn English well.
  我们要竭尽全力把英语学好。
  [拓展] make every possibl effort / mare the greatest effort to do sth.
  尽可能/最大努力来做某事
4. I'd rather watch it than play it.
  我愿意观看,不愿参与。
  (1) rather...than... 常与 would / had 连用,意思是
  “宁可;宁愿”,“与其……不如……;宁愿……而不愿
    He is rather wise than honest.
    与其说他诚实不如说他聪明。
    I would rather stay at home than go for a walk.
    = I would stay at home rather than go for a walk.
    我宁愿呆在家里也不出去散步。
    (2) rather than 而不;宁可;情愿
    He prefers to chemistry mther than physics.
    他喜欢化学而不喜欢物理。
    Rather than go by air, I'd take the slowest train.
    我宁可坐最慢的火车去也不乘飞机去。
    [拓展] would mther 后接动词原形,它常用于以下结
    构。
    Would rather do sth. / not do sth. / do sth. than
    Would rather 有时接从句,从句的谓语动词要用虚拟
    语气。一般过去时表示现在与将来的动作或状态;
    过去完成时表示过去的动作或状态。
    I'd rather you met her at the airport tomorrow morning.
    我宁愿你明天早上到机场接她。
5. Every four years athletes from all over the world take
    part in the Olympic Games.
    每四年,来自世界各地的运动员们都要参加奥运会。
    (1 )every 和表示数量的词连用
    every 可与表示数量的词连用,表示时间或空间。
    I usually gO to my uncle's every three days ( =every
    third day).
    我通常每三天(每隔两天)去我叔叔家一次。
    They looked up and gave a smlle to each other every
    few minutes.
    每隔几分钟他们抬起头相互笑笑。
    【注意】every 后可接few,但不能接 a few,因every-
    词包含了a之意,另外every后也不能接some,
    several, many等词。
    (2) every后接序数词时,则修饰单数可数名词。
    every可与other + 单数可数名词连用,表示“每隔......”。
    Please write on every other line (third line).
    请隔行写。(请隔两行写一行)
    They planted a tree every other metre along the road.
他们在马路边每隔一米栽一棵树。
[牛刀小试3]
1. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, es-
   pecially ____ father  was  away  in  France.
   (NMET 1994)
     A. as                   B. that
     C. during               D. if
2. The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born
  and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. (2002 上海春招)
     A. when                B. whenever
     C. where                D. wherever
3. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this
  evening. (NMET 1992)
     A. to be taken          B. to take
     C. being taken          D. taking
4. Suddenly,  a tall man driving a golden carriage
   ____ the girl and took her away, ____ into
   the woods. (2004 上海春招)
     A. seizing; disappeared B. seized; disappeared
     C. seizing; disappearing D. seized; disappearing
    【交际速成】
【考点l】Giving advice Making suggestions 提出意见和
建议
(2004年重庆)
-- Let's go and have a good drink tonight.
-- ____ Have you got the first prize in the competi-
  tion?
    A. What for?    B. Thanks a lot.
    C. Yes, I'd like to.    D. Glad to hear that.
[答案与解析]A  本题考查对提出建议的应答。根据
答语的后句话可判断A项符合此时语境,意为“为什么
要好好喝一杯呀?”
【归纳】英语中表达提出意见和建议的用语有:
① Let's...
② You'd better...
③ I think it's better (for you / us) to...
④ I suggest (that) you (should) ...
⑤ I advise you (not) to ...
⑥ I wonder if you should...
⑦ Let's..., shall we?
⑧ Maybe we eould...
⑨ I'd 1ike to...
⑩ Can't / Should / Shall we...?
⑩ Would you like / love to...?
⑩ Have you considered...?
⑩ What shaIl we...?
⑩ why not...?
⑩ Why don't you / we...?
⑩ What / How about...?
【考点2】Talking about interests and hobbies 谈论兴趣和
爱好
(2003年东北三校)
-- I enjoy Chinese food very much.
    -- ____.
    A. Please taste quickly
    B. Have more.DIease
    C. HeIp yourself
    D. Eat slOWly whiIe it is hot
[答案与解析] C  本题考查谈论兴趣和爱好时的功能
用语。A项不合语境,B、D两项属汉语应答,C项符合
英语习惯。
【归纳】英语中谈论兴趣和爱好时的用语有:
① Which d0 you like, ...or...?
② I like...
③ What's your favorite sport?
④ Which sport do you like best?
⑤ Which d0 you prefer...or...?
⑥ What about...?
⑦ Are you interested in...?
⑧ I prefer...to...
应答用语有:
① Shooting, I think.
② I'd rather watch it than play it.
③ Yes, very much.
④ No, not really.
⑤ Sure. I love sports..
[牛刀小试 4]
1. --What about having a drink?
     -- ____.
     A. Good idea          B. Help yourself
     C. Go ahead, please   D. Me, too
2.-- Ladies and gentlemen, let's drink to Mr. Brown's
     health.
     -- ____.
     A. Congratulations     B. Good luck
     C. Cheers              D. Good idea
3. -- Do you want tea or coffee?
  -- ____. I really don't mind.
     A. Both               B. None
     C. Either             D. Neither
4. -- Can't you wait a few more minutes?
  -- ____. I have no time.
     A. Yes, I can          B. No, I can't
     C. Yes, I can't wait   D. No, I can't do
    ☆精典题例☆
(  )1. The Foreign Minister said, " ____ " our hope
    that the two sides will work towards peace."
    (2004北京)
    A. This is    B. Thereis
    C. That is    D. It is
    【解析】选D   it作形式主语;that引导的从句作真正
的主语。
(  )2. The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born
    and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. (2002上海
    春)
    A. when    B. whenever
    C. where    D. wherever
    【解析】选C  where在此引导一个状语从句。
(  )3. He's got himself into a dangerous situation
    ____ he is likely to lose control over the plane.
    (2001上海)
    A. where    B. which
    C. while    D. why
    【解析】选A where在此引导一个定语从句。where
在引导定语从句时,必须有先行词,where在定语从句中
充当状语,在此题中where表示“在……状况下”。
(  )4. -- Can the project be finished as planned?
    -- Sure, ____ it completed in time, we'll
    work two more hours a day. (2005 福建)
    A. having got    B. to get
    C. getting    D. get
    【解析】选B动词不定式做目的状语。
(    )5. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but
    everyone ____ get out.
    A. had to    B. could
    C. would    D. was able to
    【解析】选D Was ableto在此表示“努力并成功地做
了某事”,相当于Succeeded in doing sth., managed to do
sth., could则没有这种用法。
(  )6. These plants are watered ____. (2001北京
    春)
    A. each other day    B. every other day
    C. each of two days    D. every of two days
    【解析】选B every other day表示“每隔一天”。
(  )7. -- Shall me go skating or stay at home?
    -- Which ____ do yourself?
    A. do you rather    B. would you rather
    C. will you rather    D. should you rather
    【解析】选B would rather是固定搭配。
(  )8. -- What's that terrible noise?
    -- The neighbors ____ for a party. (2004北
    京)
    A. have prepared    B. are preparing
     C. prepare    D. will prepare
    【解析】选B本题考查动词时态的用法。第一句运
用一般现在时,询问的是(现在)可怕的噪音从何而来,所
以答语的时态要用现在进行时来回答。
(  )9. You should make it a rule to leave thirigs ____
    you can find them again.
    A. when    B. where
    C. then    D. which
    【解析】选B  where引导地点状语从句。
(  ) 10. The sailors returned twenty days later, ____.
     A. felt ill, tired and unhappy
     B. ill, tired and unhappy
C. ill, tiring and unhappy
D. feeling ill, tired, unhappily
【解析】选B  形容词作伴随状语。
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 5 SB I  Units 9 - 10
重点句型
1. Cell phones, or mobile phones make it possible for us to talk to anyone from anywhere.   it 作形式宾语的用法
2. I don't dare to use the phone in school.  dare 的用法
3. The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we are or what we are doing.
no matter + 疑问词引导的让步状语从句
4. The cell phone helps her do whatever she wants to do.
whatever 引导的名词从句
5. We human beings could not survive without all plants and animals around us.     表双重否定
6. We may be able to take measures before it is too late.
before 的译法
7. Steve Jones tries to keep animals and plants from becom- ing endangered.    表示“阻止某人做某事”
重点词汇
1. agreement n. 一致,协定
2. absolutely adv. 绝对地,完全地
3. press vt. & vi. 按,压,逼迫
4. teenager n. (13--19岁的)青少年
5. throughout prep. 遍及,贯穿
6. add vt. 增加,添加,补充说
7. 1atest adj. 最近的,最新的
8. calendar n. 日历
9. appointment n. 约会,指定
10. behaviour n. 行为,举止
11. obey v. 服从
12. emergency n. 紧急情况
13. dial vt. 拨号
14. unexpected adj. 想不到的
15. particular adj. 特别的,个别的
16. succeed v. 成功
17. force n. & vt. 力量,强制
18. wonder n. 奇迹
19. defeat vt. & n. 击败,失败
20. department n. 部,局,系
21. interview vt. & n. 接见,会见
22. environmental adj. 环境的
23. common adj. 共同的,普遍的
24. valuable adj. 有价值的
25. reduce vt. 减少
26. respond vi. 回答,响应
27. material n. 材料,原料
28. attractive adj. 吸引人的
29. organize vt. & vi. 组织
30. amount n. 数量
重点短语
1. keep / stay in touch with 与……保持联络
2. call for 要求,需要
3. in case of 假设,万一
4. according to 根据,据……所说
5. take over 接收,接管
6. break down 毁掉,坏掉
7. in danger 在危险中
8. die out 灭绝,逐渐消失
9. as a result of 作为(……的)结果
10. lead to 导致某种结果
11. take measures 采取措施
12. adapt to 适应
13. make a difference 有关系,有影响
14. devote...to 献身于……,专心于……
15. at present 现在,目前
16. set free 释放
17. in the wild 在自然环境下
18. throw away 扔掉
19. on the go 忙个不停,四处奔走
20. remind...of... 使人想起……
21. dream of 梦想
22. come up with 提出
23. first of all 首先
24. make money 赚钱
25. depend on 依靠
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词5分,80分才能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧?
1. stay in ____ with 与……保持联络
2. call ____ 要求,需要
3. ____ case(of) 假设;万一
4. according ____ 按照;根据……所说
5. take ____ 接收;接管
6. break ____ 毁掉,坏掉;中止
7. ____ danger 在危险中;垂危
8. die ____ 灭绝;逐渐消失
9. ____ a result of作为(……的)结果;由于
10. lead ____ 导致某种结果
11. ____ measures 采取措施
12. adapt ____ 适应(新环境等)
13. make a ____ 有关系;有影响
14. devote ____ 献身于……;专心于……
15. present ____  现在;目前
16. ____ free 释放
17. ____ the wild 在自然环境下
18. throw ____ 扔掉;浪费
19. ____ the go 忙个不停;四处奔走;跑来跑去
20. turn...inside ____ 把……翻过来
交际用语
1. I can't agree with you on this point.
2. That's the point.
3. Well, it depends.
4. Does anyone share David's opinion?
5. I absolutely agree.
6. That's how I see it.
7. Why can't we drink the water in our rivers and lakes? Because the water is polluted.
8. Cars and factories cause air pollution. As a result of air pollution, many people get sick.
9. People get sick because of air pollution. It follows that we must do something about it.
单词聚焦
1. adapt vt. 使适应;使配合
(1) adapt + n. + to + n. 使……适应,使……适合
He could not adapt his way of life to the school. 他的生活方式无法适应学校的要求。
(2) adapt (oneself) to 适应……She quickly adapted to new circumstances. 她能够很快地适应新环境。/ I suggested he should adapt himself to his new conditions. 我建议他应该调整自己,以适应新的环境。
2. add vt. & vi. 增加,加入,补充说
If the tea is too strong, add some more water. 如果茶太浓,再加些水。/ Many words have been added to this edition of the dictionary。这一版字典增加了很多词。/ The bad weather only added to our difficulties. 恶劣的天气只会增添我们的困难。/ "And I hope you will realize it one day." he added. 他接着说:“我希耀你总有一天会明白这一点。” / I should like to add that we are pleased with the result. 我想补充一句,我们对这个成果感到高兴。
[短语]
add...to... 在……中加上……  add to 增加,增添
add up 加起来  add up to 总计,总共有……
Your carelessness added to our difficulty. 你的粗心增加了我们的困难。/ The money he spent added up to no more than £1,000. 他花的钱总计1000英镑。
3. add 的用法
▲ 构词:
① addition n. 加,加起来,增加物,增加,加法
② additional adj. 外加的,附加的,另加的
▲ 搭配:
① add sth in 算人;包括
② add A to B 把A加到B上,往A里添加B
③ add to 增加,加到
④ in addition 加上,又,另外
⑤ in addition to 加上,除……外,又
⑥ add sth up 把……加起来,总计
⑦ add up (to…)总计共达;表示,等于说。意味着;总而言之
【考例】The president talked with the official for a long
time, ____ that he still trusted him.
A. added   B. adding   C. adding up  D. adding up to
[考查目标] 本题考查add及其构成短语的意思。
[答案与解析]B   adding的意思是“补充(说)”。add up to意思是“加起来等于”。
4. amount n. 量,常与不可数名词连用
“the amount of + 不可数名词”表示“……的量”。
[提醒]
“a large amount of + 不可数名词”后跟单数谓语
“large amounts of + 不可数名词”后跟复数谓语
There is a large amount of / are large amounts of coal to be sent there. 大量的煤要运往那儿。
[比较] number 也意为“量”,但它指可数的事物的“数目,数量”。the number of ……的数目 / numbers of / a number of 大量的 后跟复数名词
5. case的用法
▲ 搭配:
① as is often the case 这是常有的事
② as the case stands 在目前的情况下,就现有的情况而论
③ in this / that case 如果是这样/那样的话
④ in any case 无论如何,总之
⑤ in case (that)-clause 假使。如果,万一
⑥ in case of 万一……,如果发生……
⑦ (just)in case 以防(万一)
⑧ in most cases 在大多数情况下
【考例】(2005广东)You'd better take something to read when you go to see the doctor ____ you have to wait.
A. even if    B. as if    C. in case   D. in order that
[考查目标]考查 case 构成的短语的用法。
[答案与解析]C   句意:“当你去看医生的时候最好带点东西读以防等待”。in case 意为“万一”;even if意为“即使”;as if,意为“好像”;in order that 意为“为了……”。就高考而言,除了 in case 之外,意为“以防万一”的引导词还应掌握-,for fear that 和lest。
6. defeat 的用法
▲ 构词:defeatist n. 失败主义者
▲ 搭配:suffer a defeat战败;遭受挫败
▲ 辨析:defeat;beat;conquer 这组动词的一般含义是“打败”。
defeat 的含义是“打败”,但被打败者不一定服输。例如:The public bet a lot of money on Mendoza, but he was defeated. 公众为门杜萨下了一大笔赌注,但是他被击败了。
beat则表示彻底“打败”,而且被打败者完全服输了。
例如:It was not until his third match in 1790 that he finally beat Humphries and become Champion of England. 直到1790年第三次比赛时,他才最后打败汉弗莱斯,而成为英国的冠军。
conquer 更可强调“把对方征服”,而且被征服者或被征服的国家为征服者所有,可以任意支配,特别指“获得
对人、物或感情的控制。例如:Some countries may be defeated but can never be conquered. 有的国家可能被打败,但决不能被征服。
【考例】-- Who ____  the team from No. 2 Middle school? -- I'm not sure. Perhaps the team from the nearby county.
A. defeated    B. won    C. beat    D. gained
[考查目标]本题考查defeat的常见用法。
[答案与解析]A  defeat 意思是“打败”,后面跟的是表示“人”或“组织”的名词或代词。
7. depend 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① That depends. 要看情况而定。
② It (all) depends. 要看情况而定。
③ depend on / upon 依靠;由……而定.取决于;从属于;依赖其维持
【考例】[2004江苏]
-- How long are you staying?  -- I don't know. ____.
A. That's OK    B. Never mind
C. It depends    D. It doesn't matter
[考查目标]考查depend在交际场合的用法。
[答案与解析]C  it depends 意思是“看情况。不能确
定”。
8. devote vt. 投入于;献身
devoted 忠实的;献身……的;专用的
devote one's time / life / energy / oneself to (doing) sth. 致力于……;献身于…… = be devoted to...致力于……;献身于……;忠实于…… After that, he devoted his entire energy to these studies. 从那以后,他全力以赴从事这些研究工作。/ He is very devoted to his wife. 他很忠实于他的妻子。
9. devote 的用法
▲ 构词:
① devotion n. 献身;奉献;忠诚;热心,专心
② devoted adj. 忠诚的;挚爱的;喜欢的
③ devotedly adv. 忠实地,一心一意地
▲搭配:
① devote...to 把……献给;把……专用于
② devote oneself to 致力于,献身于;专心于
③ be devoted to 专心于,忠于
友情提示:各搭配中to均为介词。
【考例】[2004全国卷IV] First of all, I respected his ____ to teaching.
A. attention            B. introduction
C. relation              D. devotion
[考查目标] 本题考查 devote 派生词的词义和用法。
[答案与解析]D  devote的名词形式是devotion,也应
该和介词 to 搭配。
10. force n. [U][C]力量,势力,暴力 vt. 强迫,促使,强制 He didn't use much force. 他没怎么用力。/ They refused to bow before force. 他们拒绝向暴力低头。/ They have come to know the forces of nature. 他们终于知道了大自然的力量。
[注意]the forces 可表示军队,兵力
[拓展]
force sb. to do sth.;force sb. into doing sth.;force sb. / sth. + 形容词 / 副词 / 介词短语 I was forced to leave. 我被迫离开。(= into leaving) / The strong man forced himself into the empty room. 那个身体强壮的男子强行进入了那个宅房间。
[短语]
by force 靠武力,强行    be in force 生效
come / go into force 生效  put in / into force 使生效
force one's way 强行前进或进入
11. hurry 的用法
▲ 构词:
① hurried adj. 匆忙的
② hurriedly adv. 仓促地.慌忙地
▲ 搭配:
① in a hurry 匆忙地
② in no hurry 不忙,有充分的时间;不急于
③ no hurry 不忙.不必着急,有充裕的时间
④ hurry up 快点,赶紧做;催促(快点)
▲ 辨析:hurry; haste; speed 均含“动作上的快速”的意思。
hurry 指“动作不轻松、不自然的快,有时表示不必要的快”,并且常有“忙乱仓促”的意思。例如:In her hurry she forgot to leave her address. 在匆忙中,她忘了留下地址。
haste 着重“想办法赶快”的意思,并常表示“匆忙的动作。有时动作过分仓促而不能得到预期的结果”。例如:All his haste was of no use. 他白忙了。/ Haste makes waste. 欲速则不达。
speed 指“人(物)快捷(速)的动作”。例如:It is dangerous to corner at speed. 高速转弯是危险的。
【考例】[2004湖南] When l there ____ I apologized for being late, and told him I'd come as quickly as I could,...
A. went    B. ran    C. walked    D. hurried
[考查目标] 考查几个与“走”有关的近义词的区别。
[答案与解析]D  从上下文看,当时,是”匆忙”的。
12. lie的用法
▲构词:liar n. 说谎者
▲搭配:
① lie down 躺下;磨洋工;停止战斗
② lie in 在于;位于
③ tell a lie = tell lies 撒谎
【考例】[2002北京] I would ____ very still so that the "enemy" would not discover me.
A. lay    B. hide     C. rest    D. lie
[考查目标]本题考查lie,lay等几个相近词的区别。
[答案与解析]D   lie是动词原形,意思是“躺”或“撒谎”。在本句中是“躺”的意思。
13. measure 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① make sth to sb's measure 按某人的尺寸制作某物
② take measures 采取措施  ③ beyond / above measure 无法估量地;无限的,极度地,非常,极为
【考例】[2004天津] I realized strength and courage aren't always ____ in medals and victories, but in the struggle we overcome.
A. measured    B. praised  C. tested    D. increased
[考查目标] 本题考查measure的意思。
[答案与解析]A  measure的基本词义是“衡量,量”。
14. press vt. & vi. 按,压,夹 n. 压力,印刷机,新闻界  Press this button to start the engine. 按下这个按钮启动发动机。/ My shoes presses my toe. 我的鞋挤脚趾。/ The power of the press is very great. 舆论的力量是巨大的。
[拓展] pressure n. 劳累,紧张;pressing adj. 紧迫的,恳切的
[短语] be pressed for time / money 缺时间/钱;press on 加紧赶路,奋力前进;in the press 正在印刷
15. reduce vt. & vi 减少,缩减,减化
reduce prices 降低价格
reduce air pollution 减少空气污染
reduce one's weight 减肥
reduce noise 减少噪音
[注意]reduce 作不及物动词时,仅作“减肥”讲。I must reduce to get into that dress. 我必须减肥才能穿上那条裙子。
[拓展]reduce...to 使……陷入不良状况;把……归纳成;把……降职为(to为介词) He was reduced to begging for food. 他沦落到讨饭的地步。
[短语]        order 使……恢复秩序;整理
reduce...to     silence使安静,使沉默下来
tears 使哭了起来
16. remind
(1) vt. 提醒
① remind sb. of / about sth. 提醒某人某物;提醒某人注意某事Be sure to remind her of the meeting she has to attend. 务必提醒她要参加那次会议。
② remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事Please remind me to post the letter. 请提醒我寄那封信。
③ remind sb. that-clause 提醒某人…… She reminded me that I hadn't written to mother. 她提醒了我,我还没给妈妈写信。
(2) vt. 使(人)想起,使记起
① remind sb. of sb. / sth. 使……想到某人或某物 He reminds me of his father. 看到他使我想起他的父亲。
② remind sb. that-clause 使人回忆起…… The sight of the clock reminded me that I was late. 看到钟使我想起我已经晚了。
【考例】[2000上海春招]what you said just now ____ me of that American professor.
A. mentioned B. informed  C. reminded D. memorized
[考查目标] remind基本用法。
[答案与解析]C  remind表示“提醒;让……想起”。
17. wonder v. 惊奇,惊叹,对……感到惊奇,想知道
[C] 奇迹,奇观奇事I wondered that he couldn't answer such an easy question. 他竟然回答不出这样简单的问题,真让我感到奇怪。/ I don't wonder at her refusing to marry him. 她拒绝嫁给他,对此我一点也不奇怪。/ It is really a wonder that he can recover from the SARS. 他能从非典型性肺炎中康复真是一个奇迹。
▲ 构词:wonderful adj. 令人惊奇的.奇妙的,极好的,令人愉快的
▲ 搭配:
① what a wonder! 多么令人惊异!真想不到!
② It is a wonder that... 奇怪的是……
③ (It's) no / little / small wonder (that…) 难怪…,…并不奇怪It's no wonder that you are so happy. 难怪你这么高兴。
④ do / perform / work wonders 创造奇迹,取得惊人成就
【考例】(2005湖北) He hasn't slept at all for three days. ____ he is tired out.
A. There is no point       B. There is no need
C. It is no wonder        D. It is no way
[考查目标] 考查 wonder 的词义。
[答案与解析]C   “他已经三天没有睡觉了,现在筋疲力尽也不足为奇。”根据句意,答案选C。 no wonder 表示“不足为奇的”;no point 表示“没有意义”;no need表示“没有……的必要”;no way 表示“决不”。
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(lie, remind, case, depend, add, measure, hurry)
1. The Smiths said they would take ____ to repair the windows by themselves.
2. There's plenty of time left; No ____.
3. The policemen rushed into the bedroom, only to find the couple ____ on the bed, dead.
4. -- Would you like to go swimming with Jack and Jim?
  -- That ____.
5. The heavy storm ____to our trouble in the long marching, besides we were too tired.
6. When I couldn't remember the exact words, my brother ____ me of them.
7. I know there's no need to take so much money with me, but still I want to bring some in ____.
短语归类
1. as 的短语
① as usual 像平常一样
② as if / as though 好像
③ as long as 长达……;只要
④ as soon as possible 尽可能早地,尽快
⑤ as well 也,又,同样地
⑥ as often as 每次.每当
⑦ as a / the result of 作为……的结果
⑧ as well as 也,还,和……一样好
⑨ as soon as 一……就…….和……一样快
⑩ as far as 和……一样远,就……,尽……
⑪ may /  might as well 不妨
⑫ as a result 结果,因此
[例句] As if unsure of where she was, she hesitated and looked around. 她仿佛茫然不知身在何处,犹犹豫豫向
四周张望。/ As long as it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go fishing. 只要明天不下雨,我们就去钓鱼。/ The flight was delayed as the result of fog. 因为有雾该 航班误点。/ She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. 她不但是摄影师还是个天才音乐家。/ His parents supported him as far as they could. 他父母竭尽全力抚养他。/ As often as I tried to phone him, the line was engaged. 每次我给他打电话都占线。
【考例】(2003北京) ____ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it.
    A. Even though  B. Unless C. As long as  D. While
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个单词或短语的意思及用法。
[答案与解析]C   even though / if 即使;unless 如果
不;as long as 只要;while 当……时候。本句话意思是
“只有我知道这些钱是安全的,我就不担心了”。
【考例】(2005湖南) The more I think about him, the more reasons I find for loving him ____ I did.
    A. as much as     B. as long as
    C. as soon as     D. as far as
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思及用法。
[答案与解析] A   A项as much as (和……一样多)符合题意:“我越想他就越发现有更多的理由让我像从前一样地爱他。”
2. at present 目前;presently 副词,相当于soon,意思是不久for the present 眼下,暂时 (= for the moment)At present, he is on holiday. 目前,他在度假。 / I will finish the work presently. 我就要完成这个工作。/ He is busy writing a book for the present. 他眼下正忙于写书。
  另外,be present at 到场,出席,反义词 be absent from  缺席;present 还作后置定语,意思是“到场的,在座  的”;present 用作名词“礼物,赠品”。All but one were present at the meeting last night. 除了一人外,大家都出席了昨天晚上的会议。Present at the meeting were the leading members of the departments concerned. 有关部门的负责人出席了会议。
11. come up with 提出,找到(答案);赶上
  He came up with a new suggestion.
  他提出一项新建议。
  Let's go slowly so that the others may come up with
  咱们慢慢走,好让其他人赶上来。
  [注意]come up 意为“被提出”,主语是物。
  Some practical suggestions came up at the meeting.
  会上提出了一些可行性建议。
3. die out绝种,灭种 Elephants would die out soon if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wish.如果允许人们随心所欲地射杀大象,那么它们不久就会灭绝。
  [拓展] die out 还可表示“熄灭;(风俗、习惯等)逐渐消失”。Many old customs are dying out. 许多古老的风俗正逐渐消失。
  [链接] die off 一个个死掉 (或枯死) / die away 渐消;平息 / die down 平息;变弱 / die for 急切想要 / die from 因……致死,死于(外因) / die of 死于(内因)
4. “in + 名词构成的短语
① in fact 事实上
② in case (of) 假使,以防,万一
③ in surprise 惊讶地,惊奇地,吃惊地
④ in general 一般,大体上
⑤ in total 总共
⑥ in all 总共
⑦ in future 从今以后
⑧ in particular 尤其,特别是
⑨ in trouble 处于困境
⑩ in time 及时,总有一天
⑪ in a hurry 匆忙地
⑫ in front of 在……前面
⑬in the open air 在户外,在野外
⑭ in front 前方,正对面
⑮ in the future 将来
⑯ in the end 最后
⑰ in the day 在白天
⑱ in danger 在危险中,垂危
⑲ in the wild 在自然环境中
⑳ in ruins 成为废墟,遭到严重破坏
⑳ in a word 总之
[例句] No one believed it, but in fact, Mary did win the prize. 没有人相信,但的确玛丽获奖了。/ Do you think we can get there in time for the first act? 你认为我们能赶上看第一幕吗? / When he was in trouble, he always turned to me for help. 他有困难时。总是向我求助。/ In common with many people, he prefers classical music to pop. 和许多人一样,他喜欢古典音乐胜过流行音乐。/ If you keep on doing so, you will regret in time. 如果你总是这样做,总有一天你会后悔的。/ In general, her work has been good, but his essay is dreadful. 总的说来,她的作品不错,不过他的文章糟透了。/ The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent. 整顿饭都很好,尤其是葡萄酒更好。/ In case he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait. 万一他在我回来前到达,请让他等我。
【考例】(NMET 2000) I don't think I'll need any money but I will bring some ____.
    A. at last    B. in case   C. once again   D. in time
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]B   at last 终于,最后;once again 再次;in time 及时,总有一天;in case 万一。本句话意思是“我认为我们不需要钱,但是为预防万一,我还是要带点”。
5. in case of 是介词短语,意为(有坏事的)情况下  “万一发生……”① In case of fire, phone the police.万一发生火灾,就给警察打电话。② The match will be put off in case of rain. 万一下雨,比赛就延期。
  [拓展] in case单独使用时,可用作状语,也可引起从  句,意为“以免,以防”。 ③ Take a taxi in case you are late for the meeting. 坐出租车吧,以防开会迟到。 ④ I'll keep some of these unused in case. 这些不用的东西我要留一些,以防万一。
  [注意]in case 引起的从句表示条件,所以从句中不用将来时态,但可用should,might。⑤ Take your raincoat in case it should rain.带上雨衣以防下雨。
  [相关短语] in no case 决不(置于句首,句子用倒装) / in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 / in that case 如果那样    ⑥ In no case should you give up. 你绝不应该放弃。/ ⑦ In any case, do it better. 无论如何,要尽力而为。/ ⑧ In that case he would have telephoned the restaurant. 那样的话他本来会给餐馆打电话的。
 [提示]case可表达多种意义:⑨ That isn't the case with Peter. 彼得的情况并不如此。(情况,情形) ⑩ The worst cases have been sent to hospital.情况最严重的患者已被送往医院。(患者,病人) ⑪ The case will be tried in the court next week. 下周要审这个案子。(案情,案例)
6. in danger在危险中
  [短语]in danger of有……的危险
  out of danger 脱离危险
  full of danger 充满危险的
  a danger to society 社会的危险人物/事物
  [拓展]dangerous 危险的,指给别人造成危险
  The boy is seriously iIl and his life is in danger.那个男孩病得很重,生命垂危。He has been very ill. The doctor says that he is now out of danger.他一直病得很厉害,医生说他现在已脱离了危险。
7. make a difference 造成差别,有影响
  make a big difference = make much difference 造成很大差别
  make no / little difference 没有差别
  make some / any difference 有些差别
  Who will win makes no difference to me.谁将获胜对于我来说没什么两样。= It makes no difference to me who ,will win. / Does it make any difference whether he will come? 他来不来会有差别吗?
8. stay in touch with = keep in touch with ……保持联系(状态) The salesman stays / keeps in touch with the office by phone. 推销员通过电话与办公室保持联系。
  [短语]be in touch with 和…有联系(状态);get in touch with 和…取得联系(动作) ;lose touch with 和…失去联系(动作);be out of touch with 和…失去联系(状态)
9. take measures
  (1) measure ① 名词“措施,办法”,take measures to do something 采取措施做某事;②名词“最度,尺寸” make clothes to one's own measure 根据某人的尺寸做衣服;名词“计量单位”。We must take necessary measures to solve these problems one by one.我们必须采取必要的措施逐个解决这些问题。/ I went to the tailor's to make a suit to my own measure last week. 上周我去裁缝店量体做一套衣服。/ A meter is a measure of length. 米是长度单位。
  (2) measure 既可以用作及物动词也可以用作不及物动词,意思是“量,测量”。 My mother is measuring me for clothes. 我妈妈在给我量尺寸做衣服。/ It measures easily if spread on the table. 要是把它铺在桌子上,量起来可更容易些。
 [注意]表示“采取措施做某事”还可以用do something / things to do something。We must do something to prevent SARS. 我们必须采取措施预防非典型性肺炎。/Have you done anything to deal with that problem? 你采取措施解决那个问题了吗?
10. 含介词 to 的短语
(1) according to 根据……所说
(2) adapt to 适应
(3) come to oneself 苏醒,恢复知觉
(4) devote...to 献身于……,专心于……
(5) get to 到达
(6) give birth to 生(孩子)
(7) lead to 通向,导致
(8) listen to 听
(9) make one's way to... 往……走
(10) make a contribution to 贡献给,捐赠
(11) on one's way to 在……途中
(12) owe...to...把……归功于……
(13) point to 指向……
(14) prefer...to... 喜欢……胜似……;宁愿干……而不愿
  千……
(15) to one's surprise 令(某人)惊讶
(16) say goodbye to 告别,告辞
(17) thanks to 由于,多亏
(18) get down to 着手
(19) belong to 属于
(20) pay attention to 注意
(21) stick to 坚持
(22) object to 反对
(23) be opposed to 反对
(24) refer to 参阅,涉及
[例句]Everyone should make a contribution to a charity collection. 每个人都应该给慈善事业捐赠。/ At first I couldn't see anything when l stepped out of the room,but my eyes adapted to the dark bit by bit. 我刚走出房间时,起初什么也看不到,但是慢慢地我的眼睛适应了漆黑的环境。/ Thanks to the arrival of the police, the murderer was caught. 由于警察的赶到凶手才被捉住。/ We owe our great achievements to the correct leadership of the Party. 我们把取得的伟大成就归功于党的正确领导。/ After I graduated from university, l continued to devote myself to research. 我大学毕业后继续进行研究。/ Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness. 劳动量大且休息得很少经常导致疾病。
【考例】(2004湖北) Once a decision has been made, all of us should ____ it.
    A. direct to    B. stick to   C. lead to   D. refer to
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]B  direct to 指引,指导;stick to 坚持;lead to 通向,导致;refer to 提到,谈到,参考。本句话意思是“一旦做出决定,就应该坚持”。
【考例】(2005浙江) The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ____ his notes.
    A. bringing up    B. referring to
    C. looking for    D. trying on
[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思及用法。
[答案与解析]B  refer to 意为“参照,提到”;bring up意为“抚养,养育”;look for 意为“寻找”;try on 意为“试穿”。题意“主席在商务会议上做了将近一小时的发言没有看稿。”
[牛刀小试2]
句子改错,每句仅一处错误。
1. In generally, most teenagers now listen to rock music. However, Jonah prefers classical music.
2. I suppose Robert is fit the job in case he can put his mind to it.
3. Eat too much fat can lead to heart disease and cause high blood pressure.
4. He has devoted his whole life to benefit mankind.
5. Tom's interests include basketball, bowling, and surfing the Web as good as studying his favorable subjects.
词语比较
1. spend, cost, take, pay, pay for
  (1) spend的主语必须是“人”,宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等,其后用on+名词或用in(可省略) + 动名词形式,不接不定式。He spends much money on books. 他平时将很多钱用在买书上。/ He spent a lot of money (in) buying a new car. 他花很多钱买一辆新车。
  (2) cost的主语必须是“物”或“事”,表示“费用”、“耗费”,后接life,money,health,time等,侧重于“花费”的代价。The book cost him one dollar. 这本书用了他一美元。/ Making experiments like this costs much time and labor. 做这样的实验要花很多时间和劳力。
  [注意]cost后不能与具体的时间长度连用,只能与表示抽象概念的时间短语连用。如:some time, much time, ten years of hard work 等。可说It cost him ten years of work. 不可说It cost him ten years to work.
(3) take 表示“花费”时,其主语一般是“一件事”,有时主语也可以是人,它说明事情完成“花费了……”。 It took me ten minutes to go to the post office.到邮局用去了我十分钟时间。/ The producer took two years to make the film.  制片商用了两年时间拍这部新影片。
  [说明] take...to do sth. 句型侧重完成该动作花费的时间,而spend...doing sth. 有时并不说明动作的完成。It took him an hour to read the book.他用一小时读完了这本书。/ He spent an hour (in) reading the book.他用了一小时读这本书。(是否读完并未说明)
  (4) pay 的基本意思是“支付”,作为及物动词,宾语可  以是“人”、“钱”。He paid the taxi and hurried to the station.  他付了出租车的钱,急忙向车站赶去。We'll pay you in a few days. 几天后我们会给你钱。
  (5) pay for的宾语为“物”、“事”,for 表示支付的原因。  You'll have to pay me ten dollars a week for your meals.你得每周付给我十美元饭钱。
  [注意]
(1)下面两句中pay for的意义不同。Of course we have to pay for what we buy.当然我们买东西得付钱。Don't worry about money. I'll pay for you. 别担心钱,我会替你付的。
  (2) pay the bill 付账;pay taxes 纳税;pay wages 发工资
  以上pay后不能加for
2. agree with, agree to, agree on
  (1) ① agree with 的意思是“同意”,“赞成”。后面常接表示人或意见(看法)的名词或代词作宾语。Does she agree with us? 她同意我们的意见吗?
  ② agree with 还有“与……一致”,“(气候、食物等)适  合”的意思。His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。Too much meat doesn't agree with her.吃太多肉食对她身体不合适。
  [注意]agree with不能用于被动语态。
  (2) agree to 意为“同意”,“赞成”,后面跟表示“提议”,“办法”,“计划”,“安排”等的名词或代词。Please agree to this arrangement.请同意这个安排。
  (3) agree on 表示“对……取得一致意见”,指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或是达成了某种协议。After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire. 经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。
3. common, ordinary, usual, normal
  (1) ① common“常见的,普遍的”(即“司空见惯的”意思) common names 常见的名字;common mistakes 常犯的错误;common sense 常识;common event 普通(平凡)的事件;common use 普遍用法
  ② common 还有“共同的”意思。common interest 共同的兴趣;common language 共同语言;common market共同市场;common purpose 共同目标
  [短语]have much / a lot in common 有很多共同之处have nothing / little in common 没有共同之处
  (2) ordinary 普通的,平凡的(强调“平淡无奇”) an ordinary worker 一个普通工人;ordinary-looking 相貌平常的
  (3) usual 通常的,惯常的(强调“遵循常例”) It is a usual thing with him. 这件事他习以为常。
  [短语]as usual像往常一样;it is usual for sb. to do sth.
  (4) normal 正常的,正规的 (即“合乎标准”) normal temperature 正常体温;normal state 正常状态
  [短语]above / below normal 标准以上(以下),return to normal 恢复正常
4. in away, in the way, by the way, by way of
  (1) in a way 意为“在某种程度上”,相当于in one
  way, in some way。
  The reforms are an improvement in a way.
  这些变革从某种意义上说是一种进步。
  (2) in the way 挡路
  A big stone is in the way. Move it away, please.
  一块大石头挡在路上,请把它搬开。
  (3) by the way 顺便问一下,在途中
  They stopped for a rest by the way.
  他们途中停下来休息一下。
  By the way, could you show me the way to the
  station?
  顺便问一下,你能指给我去车站的路吗?
  (4) by way of 途经,路经(某处);作为,当作
  He is travelling to Shenzhen by way of Beijng.
  他经北京去深圳。
  Let's go to the restaurant for supper by way of a
  change.
  我们今天去饭店吃晚饭,换一下rJ味。
5. first of all,above all,first,at first
  (1)first of all“首先,第一”,指按照时问顺序处于第
  一位的。(强调顺序)
  First of all, we must check the number.
  首先,我们要核对一下数目。
  First of all, let me say how glad I am to be here.
  首先我要说,米到这里我是多么高兴。,
  (2) above all“首先,最重要的足”,相当于most
  important of all。(强调重要性)
  We must work hard, and above all we must believe
  that each of us is able to do something well.
  我们必须努力工作,尤其重要的是我们必须相信,我
  们每个人都能做好一些事情。
  (3) first“首先”,是从动作的先后角度来考虑的。
  Beforewe go, I must first change my clothes.
  在走之前我得先换衣服。
  (4) at first“起初”,相当于at the beginning,含有后来
  不这样了的意思。
  At first I didn't like her, but now I do.
  起初我不喜欢她,但现在我喜欢了。
6. hurt,harm,wound,injure
  (I)hurt “伤害,受伤”,主要用于有生命的东西,多指
  肉体方面的伤害,常伴有痛感。作借喻时常指对精
  神或感情方碰的伤害。hurt作不及物动词时表示
  “疼痛”。
  He fell off the bike and hurt his arm.
  他从自行车上跌下来伤了手臂。
  (2) harm “损害,伤害”,指使有生命或无生命的东西
  不再完整、美丽,或像原来那样有价值。
  She's afraid that in their fight he would harm the
  child.
  她怕他们在打架时他会伤到孩子。
  (3) wound “受害,受伤”,指受袭击或暴力时所受的
  伤,如刀伤,枪伤,也可以借喻为精神或感情上的创
  伤。
  The bullet wounded him in the leg.
  子弹打伤了他的腿。
  He felt wounded in his honor.
  他觉得他的荣誉受到了伤害。
  (4) injure2伤害,损害”,意义较广,着承指偶然事故
  对人或物的容貌、内部器官、生理机能的“损害”。
  John fell down from the tree and injured his back.
  约翰从树上摔下来把背部摔伤lr。
  I hope I didn’t injure her feelings.
  我希望没有伤害她的感情。
【句型归纳】
【考点1】Wang Mei is one of many Chinese teenagers who
live life "on the go" and use cellphones. 跟许多中国青少
年一样,王梅使用手机享受着“移动人生”。
例如:This is one of the exciting matches that I have ev—
er seen.
注意: “one of+名词单数”作主语,谓语动词用复数;
“the (only / very) one of + the + 名词复数”作主语,谓
语动词用单数。
【考例1】(2002上海) He is the only one of the students
who ____ a wumer of scholarship for three years.
    A. is    B. are
    C. have been    D. has been
[考查目标] 主谓一致。
[答案与解析]D  根据以上解释,排除B、C两项;根据
for three years,排除A项。
【考点2】Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer,
since we can call for help in case of an emergency. 有了
手机,我们会感到更安全,因为遇到紧急情况,我们可
以随时求救。
该句中in case引导状语从句。例如:
Take an umbrella with you in case it rains. 带上雨伞,以
防下雨。
in case 表示“一旦;万一;以防”,后接从句;in case of后
接名词;而 in case 后接从句,该句在特定的语境中可以
省略。例如:
Take an umbrella with you in case of rain. 带上雨伞,
以防下雨。
【考例2】(2000京、皖春招)John may phone tonight, I
don't want to go out ____ he phones.
    A. as long as    B. in order that
    C. in case    D. so that
[考查目标] 状语从句的连接词。
[答案与解析]C  B项引导状语从句,表示目的;D项
引导状语从句。可以表示目的也可以表示结果;A项引
导状语从句,意思是“只要……就……”;C项in case表
示“以防,万一”与上下文吻合。
【考点3】The answer seems to be that we have a need to
stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we
are or what we are doing. 答案似乎是:无论我们在何处
或正在干什么,我们都需要与朋友、家人一直保持联
系。
该句中的“no matter + 疑问词”引导让步状语从句。例如:
No matter how clever you are。you must work hard.
引导让步状语从句的"no matter + 疑问词”常常可以与
“疑问词 + ever"互换。课文中的句子可以换成“Wher—
ever we are or whatever we are doing.”例如:
Wherever he went, he received a warm welcome. 无论
他走到哪儿,都受到热烈欢迎。
【考例3】(2004湖北) You should try to get a good
night's sleep ____ much work you have to do.
      A. however            15. no matter
      C. although            D. whatever
[考查目标]让步状语从句的连接词。
[答案与解析]A  根据句子意思“不管你有多少工作要
做。也得好好睡一晚上觉”。
【考点4】...and do everything Q12 tells them to. 惟Q12
的命令是从。
该句中to为动词不定式省略。例如:
Her parents hoped she would study chemistry, but she
didn't want to.
动词不定式作宾语或宾语补足语,如果是第二次出现,
为了避免重复使用.常常省略动词,保留to。例如:
-- Would you love to see the filnl with me tonight?
-- I'd like to, but I have to do my homework.
【考例4】(2000上海)
-- You should have thanked her before you left.
-- I meant ____, but when I was leaving I couldn't
   find her anywhere.
      A. to do             B. to
      C. doing              D. doing it
[考查目标] 动词不定式省略。
[答案与解析]B  mean作为“打算”讲,后接动词不定
式,排除C、D两项;再依据以上解释,排除A项。
    ☆句型诠释☆
1. The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in
  touch with friends and family no matter where we are
  or what we ale doing.
  答案似乎是,无论我们身在何处或者正在做什么,我
  们都需要跟家人和朋友保持联系。
  no matter的用法
  no matter是连词词组,作“无论,不管”解,常用于引
  导表示让步的状语从句,常用于下列句型中:
  ① No matter whal (who, when, how, where 等)... +
  句子。(= whatever, whoever, whenever... + 句子)
  No matter how proud he was, he was afraid to face
  me.
  无沦他多么傲慢,他还是怕面对我。
  No matter whether you have time or not, you must go
  there.
  无沦是否有时间,你都得去那儿。
  ② 在“no matter + 特殊疑问词”引导的让步状讲从句
  中,要用一般式表示将来发生的动作。
  No matter bow hard he works, he will never caleb up
  with her.
  无论他如何努力工作,他从没赶上她。
  ③ “No matter + 特殊疑问词”结构引导的从句,可以
  放在主句之前,也可以放在主句之后。
  Don't open the door, no matter who knocks it.
  (= No matter who knocks the door, don't open it)
  不管是淮敲门,都小要开门。
  No matter whose box it it, it will be kept until the
  owner returns. (= It will be kept until the owner
  returns, no matter whose box it is.)
  无论是谁的箱子,都得保存到物主回米。
2. The cellphone helps her do whatever she wants to do.
  手机帮助她做她想要做的事。
  (1) whatever 引导名词性从句,在句中作主语、宾语、
  表语等。
  Whatever he did was right.
  凡是他做的都是正确的。
  I'll send whatever is needed.
  需要什么我就送什么。
  【比较】whatever 和 what 引导名词性从句的区别。
   whatever 相当于 anything that,语气很强,侧重泛指。
   what 相当于 all that,everything that, the thing(s)
  that, 侧重特指。
  What he said was right.
  他说的话是正确的。
  (2) whatever 等于 no matter what 引导让步状语从
  句,意为“不管……”。
  Whatever Wilson says, I'll post the letter.
  = No matter what Wilson savs, I'll post the letter.
  不管威尔逊说什么,我都要寄走那封信。
  [链接]
   however = no matter how 无论怎样
   whenever = no matter when 无论何时
   whoever ① = no matter who 无论准
           ② 引导名词性从句,等于anyone who
3. We human beings could not survive without all the
    plants and animals around us.
    如果没有周围这些动物和植物,我们人类就不会生
    存下来。
    句中,cannot…without足双重否定表示肯定。
    You cannot learn Chinese well without making great
    effort.
    只有努力,你才能学好汉语。
    One cannot make bricks without straw.
    巧妇难为无米之炊。
    There will be no rain without wind.
    没有风哪有雨。
4. We may be able to take measures before it is too late.
  现在采取措施也许为时不晚。
  从属连词 before 最基本的含义足“在……之前”,但
  在具体的句子中,译法多种多样,如“……才……”
  “……就……”“没等……就”等等。
  He measured me before I could get in a word.
  没等我插上一句话他就给我量好了尺寸。
  I waited a long time before he came.
  我等了很久他才来。
5. Steve Jones tries to keep animals and plants from
  becoming endangered.
  斯蒂夫·琼斯致力于保护动植物免遭濒危。
  keep…from doing sth.“阻止……做某事”
  Please keeD the children from swimming in the sea.
  请别让孩子们到海里游泳。
  [联想] stop / prevent...from...为keep...from...
  的同义词组,但前者的from可以省去,而后者中的
  from却不可省(如若省去from,则成为keep sb.
  doing sth. “使某人一直做某事”)。
  Nothing can prevent her (from) doing so.
  什么也不能阻止她这样做。
  [注意]在被动语态中。三个短语中的from皆不可
  以省去。
  [提醒] 若表示“阻止做某事”,sth. 作动词的宾语,
  则 from 后应跟动名词的被动语态,即“阻止某事被
  做”。
    Nothing can stop the plan from being earried out.
什么也不能阻止这项计划的实施。
[牛刀小试3]    .
1. -- You haven't lost the ticket, have you?
   -- _____. I know it's not easy to get another one
      at the moment. (2004 江苏)
      A. I hope not          B. Yes, I have
      C. I hope so           D. Yes, I'm afraid so
2. She is one of the new girls who ____ in the kin-
   dergarten. (1994 上海)
      A. is well paid         B. are well paid
      C. is paying well      D. are paying well
3, You can eat food free in my restaurant ____ you
   like. (2004 重庆)
      A. whenever           B. wherever
      C. whatever           D. however
4. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but
   his mother told him ____. (NMET 1995)
      A. not to             B. not to do
      C. not to it            D, do not to
【交际速成】
【考点1】Expressing agreement and disagreement 同意与
不同意
(2000北京春招)
-- I beliece we've met somewhere before.
-- No, ____.
    A. it isn't the same  B. it can't be true
    C. I don't think so    D. I'd rather not
[答案与解析]C  本题主要考查同意与不同意的功能
用语。A、B、D三项均不合语境,C项是表示不同看法
的用语。
【归纳】表达同意与不同意的常见功能用语有:
① Sure / Certainly.
② Of course.
③ AIl right.
④ I agree.
⑤ No problem.
⑥ That's a good idea.
⑦ Yes, I think so.
⑧ No way. (不可能)
⑨ Of course not.
⑩ I don't agree.
⑧ I don't think so.
⑩ I'm afraid not.
另外还有:
① Absolutely.
② That's exactly what I was thinking.
③ That's a good point.
④ That's just how I see it.
⑤ That's worth thinking about.
⑥ You can't be serious.
⑦ Well, it depends.
⑧ I would have to disagree with that.
⑨ Well, I'm not so sure about that.
【考点2】Asking if somebody agree 询问某人是否同意
(2001上海) I don't suppose anyone will volunteer, ____?
    A. dO I    B. don't I
    C. will they    D. won't they
[答案与解析]C  本题看似考查反意问句,实际上运用
了询问某人是否同意的功能句式。这是一个否定转移
句式。当句子主语为第一人称,谓语动词使用think,
believe,suppose,expect,imagine等时。反意疑问句部
分的主语和谓语动词均与宾语从句的主语和谓语保持
一致。
【归纳】询问某人是否同意的常见用语有:
① Don't you agree?
②(~)Don't you think she is a bright student?
③(~)Don't you think so?
④(~He's quite old, isn't he?
⑤~)Right?
⑥~Yeah?
⑦(~OK?
⑧(8-)Do you agree with me?
⑨(9_)1 wonder if you would agree with argument?
【考点3】Talking about causes and effects谈论原因和结
--How is it that you are late for school again?
      A. By bus and then on foot
      B. Because I missed the bus
      C. It's quite all right
      D. It's far from school
[答案与解析]B  本题主要考查表达原因和结果的用
语。题干中How is it that... 意为“是什么使得(某事发
生的)?”.故A、C、D三项均不能用于回答所提问题,只
有B项符合语境。
【归纳】表达原因和结果的用语有:
 ① Why...?
 ② Because of..., I...
 ③ As a result of...
 ④ Because / As / Since...
 ⑤ If..., then...
 ⑥ It follows that...
 ⑦ It will lead to...
[牛刀小试4]
1. -- I'm sorry I can't go with you.
   -- ____? Haven't you agreed?
      A. How is it
      B. What is it
      C. Why don't you
      D. What do you think
2.-- Do you happen to have twenty dollars with you?
    -- ____?
   -- I want to buy a dictionary.
      A. How do you want it
      B. How much
      C. What for
      D. When can you pay me hack
3. -- I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to
         her.
   --  ____. It was her fault.
      A. No way           B. Not possible
      C. No chance         D. Not at all
4.-- Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
    -- ____.
      A. I don't believe     B. I don't believe it
      C. I believe not so     D. I believe not
5. -- Go for a picnic this weekend, OK?
   -- ____. I love getting close to nature.
      A. I couldn't agree more
      B. I'm afraid not
      C. I believe not
      D. I don't think so
    ☆精典题例☆
(    )1. He tried his best to solve the problem, ____
    difficult it was. (2005 天津)
    A. however    B. no matter
    C. whatever    D. although
    【解析】选A however = no matter how引导让步状语
从句。
(  )2. -- Brad was Jane's brother!
    -- ____ he remlnded me∞mHch()f Jane!
    (2004 浙江)
    A. No doubt    B. Above all
    C. Nowonder    D. Of course
    【解析l选C   no wonder“难怪”,因为Brad是Jane的
兄弟,他经常提到Jane就没什么奇怪的了。
(  )3. -- How long are you staying?
  -- I don't know ____. (2004 江苏)
  A. That's OK    B. Never mind
  C. It dedends    D. It doesn't matter
    【解析】选C   根据上文I don't know.,可确定要选
C,表示要随情况而定。
(    )4. -- It's cloudy outside. Please takc an ubrella.
  -- ____.  (2005湖南)
  A. Yes, take it easy
  B. Well, it just depends
  C. OK, just in case
  D. All right, you're welcome
    【解析】选C   just in case = in case it rains 带把雨伞以
防下雨。
(    )5. The American Civil War lasted four years ____
    the North won in the end. (2005 广东)
    A. after    B. when
    C. before    D. then
    【解析】选C before“过了(四年)才……”。:
(    )6. I wonder how he ____ that to the teacher.
    A. dared to say    B.dare~ying
    C. dares say    D. dared say
    【解析】选A   dared在此是情态动词的过去式。
(  )7. The poor young man is ready to accept ____
    help he can get. (2005 全国)
    A. whichever    B. however
    C. whatever    D. whenever
    【解析】选C   whatever引导的宾语从句。whatever
help = any help that...。
(  )8. -- The cars give off a great deal of waste gas into
    streets.
    -- Yes. But I'm sure something will be done to
    -- ____ air pollution.
A. reduce              B. remove
C. collect             D. warn
【解析】选A  reduce pollution 减少污染。
9. Although the working mother is very busy, she
   still ____ a lot of time to her children. (NMET
   2000)
   A. devotes             B. spends
   C. offers              D. provides
【解析】选A   devote...to为固定搭配。
10. -- Dad, I've finished my assignment.
   -- Good, and ____ you play or watch TV, you
   mustn't disturb me. ( 2003 上海)
A. whenever           B. whether
C. whatever           D. no matter
【解析】选B  whether...or...引导让步状语从句;=
no matter whether ... or
(     ) 11. The chairman thought ____ necessary to invite
            Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. (2005 全国)
A. that             B. it
C. this                D. him
【解析】选B   it作形式宾语,代替不定式。
  依赖、依靠、由于、因为”等意思。它引导的短语,可
  以表达正面意思(近于原意“感谢”),也可用于讽刺
  口吻中(近于讽刺口吻的“感谢”。)它引导的短语在
  句中用作状语时,大多放在句首,但也可以置于句
  末。
  Thanks to your help, passed the test.
  幸亏有你的帮助,我测验及格了。(正面意思)
4. power, strength, force
  这三个名词都有“力”的意思,但使用范围不完全相
  同。power“力”,含义最广,指政治力量或能力;
  strength 指某人或某物所具有的内在力量,可指体
  力、力气;force 也可指物质或精神力量。多指为做成
  某事而使用的力量,也可指武力。
  Knowledge is power.
  知识就是力量。
  The boy gathered his strength to get up.
  那个男孩聚集力量站了起来。
  It took him great force to lift the big stone.
  举起那块大石头花费他很大的力气。
5. real, true
  (1) real表示“真的”、“真实的”,“名符其实的”,指的
  是事实上(客观上)存在而不是想像的。
  Is this real gold?
  这是真金吗?
  I'm learning to skate on real ice.
  我在真正的冰上学滑冰。
  (2) true意为“真的、真正的”,表示的是和事实及实
  际情况相符合。
  It is quite true.
  这是真实的。
  He is true to his name.
  他名不虚传。
  [注意] ① true 还可作“忠实的”解。试比较:
  true friend (comrade,friendship) 忠实的朋友(同志,友
  谊)
  real friend (comrade,friendship)真正的朋友(同志,友
  谊)
  ② 在词组come true (实现) 和 be true 中,不能用real
  来代替true。
6. such…as…,such as,such…that…
  (1) such...as...作“像……那样的”,“如……之类
  的”解。such后面可跟可数名词,也可跟不可数名
  词。名词前还可加其它形容词修饰。as是关系代
  词,引导定语从句,as常在从句中作主语、宾语、表语
  等。如:
  I want t0 buy such books as are about science and
  technology.
  我想买科技方面的书。(as在从句中作主语。)
  Don't read such books as you can't understand.
  不要读你看不懂的书。(as在从句中作宾语。)
  Such books as this are too difficult to beginners.
  这样的书对于初学者来说是太难r。(as引导一个
  省略的从句“as this(is)”,as在从句中作表语)
  (2)such as 是短语连词,意为“诸如”,“例如”,引出的
  是such前面的词的同位语。如:
  John likes to make furniture,such as chairs and tables.
  约翰喜欢做家具,如桌子和椅子之类。
  (3) such…that…作“如此……以致……”解。that
  是连词,引导结果状语从句。
  The teacher asked such a difficult question that no one
  could answer it. (结果状语从句)
  老师问了一个如此难的问题以致没人能够回答。
  [比较]
  The teacher asked such a difficult question as no one
  could answer. (定语从句)
  老师问了一个没人能够答得上来的难题。(as在从
  句中作宾语)
    ☆句型诠释☆
1. Where do you think the music comes from?
  你觉得这种音乐来自何处?
  (1)此句子是由一个一般疑问句和一个特殊疑问句
  混合而成,故称为混合疑问句。常用于这种结构的
  动词有think, believe, guess, suggest, suppose,
  hope, say, imagine等,此类句型常用来征询对方对
  某事的看法、判断、意见、认识、猜测等,或者请求埘
  方重述一遍。
  What do you think Inade Mary so upset?
  你认为是什么使玛丽如此不安?
  Who do you suppose would believe that story?
  你认为谁会相信那个故事?
  How high do you,say this mountain is?
  你说这山有多高?
  [注意]此句型中一类的插入语还可以放在句尾,有
  时还可以插入句中,用逗号隔开,在用法上基本相
  同。
  When do you think he will be back from abroad? (=
  When will he be back from abroad, do you think?)
  你认为他什么时候会从国外回来?
  Which way, do you imagine, he went?
  你能想出他走哪条路了吗?
  (2) 这种混合疑问句以know, tell, ask, hear等作谓
  语动词时,其后带一般疑问句的结构,以及答语不
  同,后者可以用Yes...,No...来回答,而前者则不
  行,请看下面的句子:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 6 SBI  Units 11 - 12
重点句型
1. What do you think the music comes from?
  do you think 作插入语
2. You want to find a good sang to dance to.
  不定式作后置定语
3. If only they could find a way to get to the room.
  If only 的用法
4. He was just about to say something when Peter turned around.  when 的用法
5. What do you have in mind?  表示“心里想着某事”
6. The next time you look for a tape, don't just look for Chinese or American music.   名词引导时间状语从句
7. It looked as if the creature had moved.    as if 的用法
重点词汇
1. traditional adj. 传统的
2. instrument n. 工具,器械
3. perform vt. / vi. 表演,执行
4. characteristic n. 特点
5. contain vt. 包含
6. intelligence n. 智力
7. spread vt. / vi. 传播,伸展
8. variety n. 多样性,种类
9. universal adj.通用的,世界的
10. record vt. / vi. / n. 记录,录音,唱片
11. satisfy vt. 满足
12. desire n. / vt. 心愿,期望
13. emotion n. 情感
14. musician n. 音乐家
15. express vt. 表达
16. literature n. 文学,文艺
17. comedy n. 喜剧
18. power n. 能力,力量
19. habit n. 习惯
20. whisper v. / vt./ vi. 耳语,低声说
21. treat v. / n. 对待,请客
22. entertain v. 使人快乐
重点短语
1. have much in common 有很多共同之处
2. turn...into... 把……变成
3. a series of 一连串的,一系列的
4. in trouble 在困境中
5. turn around 转过身
6. believe in 信任,信仰
7. come across 偶然遇到
8. take turns 轮流
9. on the other hand 在另一方面
10. make a decision做决定
11. make fun of 取笑
12. think well of 高度评价
13. be similar to与……相似
14. compare...with...把……和……比较
15. make suggestions 提出建议
16. the latest style 最新的式样
17. make money 赚钱
18. dance to 和着……的节奏跳舞
19. be satisfied with 对……感到满意
20. pick up 捡起,接收
21. make a record 制作唱片
22. play a trick on sb. 捉弄某人
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词5分,80分才
能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
1. ____ common 共同(的);共有(的)
2. turn...____ 把……变成
3. a ____ of 一连串的;一系列;一套
4. ____ trouble 处于困境中;有麻烦
5. come ____ 偶然遇见,碰上
6. believe ____ 信任;信仰;支持,赞成
7. turn ____ 转过身;转过来
8. ____ a decision 作决定
9. ____ easy 感到舒心
10. ____ instruments 演奏乐器
11. ____ one's inner desire 满足内心的欲望
12. ____ an arts festival 举办艺术节
13. ____ the same goals 有共同的目标
14. get ____ 到达;做完;通过;度过;打通
15. ____ sb badly 虐待某人
16. ____... with / to 和……作比较
17. ____ magic tricks 看魔术
18. have... ____ mind想到;想着
19. dance ____ music / a song / a tune 按音乐/歌曲/曲调的节拍跳舞
20. a world ____ 无数……,大量……,许多……
交际用语
 1. Why not have another try?
2. What/How about going out for a swim this Sunday afte- rnoon?
3. In my opinion, you should [ had better wait another ten minute.
4. Maybe it would be better to ...
5. That's a good idea.
6. I'd love to, but ...
7. What can you suggest?
8. Nothing can stop me from ...
9. Well, that's settled.
10. Personally, I believe ...
词汇短语
【考点2】common 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① the commons 普通人.老百姓
② out of (the) common 不寻常的,特殊的
③ have nothing in common (with) (与……)没有共同
  之处
【考例2】[2004辽宁] In the early days of the American.
West, gun fights were not ____ for the water re—
sources, and laws...
    A. unlawful    B. unacceptable
    C. unpopular    D. uncommon
[考查目标]本题考查 common 等派生词的用法和词义。
[答案与解析]D  uncommon 的意思是“不寻常的,不常
见的”’而 unlawful 的意思是“不违法的”;unacceptable
“不接受的”;unpopular “不受欢迎的”“不普遍的”。
15. compare v. 比较,比作
  [拓展] comparison n. 比较
  [词组] compare...with 把……和……相比较
  Compare this with that, and you'll see which is better.
  把这个同那个比较一下,你就会知道哪一个更好了。
  [链接]compare...to...把……比作……
  Life is often compared to a stage.
  人生经常被比作舞台。
  He compared young people to the rising sun.
  他把年轻人比作正在升起的太阳。
  compared to / with...(与……相比)用于句首或句未
  作状语
  Compared to / with many others, you're really a lucky
  dog.
  与许多其他的人相比,你确实足个幸运儿。
【考点9】contain 的用法
▲ 构词:container n. 容器(箱、盆、罐、壶、桶、坛子),集
装箱
▲ 搭配:
① be contained between / within 含于……间,(夹)在
  ……之间
② contain oneself 自制
▲ 辨析:contain;include;hold 都含“包含”、“容纳”的
意思。
contain 着重“其中确实包含有,侧重全部”;而include
强调部分内容或范围。例如:
The bottle contains water. 这个瓶子里有水。
Three students went there, including my English teach—
er.
hold 指“能容纳”。例如:
The house holds 20 people. 这房子能住下20人。
【考例9】[2005太原模拟] They also ____ the very
worst parts of a society: violent crime, racial discrimi—
nation and poverty.
    A. maintain    B. obtain
    C. contain    D. sustain
[考查目标] 本题考查contain的意思。
[答案与解析] C  contain的常见意思是“包含”。
6. desire vt. 希望得到,[U]渴望,[C]一种强烈的欲望
  We all desire happiness and health.
  我们都希望得到幸福和健康。
  I have long desired to meet you.
  我一直渴望见到你们。
  The people expressed their desire that the war (should)
  come to an end soon.
  人们渴望战争早日结束。
  Your parents always try their best to satisfy aIl your
  desires.
  你父母总是尽力满足你所有的愿望。
  [词组] have desire for sth. 渴望得到……
  sarisfy one's desires 满足某人的欲望/愿望
  desire for sth. 渴望得到……
  desire to do sth. 渴望做……
  desire sb. to do sth. 渴望某人做……
【考点5】discover的用法
▲构词:
① discoverer n. 发现者
② discovery n. 发现.发明的东西
▲辨析:discover;disclose
    两者比较一般的含义是“揭示出来”。
discover是通用词,在表示“发现”的时候,它的内涵是
被探索或被揭示物早就客观存在。例如:
Despite her great age, she was very graceful indeed,
but so far, the archaeologists have been unable to dis—
cover her identity. 尽管她的年代离现在已经很久远了,
但是她的确很有风姿,然而至今考古学家尚不能探明
她是那尊女神。
disclose 表示把未宣布的事情“透露”出来。例如:
She disclosed that she had been married for a month.
她透露自己已经结婚一个月了。
【考例5】[2004北京] I continued playing football at
school and ____ my love for it I joined a private
team coached by my school coach.
    A. reconsidered    B. rediscovered
    C. reformed    D. replaced
[考查目标] 本题考查discover派生词的意思。
[答案与解析] B  rediscover的意思是“重现,再现”。
【考点7】offer的用法
▲ 搭配:
① offer sb. sth / sth. to sb 向某人提供/提出……
②offer (sb) some money for sth (向某人)出价……购
  买……
③ offer to do sth 主动提出干某事
▲辨析:offer,present这两个动词比较一般的含义为
“给”。
offer在现代英语中大致有三层意思:
(1) 把某物拿出来给对方,对方可能接受,也可能拒绝。
(2) 提出某事让对方考虑。
(3) 给某人某物,基本上相当于give的含义。例如:
He offered a few ideas to improve the plan. 他提出了一
些改进这个计划的意见。
present可以表示正式的呈递,在其他的用法中,与of—
fer下面的第三个含义相似。例如:
The servant presented sandwiches to each guest. 仆人把
三明治递给了每一位客人。
【考例7】[2004湖南] They've ____ us £150,000
for the house. Shall we take it?
    A. provided    B. supplied
    C. shown    D. offered
[考查目标] 本题考查offer与其近义词之间的区别。
[答案与解析] D  offer为“(善意的)提供”,从句意可
以看出这一点。
考点8】perform的用法
▲ 构词:performance n. 履行,执行,成绩.性能,表
演,演奏
▲ 搭配:
① put on / give a perform 表演
② perform one's duties 尽责任
【考例8】[2005广西模拟] The operations are ____
with different tools.
    A. preferred    B. performed
    C. provided    D. practiced
[考查目标] 本题考查perform的词义。
[答案与解析]B  perform 除了有“表演”的意思以外,
还有“操作”等别的意思。
1. perform vt. / vi. 演出,表演,演奏,执行
  performance n. 表演
  give / put on a performance 演出;上演(节目)
  He also performed a part in a play.
  他也在剧中扮演了一个角色。
  The five-year-old girl performed perfectly on the piano.
  那个五岁的小女孩熟练地演奏钢琴。
  One should always perform what he promises.
  说了就应当兑现。
  Which doctor performed the operation?
  这个手术是哪位医生做的?
【考点4】pick的用法
▲构词:pick-pocket n. 扒手
▲搭配:
① pick and steal 小偷小摸
② pick out 挑出,拣出;辨别出,区别出;弄明白,领
  会 (文章等的意义)
③ pick up 拾起;(车、船)在途中搭人、带货;(未经正式
  介绍)结识朋友;(偶然、无意地)获得、得到、学会
  (语言、技术等);恢复健康;(从收音机里)收听到,
  (用雷达等)看到,听到。探测到
④ pick oneself up (跌倒后)再爬起来;振作精神
⑤ pick up (health) 恢复健康
⑥ pick up speed 加速
⑦ pick up with sb 结识,与……交朋友
▲辨析:choose;select;pick
    这组动词都有“挑选”的意思。
choose 强调在“选择”某物时的意愿,特别是当供挑选
物只有两个时,我们应当用choose。例如:
He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and
is fully aware of the consequences. 他故意地选择了他
所过的生活.并且深知其后果。
有好几个东西供选择时,最好用select。因为有较多的
被挑选物或挑选人就必须加以鉴别。例如:
They will hardly know which facts to select from the
great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. 大量
的史料不断聚积.他们难以判断从中选择哪些史实。
But, of the vertebrates, unpredictable Nature selected
only snakes (and one lizard).
但是,在脊椎动物中,神秘莫测的大自然只选择了蛇
(和一种蜥蜴)。
pick 在用作“挑选”时,不强凋鉴别,也不强调意愿。例
如:
On the village green,where you pick up sides and no
feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to
play simply for the fun and exercise. 在一块乡村草坪
上.你为双方挑选队员.并不涉及地方感情问题,只有
这样才可能单纯为娱乐和锻炼而赛球。
【考例4】[NMET 1992] ____ the kettle (水壶) of
boiling water, she moved quietly towards the door.
    A. Putting down    B. Laying aside
    C. Picking up    D. Taking away
[考查目标] 本题考查pick up的意思。
[答案与解析] C pick up的常见意思是“捡起,拿起”。
8. power [U]权力,功率,动力
  powerful adj. 强大的,有力的
  powerless adj. 无能的
  [词组] come into power 掌权
  in power 掌权
  beyond / out of power 不能胜任的
  power plant / station 发电厂
  Which Party is in power?
  现在哪个党执政?
  The power of the governments has increased greatly
  over the past century.
  近一个世纪以来,政府的权力大大增强了。
  He turned on the power and the machine worked.
  他打开电源,机器就工作了。
10. record [C] 记录,唱片 vt. / vi. 记录下来,记载,录制
  He still holds / keeps the record of the high jump.
  他仍然保持着跳高记录。
  His records are popular with young students.
  他的唱片很受青年学生的欢迎。
  Her diary records all the happenings of the day.
  她的日记记载着当天发生的所有事情。
  The programme was recorded.
  那个节目被录了下来。
  [词组] make records 制作唱片
  write a record of 记载下
  break a record 打破一项记录
  set a new record 创新记录
  keep a record of 记录着
5. satisfy vt. 使人满意,满足
  satisfied adj. 满意的
  satisfactory / satisfying adj.令人满意的
  satisfaction n. 满意
  [词组】be satisfied with 对……满意
  be satisfied to do sth. 满意做某事
  a satisfied smile / look 满意的微笑/神色
  a satisfying ending / result / meal 令人满意的结局/结
  果/饭菜
We must satisfy (= meet) the people's needs /
demand.
  我们必须满足人民的需要。
  All this information was not enough to satisfy them.
  所有这些情况都没能使他们满意。
  From his satisfied look I know he is satisfied to work
  here.
  从他满意的神情可以看出,他很满意在这里工作。
  Working with her was our most satisfying activity.
  和她一起工作是最使我们感到满意的活动。
【考点3】satisfy的用法
▲ 构词:
① satisfaction n. 满意,满足;令人满意的事物;补偿/报
  复 (的机会)
② satisfactory adj. 令人满意的 (to),圆满的,良好的
③ satisfying adj. 令人满足的。令人满意的
④ satisfied adj. 感到满意的
▲ 搭配:
① satisfy sb with sth 使……对……感到满意;使……
  满足于……
② be satisfied with 对……感到满意
③ satisfy sb that—clause / of sth 使……对……感到信
  服;使相信
④ feel satisfaction at / in对……感到满意
⑤ receive / get satisfaction from 对…感到满意
⑥ to sb's satisfaction = to the satisfaction of sb 令某人
  满意/确信
⑦ with satisfaction 满意地
【考例3】[2000京皖春招] Nick is looking for another
job because he feels that nothing he does ____ his
boss.
    A. serves    B. satisfies
    C. promises    D. supports
[考查目标] 动词s,atisfy的词义。
[答案与解析] B   satisfy 的意思是“令人满意”。本句
比较复杂,nothing 是 satisfy 的主语,he does 是定语从
句。
4. similar adj. 相似的
  similarly adv. 相类地,similarity 类似
  be similar to sb. / sth. in... 在……与某人/某物相似
  We have similar tastes in music.
  我们在音乐方面爱好相似。
  Gold is similar in colour to brass.
  金与黄铜的颜色相似。
  Your views on education are similar to mine.
  你的教育观点和我的相似。
【考点6】sound的用法
▲ 构词:soundless adj. 无声的
▲ 搭配:
① in / within (the) sound of 在能听见……的地方
② sound in mind and limb 身体健全的
【考例6】[2005 宜昌模拟] It caughl him right on the
ground without a ____.
    A. word    B. voice    C. noise    D. sound
[考查目标] 本题考查 sound 和其近义词的区别。
[答案与解析] D  sound为普通的“声音”,noise为“噪
音”,voice一般用来指“人的声音”。   
【考点10】spread的用法
▲搭配:
① spread out 张开,伸开,铺开,扩大/张,展开,伸长
② spread A on / over B = spread B with A 把 A 铺/敷
  于B上
【考例10】After a short time, the bad news had ____
    all over the city and everybody knew it.
    A. scattered    B. spread
    C. covered    D. announced
[考查目标] 本题考查动词 spread 的词义。
[答案与解析] B  spread 的词义是“蔓延;传播开采”,
既是及物动词又是不及物动词。它的过去分词和过去
式的变化是spread。
【考点1】suggest 的用法
▲ 构词:suggestion n. [C] 提议,意见,暗示,微量
▲ 搭配:
① suggest sth to sb 向某人提议/建议某事
② suggest (to sb) that-clause
友情提示:此句型中,suggest作第1种意思时常用虚拟
  语气,作第2种意思时用陈述语气。
③ suggest doing sth 提议 / 建议做某事
④ make / offer a suggestion 提议,建议
【考例1】[NMET 1 994] Jane's pale face suggested that
 she ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she
____ a medical examination.
    A. be; should have    B. was; have
    C. should be; had    D. was; has
[考查目标] suggest的宾语从句特点。
[答案与解析] B  suggest表示“建议”时,从句用虚拟
语气;suggest表示“暗示,表明”时,从句用陈述语气。
12.treat[trit]
  (1)及物动词“对待,看待,处理,视为”。treat
  somebody badly 虐待某人;treat somebody / something
  as... 把某人/某物看作是……。
  She treats me aS her closest friend.
  她把我看作是她的最亲密的朋友。
  (2)及物动词“治疗”。
  The doctor treated his fever with pills.
  医生用药片治疗他的发烧。
  (3)不及物动词“款待。”
  treat sb. to dinner 请某人吃饭
  Whose turn is it to treat next time?
  下次该谁请客?
  (4)名词“款待,请客,乐事”。
  This is my treat. 这次我请客。
  It's a treat to meet you. 见到你真高兴。
  [拓展] treatment n. 治疗
3. variety [vo'raioti] n. 多样(性),种类,变化
  He left for a variety of reasons.
  他由于种种原因而离开了。
  We should give variety to the programme.
  我们要把节目办得丰富多彩。
  [拓展]various adj. 各种各样的;vary v. 改变,变化
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(spread, satisfy, contain, common, suggest, perform,
pick, offer, sound)
1. His face ____ he was badly ill, but his uncle
   suggested we not send him to the hospital.
2. Our chemistry teacher ____ the experiment
   while we sat in front of her.
3. We should ask the children to eat more vegetables
   which ____ a lot of vitamins
4. We realized that all of the sheep were lost in the for-
   est, according to our ____ knowledge.
5. With the news ____, all the peasants left their
   hometown for the beach.
6. The young man was fired because everything he did
  in the company couldn't ____ his boss.
7. What the professor said ____ reasonable.
8. They were too tired, so they waited on the side of the
  road, waiting for someone to ____ them up.
9. We waited for a long time and then were ____
  some coffee.
【短语归类】
【考点l】come构成的短语
① come up with 找到,提出(答案、解决办法)
② come across 碰上,偶然碰上,被理解,发现
③ come along 进展,进步,一道来
④ come down 下来,降低,下降,着陆
⑤ come true 实现
⑥ come over 过来,顺便来访
⑦ come in 进来
⑧ come to oneself 苏醒,恢复知觉
⑨ come on 来吧,跟着来,赶快
⑩ come out 出来,出版,发(芽),开花
⑩ come about 发生
⑧ come back 回来.流行
⑩ come to 共计,达到,达成,恢复知觉,苏醒
⑩ come round 来,过访
⑩ come through 经历 (困难等)
[例句] She came up with a new idea for increasing
sales. 她想出了增加销售量的新主意。
It came out that he'd been telling a pack of lies. 后来才
知道他一直在说谎。
Why don't come over t0 Beidaihe for a holiday in sum—
mer? 你怎么不在夏天到北戴河来度假呢?
The price of petrol is coming down thanks to the in—
crease of production. 由于产量的增加,石油的价格在下
跌。
He spoke for a long time but his meaning didn't come
across. 他讲了很长时间,但他的意思没有人真正理解。
The crocuses came out late this year because of the cold
weather. 因为天气寒冷,今年藏红花开得晚。
It suddenly came to her that she had been wrong all
along. 她突然想到她一开始就错了。
【考例l】(1996上海) We are all going to the games.
Why don't you come ____?
    A. up    B. across
    C. along    D. to
[考查目标] 此题主要考查come构成的短语的用法。
[答案与解析] C  come up 升起,被讨论,出现;come
across 被理解,被传达,碰见,偶然遇到;come along 进
展,进步,一道来;come to 共计,达到,达成。本句话意
思是“我们要去参加比赛,你为什么不一道去?”
13. come across
  (1) come across作“碰到”,“(偶然)发现或遇见”解。
  In the course of the experiment, they canle across some
  new problems.
  在实验过程中他们碰到一些新问题。
  (2) come across 有时可作“穿过”、“越过……而来”解
  释。
  The Eighth Route Army easily came across the enemy
  lines.
  八路军轻易地越过了敌人的防线。
  [联想]表示“(偶然)遇见”还可用以下形式表达:
  run across  meet with     happen to meet
  run into     meet…by     chance to meet
2. in common 公用,共有;共同
  These two houses have a COUrt in common.
  这两家合用一个院子。
  Hip-hot and rap have much in common with blues and
  rock.
  希荷普和说唱(音乐)与布鲁斯和摇滚(音乐)有许多
  共同之处。
  In common with everyone else I hold that he is right.
  同大家一样,我也认为他是对的。
14. in trouble意为“处于困境中,有麻烦”。介词in表示
  “处于……状态中”。如:
  A person with good manners never laughs at people
  when they are in trouble.
  一个有礼貌的人绝不会嘲笑身处困境的人们。
  He was in trouble with the customs.
  他在海关那儿遇到了麻烦。
  [联想]be a great trouble to 对……来说很麻烦
  ask for trouble 自找麻烦
  have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事困难
  get into trouble 陷入困境
  there be trouble (in) doing sth. (同上)
  make trouble 制造麻烦
  take trouble to do sth. 费心做某事
  save / spare trouble 省事,避免麻烦
  put sb. to the trouble of doing 麻烦某人做某事
  put sb. to trouble 给某人添麻烦
7. on the other hand 另一方面的
  I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I
  ought to be studying.
  我想去参加聚会,但从另一方面来说,我应该留下来
  学习。
  [拓展】on (the) one hand..., on the other hand...,
  用以引导出相互矛盾的观点
  On one hand the hotel is near the sea, but on the other
  hand it costs a lot.
  好的方面是这家旅馆靠海,可是另一方面房租太贵。
  [词组] by hand 手工制作的
  at hand 在附近,在手头,即将发生
  from hand to hand 从一人之手转到另一人之手
  hand in hand 手拉手
  All the work had to be done bv hand.
  所有的活都得用手工做。
  The note Was delivered bv hand.
  这封短信经由专人送交。(非经邮寄)
  He lives close at hand.
  他住在附近。
  The examination is at hand.
  考试即将举行。
  Buckets of water were passed from hand to hand to put
  the fire out.
  人们一桶又一桶传递着水把火扑灭。
  Dirt and disease go hand in hand.
  肮脏和疾病是形影相随的。
11. play music 演奏音乐
  [相关短语] enjoy the music 欣赏音乐
  read music 识乐谱
  have no ear for music 无音乐鉴赏力
  perform music 演奏音乐
  listen to (the) music 听音乐
  face the music 临危不惧
9. take turns doing sth. 轮流做某事
  Since we took turns driving, we didn't find the trip
  tiring.
  由于我们轮流驾驶,所以我们并没有觉得旅途劳累。
  [短语] by turns 轮流地
  in turn 依次地
  at every turn 到处
【考点2】turn构成的短语
① turn on 打开,使感兴趣
② turn off 关掉
③ turn down 关小,凋低,拒绝,转入
④ turn around 转过身,转过来
⑤ turn...into... 把……变成
⑥ turn to 开始干,求助于
⑦ turn over 转身,翻转,把某人交给,移交,营业额达
⑧ turn up 调大,出现,使某物朝上
⑨ turn out 结果是,证明是,出席
⑩ turn against 背叛
[例句] Mozart's music always turns me on. 莫扎特的音
乐总是让我感兴趣。
Be sure to turn off the lights when you leave the room.
离开房间时一定要把灯关了。
I applied for the job but they turned me down because I
didn't know German. 我申请了这份工作,但是因为我
不懂德语他们拒绝了我。
He turned around to find a policeman eyeing him suspi—
ciously. 他转过身发现警察在怀疑地看着他。
A vast crowd turned out t0 watch the match. 大群的观
众到场观看比赛。
The car skidded, turned over and burst into flames. 那
汽车一打滑,翻倒后起火了。
【考例2】(2004 浙江) We wanted to get home before
dark, but it didn't quite ____ as planned.
    A. make OUt    B. turn out
    C. go on    D. come up
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析] B make out 弄明白;turn oat 结果是,证
明是;go on 继续进行;come up 上来,过来,来吧。本句
话意思是“我们希望在天黑前到家,但是结果并不像计
划的那样”。
【考例3】(2004四川) The forest guards often find camp-
fires that have not been ____ completely.
      A. turned down           B. put out
      C. put away               D. turned over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 turn 与 put 构成的短语的用
法。
[答案与解析] B turn down关小。调低,拒绝。转入;
turn over 翻转,移交,营业额达……;put out 扑灭;put
away 收拾,整理,本句话意思是“森林看护人员经常
发现野营的火没有完全被扑灭”。
16. turn around (同turn round) 转过身,转回身
  When the teacher turned around, they began to
  whisper.
  老师一转过身去,他们就开始窃窃私语。
  [链接]tum back 折回;翻回
  turn in 上交,交回
  turn away 不理;撵走
  turn out 结果是;生产;出来
  turn down 不接受;调小/低
  turn up 调大;出现;到达
  turn on 开(灯等)
  turn off 关(灯等)
  turn to 转向……/向……求助
  turn...into... 把……变成
  turn against背叛
 【考点3】含“动词 + in”的短语
① believe in 相信.信任,信仰
② bring in 引进,引来
③ come in 进来
④ give in 让步。投降
⑤ hand in 交上来
⑥ get in 收获,进入
⑦ take in 欺骗.摄取
⑧ join in 加入,参与
⑨ take part in 参加
⑩ turn in 交上来
[例句] You can believe in him; he'll never Iet you
down. 你可以相信他,他是不会让你失望的。
The sale brought us in over $200. 这次销售使我们赚
了200美元。
I kept inviting Mrs. Smith to stay for lunch, and finally
she gave in. 我不断邀请史密斯夫人留下来吃午饭,最
终她让步了。
We were completely taken in by his story. 我们完全被
他的故事欺骗了。
She handed in her resignation because of dissatisfac—
tion. 因为不满她递交了辞呈。
They all joined in singing the Christmas carols. 他们一
起唱圣诞颂歌。
【考例4】(2004湖北)We have to ____ the wheat as
 soon as possible because a storm is on the way.
    A. get away    B. get across
    C. get through    D. get in
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 get 短语。
[答案与解析] D  get away 逃脱,离开;get across 通
过,把……讲清楚;get through 到达,办完,花光;get in
收获,进入,抵达。再根据意思“因为暴风雨就要来了,
因此我们必须尽快收割小麦”。
[牛刀小试2]
1. -- How did you find him out?
  -- I ____ his name by chance on the list.
    A. came down    B. came about
    C. came uD    D. came across
2. I simply couldn't understand how it ____ that
  you did so much work within SUCh a short time.
    A. came back    B. came up
    C. came about    D. came along
3. A coldwind beganto blow and he ____ his collar
  to keep out the cold.
    A. turned down    B. turned off
    C. turned over    D. turned up
4. Her parents had had a very anxious moment but
 everythmg ____ all right in the end.
    A. turned up    B. carried out
    C. turned out    D. carried away
5. During the break she began to sing an English song,
  and we all ____.
    A. take part in    B. joined
    C. joined in    D. together
 
 
 
    ☆词语比较☆
1. contain,include
  (1) contain: have or hold (sth.) with in itself 包含,容
  纳;含有,强调内容或含量,可用于表示包括所含之
  物的全部和部分。
  This book contains forty interesting pictures.
  这本书里有四十幅有趣的图画。
  (2)include: have (sb. / sth.) as part of a whole 包括,
  包含。用于表示所包含之物中的一部分。
  The tour included a visit to the Science Museum.
  旅游项目中包括参观科技博物馆。
2. pick,pick up,pick out
  (1) pick vt. & vi. 采,摘;挑选
  They showed us how to pick tea leaves.
  他们教我们怎样采茶叶。
  The students have to pick three courses from a list of
    ten.
    学生必须从十门课程中选修三门。
    (2) pick up的含义很多,最基本的含义是“拾起”、“拿
    起”,除此之外常见的还有“(在无线电里)收听到”,
    “(车辆等)中途搭人。中途带货”,“(偶然地,无意
    地)获得(收益,知识等),学会(语言)”等。
    Please pick up aIl the pieces of paper.
    请把所有的纸片都捡起来。
    My radio can pick up VOA very clearly.
    我的收音机收听“美国之音”很清楚。
    The train stopped to pick up passengers.
    火车停下来搭乘客。
    He picked up some knowledge of physics.
    他偶然获得了一些物理知识。
    (3) pick out 意思是“挑出;选出”、“分辨”
    We decided to pick out the best players to join in the
    game.
    我们决定挑出最好的选手来参加比赛。
    [注意] 这两个短语中 up 和 out 都是副词,如果宾语
    是人称代词,应该放在副词之前。
    You dmpped the book on the floor; now you should
    pick it up.
    你把书扔到地上了,现在你该把它拾起来。
3. because of,owing to,due to,on account of,as a (the)
  result of,thanks to
  (1) because of,owing to,on account of 意为“因为,由
  于”,在句中一般作状语,可置于句首或句未。
  Because of / Owing to / On account of my absence,
  they had to put off the classmeeting till next week.
  由于我不在,他们只好将班会推迟到下个星期。
  The train arrived late because of / owing to / on account
  of a heavy snow.
  由于一场大雪火车来迟了。
  (2) due to 意为“由于”,它引导的短语在句中一般用
  作表语和定语。但在很多场合,可与 owing to 通用,
  作状语,这一用法在现今英美语中也很流行,但不如
  owing to那么严谨罢了。
  He was injured due to (=owing to) a car accident,
  他由于一起汽车事故受了伤。
  His failure is due to the fact that he lacks experience.
  由于缺乏经验导致了他的失败。
  (3) as a (the) result of意为“由于……的结果”,一般
  用作状语。
  As a result of the war the lives of many people were
  lost.
  由于战争的缘故许多人丧了命。
  (4)thanks to 这一短语介词,含有“幸亏、多亏、亏得、
-- Do you know bow much the room costs?
你知道这房间花费多少吗?
-- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
知道。/不知道。
-- How much do you think the room costs?
你认为这房间会花多少钱?
-- I think the room costs 300 dollars.
我认为会花300美元。
2. You want to buy a CD for your friend's birthday but
  you are not sure what to buy.
  你想为朋友的生日买一张CD,但你拿不准该买什
  么。
  be sure 后可接不定式及从句。如:
  John is sure to pass the exam.
  约翰一定能通过考试。
  He is sure that the party will be a success.
  他确信这次聚会能获得成功。
  [注意] be sure 后接名词、代词、动名词时需用介词of
  或about。如:
  You may be sure of his honesty.
  你可以确信他是诚实的。
  I think he lives at No. 23 West st., but I'm not sure
  about the number.
  我认为他住在西大街23号,但对这个号码我不能肯
  定。
  [比较]be sure to do 与 be sure of doing
    John is sure to pass the exam.
    说话人确信约翰能通过考试。
    John is sure 0f passing the exam.
    约翰本人确信自己能通过考试。
  [提示] be not sure后常用whether / if, what, when,
  where 等引起从句,有时也用that。如:
  I'm not sure whether / if he will come to see me.
  我拿不准他是否会来看我。
  I was not sure what I ought to do.
  我拿不准该干什么。
  [辨析] sure 与 certain
  certain 一般可与sure换用,但在It is certain that...
  中不用sure。如:
  It is certain that our team will win the game.
  我们队肯定能赢得这场比赛。(不用sure)
3. You want t0 find a good song to dance to.
  你想找一首好歌来伴舞。
  ① to dance to 是不定式作定语,修饰名词song,并与
  之形成动宾关系,这时的不定式应为及物性的,若动
  词不及物,则应加上适当介词。如:
  New York is a nice place to visit.
纽约是个游览的好地方。
Could you find me a chair to sit on?
能给我找把椅子坐吗?
② dance to中的to表示“伴随,按照”。如
He likes to sing to the piano.
他喜欢钢琴伴唱。
Please add salt to taste.
请按口味加盐。
The map was drawn to scale.
这地图是按比例绘制的。
4. If only they could find a way to get to the room,
  behind the wall.
  要是他们能找到办法到达墙后面的房间,那就好了。
  if only虽然是从属连词,但它引导的从句却能单独
  成句,且能表达完整的意思:要是……该多好 --
  种不能实现或难以实现的愿望。它相当于wish,但
  语气更强。句后用句号或感叹号皆可。
  ① 表示已过去了的不能实现的愿望,常含有后悔、惋
  惜之意。谓语动词应使用had done形式。
  If only I had taken his advice!
  要是我听从了他的建议就好了!
  ② 表达现在不可实现的愿望,谓语动词用一般过去
  时。
  If only I could swim!
  我要是会游泳该多好!
  ③ 表达将来难以实现的愿望,谓语动词用would /
  could + 动词原形或一般过去时。
  If only she would help me!
  要是她能帮我就好了。
  [注意] if only 除以上用法外,它还相当于if,引导条
  件状语从句。
  ④ If only he gets the job, it will make a great deal of
  difference.
  要是他能得到这份工作,情况就大不一样了。
  [辨析] if only与only if
  if only 多用于虚拟语气;only if 多用于陈述语气,
  only 修饰 if,表示惟一的条件。
5. He was just about to say something when Peter turned
  around.
  他正要说些什么,这时皮特转过身来。
  be about to do sth. 正要做某事,表示该动作马上就
  要进行,不能与时间状语连用。
  [误] He was about to leave in five minutes.
  [正] He would leave in five minutes.
  他5分钟后离开。
  when 在此表示“正在这时 / 那时,突然”(具体用法详
  见Chapter 1“词汇短语”)
6. It looked as if the creature had moved.
  塑像好像动了。
  as if / though 仿佛,好像(引导表语/方式状语从句,
  表示与事实相反的情况时用虚拟语气)
  (1) 引导表语状语从句
  It looks as if it is going to rain.
  看来好像要下雨了。(真的要下雨了。)
  (2) 引导方式状语从句
  He talks as if he were / was an expert.
  他说话的样子好像是个专家似的。(事实上他不是
  专家。)
  (3) As if / though 引导的从句中若用虚拟语气,其谓
  语动词分别是:
  表示与现在事实相反:did / were (口语中单数也用
  was)
  when a pencil is partly in water, it looks as if it were /
  was broken.
  表示与过去事实相反:had done
  He is talking as though he had been to Beijing many
  times.
  表示与将来事实相反:could / would do
  He acts as if he would fly to the moon tomorrow.
    ☆精典题例☆
(    )1. One of the sides of the board should be painted
    yellow, and ____. (2000北京)
    A. the other is white  B. another white
    C. the other white    D. another is white
    【解析】选C  不能选A。white在句子中做主语的补
语。"The other sides should be painted white." 这是完整的
句子。
(  )2. There are five pairs____, but I'm at a loss
    which to buy.
    A. to be chosen    B. to choose from
    C. to choose    D. for choosing
    【解析】选B choose from"从……中挑选”。
(  )3. Look at the trouble I'm in! If only I ____ your
    advice. (2003 上海)
    A. followed    B. would follow
    C. had followed    D. should follow
    【解析】选C  If only I had followed your advice. 要是
以前听你的建议就好了。虚拟语气,表过去的情况。
(     ) 4.-- How do you ____ we go to Beijing for our
                holidays?
            -- I think we'd better fly there. It's much more
                comfortable. (2004 福建)
            A. insist              B. want
    C.suppose    D.suggest
    【解析】 选D  这也是个混合疑问句。根据宾语从句
中的谓语go可确定应填写"suggest"。
(  )5。 They started off late and got to the airport with
    minutes to ____.(2005湖北)
    A. spare    B. catch
    C. leave    D. make
    【解析】选A不定式作后置定语,跟所修饰的名词
有动宾关系。本题只有spare才能与minutes构成动宾关
系。
(    )6. Allow children the space to voice their opinions,
    ____ they are different from your own. (2005
    湖南)
    A. until    B. even if
    C. unless    D. as though
    【解析】选B even if即使;as though = as if仿佛,好
像。
(    )7. ____ two exams to worry about, I have to
    work really hard this weekend. (2004北京)
    A. With    B. Besides
    C. As for    D. Because of
    【解析】选A “with + 宾语 + 宾补”常表示原因或理
由。句意为:由于对两次考试担心,这个周末我不得不非
常刻苦地学习。because of也表示原因,但后面不能带宾
补。
(  )8. Quite a few people used to believe that disaster ____
    if a mirror was broken. (2002上海)
    A. was sure of striking
    B. was sure of having struck
    C. was sureto be struck
    D. was sure to strike
    【解析】选D  be sure to do 表示说话人认为一定会发
生某事。
(  )9. This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder
    if you can ____ my father. (2005湖北)
    A. find out    B. pick out
    C. look out    D. speak out
    【解析】选B  pick out分辨出。
(  )10. What he has done is far from ____. (2000 上
    海)
    A. Satisfactory    B. satisfied
    C. satisfaction    D. satisfy
    【解析】 选A   far from“远远不是”,后常跟形容词短
语。far from (being) satisfactory 意为“离满意还差得远”。
类似的说法还有:far from perfect / pleasant / happy /
finished。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 7 SBI Units 13- 14
☆重点句型☆
1. Our eating habits have changed, as has our way of life.
2. Only in this way will we be ready for the challenges and
   opportunities in life.
3. Each time we celebrate a festival it change a little.
4. It is not a sad day, but rather a time to celebrate the
   cycle of life.
5. Not all of them are bad for us.
6. Some food does have nutrients.
7. There seems to be no other choice.
    ☆重点词汇☆
1.examine vt. 检查
2. energy n. 精力,能量
3. fuel n. 燃料,营养物
4. diet n. 日常饮食
5. product n. 产品
6. mineral n. 矿物
7. function n. & vi. 功能,作用,起作用
8. chemical n. & adj. 化学制品,化学的
9. balance vt. & vi. 平衡
10. supplement  n. 补充
11. fit adj. 健康的,适合的 v.适合
12. digest vt. 消化,领会
13. gain vt. 增加,获得
14. sleepy adj. 困乏的
15. tasty adj. 可口的
16. symbol n. 象征
17. conflict n. 冲突
18.argument 7j.争论
19. honour n. & vt. 荣誉,给以荣誉
20. ancestor n. 祖先,祖宗
21. respect vt. 尊敬
22. celebration n. 庆祝
23. light vt. 点燃,照亮
24. faith n. 信任,忠实
25. creativity n. 创造力
26. purpose n. 目的,意图
27. principle n. 法则,原则
28. commercial adj. 商业的,贸易的
29. similar adj. 相似的
30. advise vt. 建议,劝告
    ☆重点短语☆
1. make a choice  做出选择
2. now and then  有时,偶尔
3. dross up 盛装,打扮
4. in one's opinion 按照……的看法
5.play a trick on sb.开某人的玩笑
6. take in 欺骗,摄取
7. in the future 未来
8. lose weight 减肥
9. keep up with 与……保持一致
10. be good for 对……有好处
11. be based on 以……为基础
12. be careful with 小心,警惕
13. look into the eyes 坦然地正视某人
14. care about 关心
15. lead / live an unhealthy life 过着不健康的生活
16. be rich in 丰富
17. combine...with... 结合
18. a new cycle of life 轮回转世
19. in other words 换句话说
20. be short of 短缺
短语闯关
 下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才
能过关,你一定能过炎,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
1. ____ food 垃圾食品
2. ____ to 应当,应该
3. plenty ____ 许多,大量的
4. keep ____ with 跟上;赶上
5. ____ a choice 作出选择
6. now ____ then 时而,不时;偶尔
7. roll ____ (使)成卷(或筒、球)形
8. dress ____ 盛装;(乔装)打扮;装饰
9. ____ one's opinion按照……的看法
10. ____ a trick on sb. 开某人玩笑;欺骗某人;捉弄
  某人
11. take ____ 欺骗;摄取
12. (be) short ____ 缺乏……
13. ____ fit 保持健康
14. lose (some) ____ 减肥
15. be harmful ____ 对……有害
16. be careful ____ 小心,警惕,当心
17. in ____ words换句话说
18. make ____ with与……交朋友
19. care ____ 关心
2O. get ____ 下车
21. go ____ 适用于;应用于
22. ____ purpose故意地
23. as ____ as和一一样好;也
24. ask (...) ____ (向某人)要求得到某物
25. be prepared ____ 为……做准备
    ☆交际用语☆
1. I've got a pain here. This place hurts.
2. There is something wrong with ...
3. I don't feel well.
4. Lie down and let me examine you.
5. Drink plenty of water and get some rest.
6. In my opinion, we should ...
7. I hope we can make a decision.
8. I don' t think it is necessary to ...
    ☆词汇短语☆
1. balance vt. / vi. / n. 平衡;使平稳
  balanced adj. 平衡的;均衡的
  I found it hard to keep my balance on the icy path.
  我发现在结冰的路上行走很难保持平衡。
    When you learn to ride a bike you must learn to
    balance.
    你学骑自行车时必须学会保持平衡。
    [词组]lose / keep one's balance 失去/保持平衡
    be in the balance 悬而未决;犹豫
    on balance 考虑周全
    strike a balance 力求公平
    balanced diet 均衡的饮食
2. fit v. 适合 adj. 健康的,适合的
  This dress doesn't fit me.
  这衣服不适合我。
  Your theory fits all the facts.
  你的理论与全部事实相符合。
  It would be months before he was fit for the job.
  他要几个月才能适应这项工作。
  You look very fit, Mike.
  迈克,你看上去很健康。
  [词组] keep fit 保持健康
  Martha goes to keep fit classes and does exercises every
  morning.
  玛莎每天早上去健身班上课做体操。
3. light vt. / vi. 点燃;照亮;发出喜悦的亮光
  light adj. 轻的
  light n. 光线;灯
  lighted adj. 点燃了的
  He lighted his cigarette,said good night and went out.
  他点燃烟,说声晚安就出去了。
  One large lamp lit the room.
  一只大电灯照亮了整个房子。
  [词组] light up 点燃;照亮;变得高兴起来
  bring / come to light 为人所知
  shed / throw light on 使明白,解释 (to make clear;
  explain)
4. advise vt. 劝告;建议;忠告
  advice [U] 劝告;
  adviser n. 顾问;劝告者
advise  sth. 建议某事/ sb. (not) to do sth. (劝告某人) / doing sth. 建议做某事 / sb. + 疑问词 + 不定式
    建议某人怎么样 / (sb.)that + 主语 + (should) do sth. 建议某人应做某事
He advised    an early start./ me to start early./ starting early./ (me) that I (should) start early.
  Could you advise me what to do next?
5. dress vt./ vi. / n.
  (1) vt. A. 给……穿衣服。表穿的动作,用于dress
  sb. / oneself 结构
  She hurriedly dressed her son and took him to the
  kindergarten.
  她匆匆忙忙地给她儿子穿好衣服,然后带他到幼儿园。
  B. 用过去分词作表语,表示穿着的状况。
  The man is poorly dressed.
  那人衣衫褴褛。
  C. be / get dressed in 表示穿着……的衣服,后面接表
  示衣服或者颜色的词。
  The two foreign students were both dressed in Chinese
  style clothes.
  那两个外国学生都穿着中式衣服。
  (2) vi. A. 穿衣;穿(夜)礼服,后面常接副词或表示
  目的、场合的介词短语。
  I'll be ready in a moment; I'm dressing.
  我一会儿就准备好;我正在穿衣服。
  Few people dress for dinner now.
  现在很少有人穿礼服赴宴了。
  They all dressed well (badly).
  他们都穿得不错(不好)。
  B. dress up 穿上盛装,乔装打扮(指欧美人在化装舞
  会或演戏时穿的特殊服装)。
  Don't bother to dress up. Come as you are.
  用不着讲究穿衣服,就穿平常的衣服来吧。
  (3) n. 女服;礼服;服装
  dress 作“女服”、“礼服”解时是可数名词,作“服装”讲
  时,是不可数名词。
  At the palace ball, all the women wore their smartest
  dresses.
    ☆词语比较☆
1. pain, ache, hurt
  三词都可表示“疼痛”,但pain常作名词,有时也作动
  词,可指一般的疼痛。ache常作动词,指局部较持久
  的疼痛,是隐痛,作名词常出现在复合词中。hurt只
  作动词,常指精神、感情伤害,也指肉体上疼痛。
  I have pains (a pain / pain) in the arm.
  我手臂痛。
  His head aches when the weather is hot.
  天气一热,他就头痛。
  I was hurt at his words.
  我对他的话感到不快。
  Does your leg still hurt?
  你的腿还疼吗?
2. a bit, a little
  (1) a bit 和 a little 在肯定句中修饰动词、形容词、副
  词及其比较级,可以换用,表示“一点儿”。如:
  The speaker spoke up a bit / a little so as to make himself heard more clearly.
  演讲者把嗓音提高一点,以便使别人听得清楚。
  (2) a bit 和 a little 在否定句中,意思正好相反。
  not a bit = not at all
  not a little = very much / extremely
  I'm not a bit tired. = I'm not tired at all.
  我一点也不累。
  I'm not a little tired. = I'm very tired.
  我非常累。
  (3) a little 可直接作名词的定语,而 a bit 则要在后面
  加 of 构成短语才能作定语,二者都只能修饰不可数
  名词。
  There's only a little / a bit of food left for lunch.
  午餐只剩一点儿食品了。
  [注意] a bit of 的复数是 bits of,而a little不能变复
  数。
3. in a / one word, in other words, in words
  (1) in a / one word意思是“简言之,总之”。一般作
  插入语,通常位于句首,用逗号与句子隔开。
  In a word, we must learn English well.
  总之,我们必须学好英语。
  (2) in other words 意思是“换句话说”“换言之”,常位
  于句首,对前面所说的话进行解释。
  You failed the exam this time.In other words, you
  didn't pass the exam this time.
  你这次没有通过考试。换句话说,你这次考试没及
  格。
  (3) in words 意思是“用语言,口头上”,也可以写为
  with words,通常位于句末。
  I do not want you simply to promise me with / in words
  that you will be good.
  我并不要求你们只在口头上答应我你们要做好学
  生。
  I can't describe it in / with words.
  我无法用语言来描述。
4. allow, permit, let, promise
  (1) allow 和 permit 都表示“允许某人做某事”,后面
  跟名词、动名词作宾语,跟不定式作宾补。但allow
  多表示“听任,不阻止或默许”,即主语对别人所做的
  事情置之不管,表示一种“消极”的概念。而permit
  多表示一种“积极”的概念,含有“给予某人某种权
  利”的意思,多用于正式场合。
  We don't allow smoking here.
  我们这里不允许吸烟。
  Who allowed you to do that?
  谁允许你做这件事?
  Permit me to say a few words.
  请允许我说几句话。
  Smoking is not permitted here.
  此地不准吸烟。
  (2) let 表示“让”,多用于口语,“允许”的意味较淡,后
  跟不定式作宾补时省略to。
  Who let the man enter the room?
  谁让那人进来的?
  (3) promise “答应某人做某事”
  I promise you to leave.
  我答应你(我)走。
  [比较] I allow you to leave. 我允许你走。
    ☆句型诠释☆
1. Our eating habits have changed, as has our way of
  life.
  我们的饮食习惯已经发生了变化,生活方式也是一
  样。
  在此句型中 as 相当于 so,表示前一种情况也同样适
  合于后一种。从结构上讲so不是代用词,而是在意
  义上相当于 too 和 also 的副词,但常常出现在肯定
  句中。
  He is a student, so is she.
  "I have made up my mind." "So have I."
  如果是否定的形式,常用 nor 和 neither.
  "I don't like opera." "Neither / Nor do I."
  在这两种结构中,前后时态保持一致。
  [比较] so l do 和 so do I (用于对上文进一步肯定或
  确认。意为indeed, certainly)
    You asked me to leave, and so I did.
    你要求我离开,我这样做了。
    You asked him to leave, and so did I.
    你要他离开,我也要他离开。
    -- You have spilled coffee on your dress.
    你把咖啡洒在你的衣服上了。
    -- Oh dear, so I have.
    啊呀,我把咖啡洒在我衣服上了。
    You have spilled coffee on the table, and so have I.
    你把咖啡洒在桌子上了,我也把咖啡洒在桌子上了。
  [注意] so it is/ was with...句型的用法。
  如果一句话中既有肯定的意思又有否定的意思,且
  时态混杂时,我们常用so it is / was with sb.
  Mr. Smith came to China five years ago and he is used
  to living in China now. So it is with his wife.
  史密斯先生五年前来到中国,他现在习惯了中国的
  生活,他妻子也是一样。
2. Only in this way will we be ready for the challenges
  anti opportunities in life.
  只有用这种方法我们才能准备迎接生活中的机遇和
  挑战。
  “Only + 状语 + 谓语 + 主语 + 谓语的另一部分 + 其
  他”是一个典型的倒装句形式。其中的状语可以是
  副词,介词词组和状语从句。这种倒装句属于部分
  倒装,只将情态动词、助动词和系动词放在主语的前
  面,谓语动词的其他部分放在主语之后。
  Only by studying hard can you improve your study.
  只有通过努力学习才会提高你的成绩..
  Only when you are 18 can you have the right to vote.
  只有你到了18岁才有选举权。
  [注意] Only teachers can use this computer. 不是倒装
  句,在此句中only修饰的是名词。
3. Each time we celebrate a festival, it changes a little.
  每一次我们庆祝一个节日,我们都会改进一一点。
  Each time 引导一个时间状语从句。
  Each time / Every time / The first time / The last time / The moment / The minute + 从句 + 主句
    这是名词词组引时间状语从句的常用句型。
    Each time / Every time I meet him, he always carries a
    book.
    我每次见他,他总是随身拿着一小书。
    The last time I saw the boy, he was reading by the
    riverside.
    我最后一次看到那个男孩时,他正在河边读书。
    The moment / The minute you see him, please tell him
    the exciting news.
    你一见到他,请告诉他这个激动人心的消息。
4. It is not a sad day, but rather a time to celebrate the
  cycle of life.
  它不是一个伤心的口子,而是一个庆祝生命循环的
  时刻。
  not…but 意为“不是……而是”,即否定前者,肯定后
  者,not 所连接的成分和 but 所连接的成分要对等,即
  名词对名词,动词对动词,介词短语对介词短语。
  You should pay attention not to what they say but to
  what they do.
  你不应该注意他们说什么,而应该注意他们做什么。
  当not...but连接两个主语时,其谓语动词的数要求
  与第二个主语保持一致,也就是就近原则。
  Not you but I anl to blame.
  不是你而是我要受责备。
5. Not all of these are bad for us.
  并非所有这一些对我们都不好。
  该句子是部分否定形式。
  当all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及
  every + 名词都表示全部肯定;no one, none,
  nobody, nothing, not...any,以及no + 名词都表示
  全部否定。但当not出现在含有表示全部肯定的不
  定代词的句子中,不管not在它们之前或之后,都表
  示部分否定。
    Both of them haven't read this story.
    = Only one of them has read this story.
    并非他们俩都看过这个故事。
    All bamboo doesn't grow tall.
    = Not all bamboo grows tall.
    = Some bamboo grows tall, but some doesn't.
    并非所有的竹子都长得高。
    [注意] ① any所修饰的名词或由 any 构成的复合小
    定代训作主语时,谓语动词不能用否定形式。也就
    是说,我们只能说not...any,但不能说any…not。
   如:
    Anything can't stop him going there. ×
    Nothing can st()p him going there. √
    任何事都不能阻止他上那儿。
    ② 总括性副词,如 everywhere,always,altogether (全
    然地),wholly和not连用时,也表示部分否定。例:
    Such a thing can't be found everywhere.
    这种事并非到处可见。
    Such a thing can be found nowhere.
    这种事什么地方也见不到。
  6. There seems to be no other choice.
    似乎没有其它的选择。
    在 There be 的句型中,可用其他的动词。如:
     There used to be曾经有... / happen to be 碰巧有……
   There seem / appera to be 似乎有……
    There happened to be a traffic jam, so I was twenty
    minutes late this morning.
    今天早晨碰巧有一起交通堵塞,因而我迟到了20分钟。
    There seems to be raining, for there is black cloud in
    the sky.
    天似乎要下雨了,因为天上有乌云。
    ☆ 精典题例 ☆
(    )1. -- ____ David and Vicky ____ married?
    -- For about three year. (2003北京)
    A. How long were; being
    B. How long have; got
    C. How long have; been
    D. How long did; get
    【解析】选C  本题考查1. 延续性动词的用法。2. 动
词短语 be married,get married 的区别。根据回答"For
about three years." 可知应提问两人结婚(到现在)已多久
了,须用现在完成时,排除A、D两项;再排除B项,get
married当作非延续性动词使用,不能和表示一段时间的
状语连用,不能用How long来提问。Be married 表示延续
的状态。
(    )2. It is believed that if a book is ____, it will
  surely ____ the reader. (2003 上海)
A. interested; interest
B. interesting; interested
C. interested; be interesting
D. interesting; interest
    【解析】选D  本题考查动词interest及它的非谓语
动词的不同意义,首先interest可做动词用,表示“让人产
生兴趣”,其次interesting为adj.,表示“令人感兴趣的”,
而interested也为adj.,表示“某人感到有意思,对……发
生了兴趣”。根据题意,故选D。
(     ) 3. -- When shall we start?
            -- Let's ____, it 8:30. Is that all right? (2002
           北京)
            A. set                 B. meet
            C. make              D. take
    【解析】选C  本题考查固定词组“make it”。意思为
“实现目标.成功”。本题意为“确定时间在8点半”。
(     ) 4. All the people ____ at the party were his
            supporters. (2002 北京)
            A. present            B. thankful
            C. interested          D. important
    【解析】选A  本题考查形容词短语present at the
party作定语,题中的present是形容词,表示“出席的、到
场的”意思时,作定语常常后置。
(     ) 5. ____ you call me to say you're not coming,
            I'll see you at the theatre. (2004 全国)
            A. Though            B. Whether
            C. Until               D. Unless
    【解析】选D  此题考查连词的非谓语形式的用法。
根据上下文的意思及逻辑关系,可知答案为D (Unless = If
not)。
(     ) 6. Let's keep to the point or we ____ any
            decisions. (2004 全国)
            A. will never reach     B. have never reached
            C. never reach         D. never reached
 ,;   【解析】选A句型“祈使句 + and / or + 陈述句”中,
陈述句部分的时态用一般将来时。
(     ) 7. I like ____ in the autumn when the weather is
            clear and hright. (2004 全国)
            A. this              B. that
            C. it                  D. one
【解析】选C it指代天气。
(     ) 8. -- You forgot your purse when you went out.
            -- Good heavens ____. (2002 上海)
            A. so did I            B. so I did
            C. I did so            D. I so did
  【解析】选B   本题主要考查选项A和选项B的区
别:选项A表示“也一样”,而选项B表示“赞同”,所以根
据题意应选Ijl
(     ) 9. Mrs Black doesn't believe her son is able to design
            a digital camera, ____? (2002  上海)
            A. is he               B. isn't he
            C. doesn't she         D. does she
    【解析】选D   本题要考查的是考生能否找出句中的
主语是谁:Mrs Black doesn't believe这是主句的主语和谓
语。而her son is...是宾语从句,所以反意疑问句应根据主
句的主语和谓语来提出。故答案为D。若这种句型的主
句主语为第一人称,反意疑问句应根据从句的主语和谓语
来提出。如:I think / believe / suppose / guess / wonder则:
I think we are out of danger, aren't we?
(     )10.Some passengers complain that it usually ____
            so long to fill in travel insurance documents.
            (2003 上海)
            A. costs                B. takes
            C. spends             D. spares
    【解析】选B  cost常用物来做主语。表示“花费”或
“代价”,"spend" 和 "spare" 的主语,通常都为人,分别为“花
费”和“匀出”之意,而 take 做花费解时,主语通常都为it,
故选B。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 8 SBI Units 15 - 16
重点句型
1. There is no doubt that ...
2. It is dangerous or bad for your health.
3. I would rather not tell you.
4. Pierre and I did have a good time at the ball.
5. It was worth five hundred francs at most.
6. The money would be better spent building more roads or railways in other parts of China.
7. Fasten a key to the end of the long string.
    重点词汇
1. recognize / recognise v. 认出;识别
2. surely adv. 确实
3. franc n. 法郎
4. lovely adj. 好看的;可爱的
5. debt n. 债务;欠款
6. besides prep. 除……之外;adv.此外
7. outline n. 轮廓;要点
8. alien adj. 外国的;n. 外星人
9. earn v. 赚得;挣得
10. prove v. 证明
11. quality n. 质量;品质
12. tear v. 撕扯
13. advantage n. 优点;优势
14. disadvantage n. 不利;弊端
15. charge v. 使充电;控告;攻击
16. successful adj. 成功的;胜利的
17. experiment n. 实验;试验
18. continue v. 继续
19. attend v. 出席
20. shock v. 打击;震动
21. doubt n. 怀疑
22. comfort n. 舒适;安慰
23. positive adj. 肯定的;积极的
24. economy n. 经济
25. unnecessary adj. 不必要的
26. sharp adj. 锐利的;锋利的
27. foot n. 英尺,足feet(复数)
28. electrical adj. 电的
29. precious adj. 贵重的;宝贵的
30. cruel adj. 残酷的
    重点短语
1. bring back 拿回来;使恢复
2. come up with 想出或提出(答案、办法)
3. pay off 还清;付清
4. test on 在……(身上)做实验
5. take up 从事于;占据(时间或空间)
6. protect...from... 保护;免受
7. make use of 利用
8. pay for sth 付……钱;受到惩罚
9. break the laws 犯法
10. make a list of 列出
11. in my opinion 依我之见
12. pick out 辨别出;挑出
13. stop sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事
14. a great deal of 大量的;很多的
15. protect...from... 保护……免受……
16. play a role 扮演角色
17. pull...from 从……拉/拖
18. fall asleep 入睡
19. get killed 丧命;被杀
20. a waste of 浪费……
    交际用语
 1. It can't be tree.
 2. I would rather not tell you.
 3. Does that matter?
 4. It is good for the economy.
 5. It can help many people in the future.
 6. It is clean and does not pollute the air.
 7. It is important for science.
 8. It brings people comfort.
 9. It is too expensive.
10. It is dangerous or had for your health.
    ☆单词聚焦☆
4. attend vt. 出席,参加;照顾;注意
  attendance n. 出席
  attendant n. 服务员
  They attended our affairs during our absence.
  他们在我们不在时管理我们的事务。
  So many people attended the meeting.
  很多人出席了这次会议。
  The old lady has a good nurse attending her.
  这位老太太有一位好护士照顾她。
  He attended my every word in class.
  上课时他倾听我的每一句话。
【考点6】attract的用法
▲构词:
① attraction n. 吸引,吸引力,吸引人的事物
② attractive adj. 吸引人的,有魅力的
③ attractively adv. 动人地,迷人地
▲ 搭配:attract sb's attention 引起…注意
【考例6】[2004全国IV] Finally, I was ____ by his
lively sense of humor.
    A. disturbed    B. moved
    C. attracted    D. defeated
[考查目标]本题考查attract的词义。
[答案与解析]C  句意是“我被他的幽默感所吸引”。
3. besides prep. 除……之外(还有) adv.此外
  besides 具有附加性质,用于否定句中可以与except,
  but换用。
  Besides English, he knows three other languages.
  除了英语之外,他还懂三种语言。
  Nobody knows it besides / except / but me.
  除了我以外,准也不知道那件事。
5. charge v. 充电;索价;攻击;控诉
  Does your car battery charge easily?
  你的车电池充电容易吗?
  How much do you charge for your old car?
  你的旧车要价多少?
  Suddenly the tiger charged at me.
  突然老虎向我冲过来。
  John was charged with murder.
  约翰被控犯谋杀罪。
  相关词组:free of charge 免费的
  in charge of 负责;掌管
  in / under the charge of 由……管理
【考点4】charge的用法
▲ 搭配:
① charge sb. some money for 为……向某人索取/收取
  多少钱
② charge oneself with 承担(工作),接受(任务)
③ at one's own charge(s) / expenses 自费,用自己的钱
④ put…down to sb's charge 把……记在某人账上
⑤ in charge 主管,负责;在拘留中
⑥ in charge of 负责,经管,照顾
⑦ in / under the charge of sb 由某人负责,由某人照
  料/管理
⑧ take charge (of) 负责,照料,保管等;掌管,接办
12. conduct n. 行为,操行
    the rules of conduct 行为准则
    foolish conduct 愚蠢的行为
    He was scolded because of his bad conduct.
    v. 引导,管理,指挥,售票
    Copper conducts electricity better than other materials
    do.
    铜比其它材料要容易导电。
    She's conducted on buses for 10 years.
    她在公共汽车上当了10年售票员。
【考点 3】conduct的用法
▲ 构词:
① conduction n. 传导,导电;输送,传播,引流
② conductor n. 领导者,经理,乐队指挥,(电车或公共
  汽车) 售票员,列车员
▲ 搭配:conduct oneself well行为端证
▲ 辨析:conduct;guide;lead
三者作为动词比较一般的含义是“领”、“导”或“引”。
conduct具体名词conductor (①向导②公共汽车等的
“售票员”);表示“指导”、“引导”时含有明显的主从关
系,即被引导者不服从是不可以的。例如:
The policeman eventually had his hands tied up and
conducted him to a shelter. 警察最后把他的双手绑了
起来并把他带到一个防空洞。
guide (抽象名词 guidance,具体名词guide “向导”) 是通
用词,可以用于“为别人带路”、“指导别人的学习、品行
修养”,它的内涵是避免走弯路或遇到危险。例如:
Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding
the dead on their return journey to the other world. 数
干只灯笼慢慢向大海漂去,给死人返回阴间指明道路。
He is now studying under the guidance of Professor
Green. 他现在正在格林教授的指导下学习。
lead (抽象名词leadership “领导”,具体名词 leader “领
袖”、“领队”)可以表示“领导”、“带路”,但它总含有领
导者走在前面.而把被领导者控制在自己的权威之下,
或被领导者处于秩序井然的状态中的意思。例如:
Our guide led us through a series of caves. 我们的向导
带领着我们穿过一个接一个的洞穴。
【考例3】[NMET 2003·完形] ...when I'd have predic-
ted the score to be about 9 to 1 in my favor, it was in-
stead 7 to 9 -- and Ed was ____.
    A. leading    B. coming
    C. waiting    D. counting
[考查目标]本题考查 conduct 以及近义词的用法。
[答案与解析]A leading在本句中有形容词性,意思
是“领先的”。
【考点2】continue的用法
▲构词:
① continuous adj. 连续的.持续的
② continuously adv. 不断地,连续地
▲ 搭配:
① continue doing sth / to do sth 继续做某事
② continue (with) sth 继续做某事
▲ 辨析:continue,last 都含“继续”、“延续”的意思。
continue 指“持续而无终止”,通常强调“不间断”。例
如:continue one's work 继续工作
last 指“持久”、“延续”。例如:
The rain will not last long. 这雨不会持续很久。
【考例2】[2003北京春招] They ____ to see each
other around school, had lunch together once or two,
and then both ended up from the same high school.
    A. continued    B. agreed
    C. forced    D. offered
 [考查目标] 本题考查 continue 的词义。
[答案与解析]A  continue 的宾语多种多样,它的意思
是“继续”。
【考点7】control的用法
▲ 构词:
① controlled adj. 受约束的.克制的
②controller n. 管理员,控制器
▲ 搭配:
① in control (of) 控制
② under control 受控制
③ out of control 失控,不能操纵
④ have / keep control (of / over) 可以控制
⑤ lose control (of) 失去(对……的)控制
⑥ take controls (of) 管辖,管理,控制
【考例7】[2004重庆] Everyone was too afraid to go in
because the fire was ____, so I went in.
    A. out of control    B. under control
    C. in control    D. over control
[考查目标] 本题考查control搭配的用法和意思。
[答案与解析]A  out of control的意思是“失去控制”。
16. doubt n. 怀疑 vt. 怀疑
  [拓展] doubtful adj. 令人生疑的
  I don' t doubt that he'll come.
  There is no doubt that you'll succeed.
  [搭配] without (a) doubt 毫无疑问地,确实地
  in doubt 感到怀疑 no doubt 无疑;很可能
【考点5】doubt 的用法
▲构词:
① doubtful adj. 怀疑的,疑心的;不能确定的,可疑的
②doubtfully adv. 怀疑地,含糊地
③ doubtless adj. 无疑的,确定的
  adv. 无疑地.确定地
▲ 搭配:
① beyond / past (all) doubt (常作插入语)毫无疑问
② cast / throw doubt on... 对…产生怀疑,使人对…产
  生怀疑
③ hang in doubt 悬而未决。还不能确定
④ in doubt 感到怀疑,拿不准;被怀疑,悬而未决
⑤ no doubt 无疑地,很可能
⑥ without (a) doubt 无疑地
⑦ be / feel doubtful of / about... / that-clause怀疑
▲友情提示:doubt常表示“怀疑”,其后接名词从句时,
主句为疑问句和否定句时,从旬常用连词that, but
that。主句为旨定句从句一般用连接词whether, if
what, when 等。如主句为肯定句而从句用连词that,
则往往表示“非常怀疑、不相信”。
【考例5】(2005广东)Some researchers believe that
there is no doubt ____ a cure for AIDS will be
found.
    A. which    B. that    C. what    D. whether
[考查目标] doubt 的用法。
[答案与解析]B no doubt后为同位语从句,that作为
引导词,不充当句子成分。
2. earn vt. 赚得;挣得;赢得
    I had not earned one penny with it up to the moment.
    到目前为止我还没有赚到一分钱。
    His victories in the wars earned him the title of "The
    Great".
    他百战百胜赢得了“常胜将军”的称号。
    [拓展]earn one's living 谋生
    earnings 赚得的钱
    She earned a living by singing in a night club.
    她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。
14. prove vt. 证明,证实
  How did you prove that he was the thief?
  The finger prints on the knife can prove him the murdurer.
   [注意] prove 还常用作系动词,意为“证明是,结果
    是”。
    The drug proved (to be) highly effective.
    What he said proved (to be) true.
1. reeognise vt. 识别,认出;承认,认可
  reeognisable adj. 可认出的;可识别的
  recognition n. 认识,认出;承认
  I recognized her by her red hat.
  我根据她的红色帽子认出了她。
  He recognized his lack of qulifacation for the post.
  他承认了自已不够条件承担那个职务。
  I recognise him to be cleverer than I am.
  = I recxgnise that he is cleverer than I am.
  我承认他比我更聪明。
【考点1】recognize的用法
▲ 构词:recognition n. 赞誉,承认,重视,公认,赏识,
识别
▲ 搭配:
① recognize sb as / to be... 承认/公认某人……
② beyond / out of recognition 完全改了模样,面目全非
③ escape recognition 使人认不出
【考例1】[2002北京] One of the processes of growing
uD is being able to ____ and overcome our fears.
    A. realize    B. remember
    C. recognize    D. recover
[考查目标] 本题考查recognize的意思。
[答案与解析]C  在本句中recognize的意思是“认
清”。
13. shock n. 打击,震惊,震动 vt. 使震惊,使惊愕
    [拓展] shocking adj. 令人震惊的
    She was white with shock.
    The news of her husband's death was a terrible shock
    to her.
    It shocked me to see how my neighbours treated their
    children.
    见到邻居们这样对待孩子,我吃了一惊。
    [注意] be / get shocked
    Mr Smith got shocked when he touched the wire.
    史密斯先生触到电线时遭到电击。
15. tear (toretorn) vt. & vi. 撕碎
  He tore the letter into pieces.
  She was so angry that she tore the picture in half.
  This cloth tears easily.
  [搭配] tear sth. down 拆除;拆毁 tear sth. up 撕碎
【考点8】worth的用法
▲构词:
① worthless adj. 无价值的,无益的
② worthwhile adj. 值得做的.值得出力的
③ worthy adj. 应得某事物;值得做某事;有价值的,可
敬的,相称的
▲ 搭配:
① be worth notice / the trouble (抽象名词)值得注意/
  费点事
② be (well) worth doing某事(很)值得一做
▲ 友情提示:此时worth后的动名词的主动式具有被
  动的含义。
③ It's (well) worth doing sth 做某事是(很)值得的
④ worth it 值得花费时间/精力,值得一千,有必要
【考例8】[2005北京西城模拟]
-- How much is the T-shirt ____?
-- 65 dollars.
    A. worth    B. cost    C. worthy    D. paid
[考查目标] 本题考查 worth 的基本用法。
[答案与解析]A  加 worth 的后面可以接表示价格的
名词,就可以用how much来提问。
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(recognize, continue, conduct, charge, control, at—
tract, worth, doubt)
1. I meant to buy the clock, but the seller ____ too
    much.
2. You have cut your hair so short that I can hardly
   ____ you.
3. ____ by the beauty of nature, they stayed in
   Hangzhou for another three days.
4. They are too weak. I ____ whether they can bear
   the bad climate.
5. The plane out of ___, crashed in the valley at
   last.
6. I will ask Mr. Brown to ____ our company in-
   stead of my uncle.
7. Nobody knows how much the portrait is
8. We two left but the meeting still
☆词语比较☆
1. because, since, as, for, now that
  它们都可以被用来引导原因状语从句,其中
  (1) because 语气最强,一般指事情发生的直接原因,
  回答提问,一般放在主句之后。
  Because he was ill, he was late for school.
  他生病了,所以迟到了。
  We must stay at home because it rained.
  (2) since 较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原
  因,泽为“既然”,侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已知
  的理由。
  Since you don't like it, I'll put it away.
  既然你不喜欢,我就把它放在一边。
  (3) as “由于,鉴于”,指客观事实,常与since互换使
  用。
  As there was no answer, I wrote again.
  鉴于没回复,我又写了一封信。
  (4) for 是并列连词,不说明直接原因而是对某种情
  况加以推断,其引导的分句前常有逗号。
  He must be ill, for he is absent today.
  他…定是生病了,因为他今天没来。
  (5) now that 用来说明一种新情况,然后加以推论。
  Now that you are ready, we'll start at once.
  既然你已经准备好了,我们马上开始。
2. continue, go on
  两者都有“继续”的意思。
  (1) continue to do / doing sth. 表示“不停地做某事”,
  go on to do sth. 则表示“接着做另一件事情”,go on
  doing sth. 表示“继续做同一件事情”,它可指中断后
  的继续,也可指不中断的继续。
  (2) continue后可直接跟名词,而go on后须加介词,
  才能接名词。
  (3) continue可用作系动词,go on不可。
  (4) continue后可接介词短语,表示仍在某地或某个
  职位,而go on不可。
  The baby continued to cry / crying all night.
  这个婴儿哭了一夜。
  It's time for class. Let's go on learning Lesson 5.
  上课了,我们继续上第五课。
  He continues a good friend of mine.
  他仍是我的一个好朋友。
  [拓展] to be mntinued 待续 (用于报刊上连载的文章等)
3. worth, worthy, worthwhile
  这三个形容词在使用时,容易混淆,worth只能作表
  语,后面常跟名词、代词或动名词的主动形式,
  worthy的意思是“值得的”“配得上的”“可敬的”,作
  表语或定语,作表语时,构成以下词组:be worthy of
  being done / be worthy to be done。worthwhile作“值
  得的,合算的”讲,只能作表语。
  这个问题值得讨论。
  The problem is worth discusaing / discussion.
  The problem is worthy of being discussed / to be
  discussed.
  The problem is worthy of discussion.
  It is worthwhile to discuss / discussing the problem.
【短语归类】
10. act...out 把……表演出来;把……付诸行动
  Everyone laughed when he acted out the episode.
  当他绘声绘色描绘那件事时,大家哄堂大笑。
  They actually acted out their ideal.
  他们确实把自己的理想变成了行动。
  act against 违反
  act as 担任;充当
  act on 奉行;对……起作用
  act up 出毛病;捣乱
7. after all 毕竟;终究
    这个词组有两个含意:“要知道……”;“别忘了
    ……”,表示说话人对别人的态度,用来说服或提醒
    对方,引出听话人似乎忘记了的某个重要的论点或
    理由,在表这个意思时,一般把after all放在句首。
    该词组还表示“终究”,在表示这层意思时,after aIl
    一般放于句末。
    I think we should let her go on holiday alone. After
    all, she is fifteen and she isn't a child any more.
    我想应该让她独自去度假,(要知道)她毕竟已经15
    岁,不再是小孩了。
    Mathilde thought it was a diamond necklace, but it
    wasn't a real one after all.
    玛蒂尔德原以为那足一条钻石项链,但那终归不是
    真的钻石项链。
11. at (the) most最多;至多
    I can pay only fifteen pounds at the most.
    我最多只能付15英镑。
   This is worth 3000 yuan at the most.
    这个最多值3000元。
    [拓展] at (the) least 至少;最少
8. bring back 拿回来;使恢复
  If you are going shopping, please bring back a tube of
  toothpaste?
  要是你上街,请买一支牙膏回来。
  His words brought the whole event back.
  他的话使人想起了整个事件。
  bring out 生产;制造
  bring up 养育;教育
  bring about 引起;致使
  bring down 使落下
6. call on / upon 访问,看望,拜访,要求,号召
    Last night I called on Mr. Black and had a long talk.
    昨晚我拜访了布莱克先生,并同他作r长时间谈话。
    The salesman called on our company twice a month.
    这位推销员每月来我们公司两次。
    Mr. Read called on us to learn from Peter.
    雷德先生号召我们向彼得学习。
    与call相关的词组:
    call after 以……的名字而命名
    call at 访问,拜访
    call for 要求;需求
    call out 大声喊叫
    call up 提醒
9. pay off 还清(债务);付清
    It took us six years to pay off that judgment.
    我们花了六年才还清债务。
    I'll certainly pay you back for what you did to me.
你那样对待我,我一定要回敬你的。
【考点3】pick构成的短语
① pick out 挑出,辨认出
② pick up 拾起,捡起,(用车)接,恢复(健康),中途搭载
③ pick off 摘下来
④ pick at 少量地吃,老是挑剔(某人)
⑤ pick & choose 挑三拣四
[例句] My sister is going with me to help me pick out a
new suit. 我姐姐要陪我去挑一件新衣服。
They showed their displeasure by continually picking at
her. 他们不断挑剔她,表明了他们不满。
Henry's been ill, but he's picking up again now. 亨瑞病
了,但是很快又恢复了健康。
【考例3】(NMET 1997) She ____ his number in
the phone book to make sure that she had got it right.
    A. looked up    B. looked for
    C. picked out    D. picked up
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]A  look up向上看,查找,查寻;look for
寻找;pick out 挑出来;pick up 拾起。本句话的意思为
“她在电话簿中找电话号码以便确信她是对的”。
17. pick out 挑出;辨别出;使显眼
  I can pick out my sister in the crowd.
  我能在人群中认出我妹妹。
  The houses in the painting were picked out in white.
  画中的房子在白色衬托下愈发突出。
  [注意]与pick搭配的词组有:pick up 拿起,拾起,恢
  复;pick over 检查
【考点1】含“介词at + (冠词) + 名词短语”
① at the head of 在……最前头
② at midnight 在半夜
③ at present 现在,目前
④ at once 立刻,马上
⑤ at breakfast 早餐时
⑥ at first 起先,首先
⑦ at school 在学校,在上学
⑧ at home 在家
⑨ at night 在晚上
⑩ at the moment 此刻
⑩ at the end of 在……结尾.到……尽头
⑩ at the same time 同时
⑩ at times 有时,偶尔
⑩ at all 一点也不
⑩ at last 最后,起码
⑩ at sea 在海上,茫然.奠名其妙
⑥ at the age of 在……岁数时
⑩ at the beginning of... 起初,开始
⑩ at (the) most 至多
④ at a time 每次
① at one time 过去有段时间,曾经
◎ at work 在工作
④ at a loss 茫然
⑨ at hospital 住院
④ at (the) least 至少
[例句] A policeman drove at the head of the procession.
一名警察在游行的队伍前开着车。
At first he was a little shy in class, but now he acts
more naturally. 起初在班里他有点害羞.但是现在自然
多了。
If you find anything not to your liking you will tell me
at once? 如果你发现你不喜欢的东西,马上告诉我好吗?
At one time 1 used to play a lot of sport, but I seem to
have lost interest now. 我曾经喜爱运动,但是现在好像
失去了兴趣。
I feel a little nervous at times. 有时我的确感到有些紧
张。
The meal came to an end at last, and Mr. Li rose. 这顿
饭终于吃完了,李先生站了起来。
I don't understand politics: I'm at sea when people talk
about the government. 我不懂政治,当人们谈论政府
时,我就茫然了。
【考例l】(NMET 1994) Don't all speak at once!
____ please.
    A. Each at one time
    B. One by one time
    C. One for each time
    D. One at a time
[考查目标]此题主要考查time短语的用法。
[答案与解析]D at a time 每次;one at time 每次一
个;“一个接一个”应该用one by one, 不可以在后面加
lime;at one time过去有段时间,曾经。本句话意思是
“不要都同时讲话,一个一个的说!”
【考点2】与“数量”有关的短语
① a few 一些,几个
② a series of 一连串的。一系列
③ a bit (of) 少量的,一点,也不
④ a pairr of 一对,一双
⑤ a bottle of 一瓶
⑥ a glass of 一杯
⑦ a piece of 一件
⑧ a kind of 一种
⑨ a little 一点
⑩ a lot of / lots of 许多
⑥ plenty of 许多,大量的
⑥ a number of 许多
⑩ the number of... …的数量
⑩ a great deal of 许多,大量
⑩ a basin of 一盆
⑩ a bowl of 一碗
⑥ a basket of 一篮
⑩ a bucket of 一桶
⑩ a handful of 一把
⑩ a mouthful of 一口
[例句] A series of rainy days spoiled our vacation. 一连
串的阴雨天破坏了我们的假期。
There lay a pair of glasses on the desk. 在课桌上放着一
副眼镜。
There was plenty of work for girls of her age. 对于她这
个年龄的女孩来说,有很多工作。
A great number of civilians were murdered in the war.
大量的平民在战争中被杀害。
She thought that her friend must have been through a
great deal of trouble. 她想她的朋友肯定经历了许多麻
烦事。
【考例2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited
____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent
for different reasons.
    A. were; was    B. was; was
    C. was; were    D. were; were
[考查目标] 此题主要考查主谓一致。
[答案与解析]C “the number of + 复数名词”作主语
时,谓语动词用单数形式;“a number of + 复数名词”作
主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。
[牛刀小试2]
根据所给汉语句子的意思完成英语句子,每空只填一
个词。
1. 她费尽力气想看懂那些说明文字,却全然不知所云。
  She tries to understand the instructions,but she was ____ ____ ____.
2. 不要什么事情都一块儿干,要一次做一点儿。
Don't try to do everything ____; take
 it a bit ____.
3. 这家出版社出版了一套新的英语学习读物。
  The publishing house has published ____ ____ ____ ____English learning materials.
4. 这裤子花了30美元,比预料的要贵得多。
These trousers ____ $30 ____ ____,
which was much more expensive than ____.
5. 病人在医院住了好长一段时间,人们建议他去海边
  恢复健康。    .
  After staying in hospital for long, the patient was
  ____ to go to the seaside to ____ ____  his health.
☆句型诠释☆
1. 英语句型中的否定前移
  在英语中,如果主句的动词是think, suppose,
  expect, believe, imagine 之类的动词,而且主语又是
  第一人称,宾语从句要表达否定,其否定形式应迁移
  到主句。但是,如果构成反意疑问句时,要把否定形
  式再迁移到从句中去,以从句为准。
  I don't think you're right.
  我认为你不对。
  I don't suppose I shall be back until 9 o'clock.
  我想几点以前我回不来。
  I don't think your answer is right, is it?
  我认为你的回答不对,是不是?
2. 助动词 do 强调谓语动词的用法
  在肯定句中,助动词do可用来强调谓语动词,带有
  感情色彩,可译成“真的,的确”。
  You do look nice today.
  你今天看起来真漂亮。
  We did need help those days.
  在那些日子里我们的确需要帮助。
3. be (was / were) to do
  此结构表示安排、命令、职责、义务、目的、用途、可能
  性、命中注定等。
  You are to be baek bv 11 o'clock.
  你得在11点钟前回来。(命令)
  I am to inform you that the meeting will be held in
  Hangzhou.
  我谨通知你会议在杭州举行。(职责)
  A knife is to cut with.
  刀是用来切割的。(用途)
  They were never to meet again.
  他们注定以后永远不会见面。(命中注定)
  If there is to be peace, we must try in every way to
  prevent war.
  要和平,就得想一切办法制止战争。(可能性)
4. 祈使句 + and + 陈述句结构
  在这种句子结构中,祈使句表示条件,陈述句表示结
  果,它相当于If you..., you will...,另外,祈使句 +
  or + 陈述句结构表示:If (not)..., you will,有时候,
  祈使句中的动词可省略。
  Work harder, and you'll find it not difficult to learn.
    再用功一点,你就会发现它不难写。
    Hurry up, or you will be late.
    快一点,否则你会迟到。
    More effort, and you can finish it in time.
再加把劲,你会按时完成它。
【句型归纳】
【考点1】Pierre and I did have a very good time at the
ball. 皮埃尔与我确实在舞会上玩得很开心。
该句中的did为助动词,加强谓语动词have的语气。
在“助动词do / does / did + 动词原形”结构中,助动词
do / does / did意思是“确实,的确,一定”。常常用在
肯定句或祈使句中,起加强语气的作用。有人称和时
态的变化。例如:
Do send me e-mail immediately you arrive at Beijing. 你
一到北京,一定要给我发电子邮件。
He does smoke two packs of cigarettes every day. 他确
实每天抽两包烟。
The company earned much more this month than it did
last month. 公司本月赚的钱要比上个月多得多。
【考例1】(NMET 2000) An awful accident____,
however, occur the other day.
    A. does    B. did
    C. was to    D. had to
[考查目标] 对句子中谓语的强调。
[答案与解析] B  助动词do (does用于第三人称) 用于
对现在时态的强调;did用于对过去时态的强调,后面
均接动词原形。
【考点2】In the eighteenth century, Benjamin Franklin
conducted a number of experiments in which he showed
what electricity is. 18世纪。本杰明·富兰克林做了一系
列的试验,以证明电是什么。
注意:该句子中的 a number of 作主语,谓语动词用复数
形式。例如:
A number of children play video games online. 很多的
孩子在网上玩电子游戏。
a number of意思是“许多,数目”,作主语时,谓语动词
用复数形式。the number of意思是“数量”,作主语时,
谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
A number of people prefer to sending e-mail each other
t0 writing letters. 许多人更愿意发电子邮件,而不愿意
写信。
The number of milu deer is increasing year by year. 麋
鹿的数目在逐年增加。
【考例2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited
____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent
fnr different reasons.
    A. were; was    B. was; was
    C. was; were    D. were; were
[考查目标] 主谓一致。
[答案与解析] C  根据以上的解释,应该选was;were。
【考点3】Having realized that I could use a kite to attract
Iightning, I decided to do an experiment. 意识到可以用
风筝引来闪电之后,我便决定做个实验。
该句中的having realized是v-ing形式的完成式在句中
作状语。
v-ing形式在句中的主要作用是作状语,having done表
示非谓语动词的动作先于渭语动词的动作,而且要注
意非谓语与句子主语之间存在着主动关系时,用hav—
ing done;非谓语与句子主语之间存在着被动关系时,
用having been done;其否定形式是在v-ing前加not。
例如:
Having finished his homework, the boy decided to play
football for a while. 做完了作业.他决定去踢一会儿
球。
Not having cleaned the classroom, they couldn't go
home. 还没有打扫完教室,他们还不能回家。
Having been praised in class, the girl felt very happy.
那个姑娘在班上得到表扬,感到很高兴。
【考例3】(2001上海春招) ____ from heart trouble
for years, Professor White has to take some medicine
with him wherever he goes.
    A. Suffered    B. Suffering
    C. Having suffered    D. Being suffered
[考查目标]非谓语动词v-ing。
[答案与解析]C  v-ing形式的逻辑主语是Professor
White,Professor White和suffer之间存在着主动关
系,而且根据,for years,表示 suffer 的动作持续换了
多少年,所以用v-ing完成式表示原因。
[牛刀小试3]
1. He ____ to the railway station, only to find the
  train had been away for 5 hours.
     A. did go               B. had gone
     C. had to go            D. has gone
2.  ____ careful while crossing the street.
     A. Your being          B. To be
     C. Do be                D. Being
3. ____ of deaths from heart disease will be reduced
  greatly if people are persuaded to eat more fruit and
  vegetables.
     A. The number         15. A number
     C. A lot of            D. Many
4. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom sudden-
  ly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (2004)
     A. To wait              B. Have waited
   C. Having waited    D. To have waited
    【交际速成】
【考点 1】Asking for permission 征求许可
(2004 广东)
  Do you mind if I open the window?
…    I feel a bit cold.
    A. of course not.
    B. I'd rather you didn't.
    C. Go ahead.
    D. Why not?
[答案与解析]B  本题考查对征求许可的应答用语。
根据所提供的情景“I feel a bit cold”,说明对方不愿意
把窗户打开,所以B项符合语境。
【归纳】英语中常见表达征求许可的用语有:
① Could We / I...?
② May / Can I...?
③ Shalll / we...?
④ Is it possible...?
⑤ Do / Would you mind...?
⑥ Is it all right if l sit here?
⑦ I wonder if I could smoke here.
应答用语有:
① Yes, please.
② Sure / Certainly.
③ That's all right.
④ Of course, you can / may.
⑤ Please do.
⑥ Go ahead, please.
⑦ I'm sorry, it's not allowed.
⑧ I'm afraid not.
⑨ You'd better not.
【考点2】 Giving instructions 发出指令
(2004湖北) ____ follow the instructions given at
the top of the page.
    A. You're sure    B. Be sure to
    C. Sure to    D. Sure about
[答案与解析]B  本题考查表达指令的功能意念。此
句Be sure to do意为“务必做……”,所以B项正确。
【归纳】英语中发出指令时常用祈使句式,例如:
A.
① Build the frame of the kite by making...
② Tie the corners of the handkerehief to the points of
  the cross...
③ Add a tail to the frame and tie a Iong string to the
  cross...
④ First, fix a sharp piece of metal...Second, fasten a
  key to the end of the long string...Third, tie a silk
  ribbon to the string...
⑤ Fly the kite when...
B.
Don't touch anything unless your teacher tells you to.
【考点3】Discussing and evaluating pros and cons 讨论和
评估赞成与反对
-- It's more expensive to live in the city than to live in
  the country, I think.
-- ____. Living in the city brings people more con—
  venience, though.
    A. You're wrong
    B. I'm sorry to hear that
    C. I couldn't agree more
    D. That's all right
[答案与解析]C  本题考查讨论和评估赞成与反对的
功能项目。根据所提供的情景“living in the city
brings people more convenience, though.”,时话一方
首先赞成另一方的观点,同时表述了自己的看法。所
以C项符合语境。
【归纳】讨论和评估赞成与反对时,英语中使用下列说
法,例如:
阐述优点 (advantages) 时:
① It's good for the economy.
② It can help many people in the future.
③ It is cleaning and does not pollute the air.
④ It is important for science.
⑤ It brings people more comfort.
指出缺点(disadvantages)时:
① It is too expensive.
② It is dangerous or bad for your health.
③ It is bad for the environment.
④ It is unnecessary.
⑤ Some people wm use it for other things.
[牛刀小试4]
      B. OK !
      C. Is that really necessary?
      D. That's it.
4. -- Don't make any noise. My child is sleeping.
    -- ____.
      A. No, I don't
      B. Oh, I'm sorry
      C. Yes, I know
      D. I didn't do that thing
    ☆精典题例☆
(  )1. Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there
    because there wasn't always ____ much to do.
    (2004 广东)
    A. such    B. that
    C. more    D. very
    【解析】选B本题考查that作副词的用法,在这里that
是副词,等于so,有“那么”之意,much后面省略了work。
(  )2. "We can't go out in this weather," said Bob,
    ____ out of the window. (2004全国卷)
    A. looking    B. to look
    C. looked    D. having looked
    【解析】选A此题考查非谓语动词的用法,从句子
意思及结构来看,此处应用现在分词做伴随状语。
(  )3. Do let your mother know all the truth. She
    appears ____ everything.
    A. tell    B. to be told
    C. to be telling    D. to have been told
    【解析】选D本题考查动词不定式的用法,不定式
有一般式、进行式和完成式,还有主动和被动形式。一般
式表示动作发生在谓语动词之后,进行式表示动作和谓语
动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成式表示动作发生在谓语
动词之前。
(  )4. Yes. ____ more words and expressions and you
    wm find it easier tO read and communicate.
    (2004上海)
    A. Know    B. Knowing
    C. To know    D. Known
    【解析】选A本题考查祈使句+and+陈述句结构。
(  )5. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If
    not, you may ____ run over by a car. (2002
    北京)
    A. have    B. get
    C. become    D. turn
    【解析】选B本题考查get + 过去分词的用法,get +
过去分词经常用在口语中表被动语态,强调动作突然发生
或未曾料到的事态的结果。
(  )6. Mr Smith, ____ of the ____ speech, started
    to read a novel.
    A. tired; boring    B. tiring; bored
    C. tired; bored    D. tiring; boring
    【解析】选A   tired of表示“对……感到厌烦”,作原
因状语和主语是被动关系。boring是现在分词作定语修
饰speech,和speech是主动关系,等于the speech which
was boring。
(  )7. -- Do you mind if I open the window?
    -- ____. I feel abit cold. (2004广东)
    A. Of course not    B. I'd rather you didn't
    C. Go ahead    D. Why not
    【解析】选B在回答Do you mind...时,如果表示反
对,应用委婉说法。
(    )8. I'd like to buy a house - modern, comfortable,
    and ____ in a quiet neighborhood.
    A. in all    B. above all
    C. after all    D. at all
    【解析】选B   above all意为“最重要的是”,其它短语
意思不符合。
(    )9. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom
    suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at
    home. (2004  北京)
    A. To Wait    B. Have waited
    C. Having waited    D. To have waited
    【解析】选 C 现在分词的完成式表示此动作在主句
谓语动词之前。
(  )10. I do every single bit of housework ____ my
    husband Bob just does the dishes now and then.
    (2004  全国卷)
    A. since    B. while
    C. when    D. as
    【解析】选B while“然而,却”,表示对比关系。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 9 SBI Units 17- 18
重点句型
1. What is to be done when something gets into your eyes?
2. It is much too expensive.
3. It's fast and clean and it does.
4. I was beginning to, think that the experiment would
    not work.
5. Tie the corner of the handkerchief to the points of the
   cross and you will have a nice strong kite.
6. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is.
7. For women it sometimes seems twice as much.
8. I had traveled only two hours one day when the winds
   increased so much that I had to put my tent up before
   the winds became too strong.
    ☆重点词汇☆
  1. scholarship n. 奖学金;学问
  2. graduation n. 毕业
  3. surround  v. 包围;围绕
  4. central adj. 中心的;中央的
  5. mild adj. 温和的
  6. settle vt. 使定居;解决;使平静
  7. harbour n. 海港
  8. volcano n. 火山
  9. surface n. 表面
10. ship v. 用船运
11. export v. 输出
12. agricultural n. 农业的;农艺的
13. possession n. 拥有;占有
14. secretary n. 秘书;文书
15. conference n. 会议;讨论会
16. cattle n. 牛;牲畜
17. inspire v.鼓舞;启示;激发
18.admire v. 钦佩;羡慕
19. generous adj. 慷慨的;大方的
20. mean adj.吝啬的;卑鄙的
21. dishonest adj. 不诚实的
22. champion n. 冠军;得胜者
23. stormy adj. 暴风雨的
24. threaten vt. 威胁
25. bottom n. 底部
26. optimistic adj. 乐观的
27. somehow adv. 以某种方式;不知怎么地
28. regret v. 遗憾;悔恨
29. value v. 重视;评价
30. bother v. 烦扰;打扰
    ☆重点短语☆
1. increase to... 增加到……
2. become of sb. / sth. 某人 / 某物发生……情况
3. be about to do sth. 马上要做某事
4. struggle to one's knees 挣扎站起来
5. around the comer 即将来临;就在附近
6. refer to 涉及到;谈到;查阅
7. clear up (天气)放晴;整理
8. die down (风、火、光)等渐弱,(声音)静下来
9. come to terms with 甘心忍受,妥协
10. rise to fame 出名
11. take possession of 占有,占领
12. sign an agreement with 和……签定协议
13. turn to doing 转为做……
14. in relation to 与……有关;关于
15. as it is 以现在的样子
16. lie in / to / on 位于……
17. the majority of 大多数……
18. at the top of one's voice 高声地
19. drop out 脱离;退出
20. compare...with 和……比较
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才
能过关.你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
1. (just) ____ the corner即将来临;在拐角处;就
  在附近
2. die ____ 变弱;平息;消失
3. come ____ terms with 甘心忍受(不愉快的处
境);妥协,让步
4. ____ possession of占有;占领
5. make ____ 组成,构成;编造;虚构
6. turn ____ 开始干;求助于;转向;翻到多少页
7. go ____ 驾船航行;进行帆船运动
8. go ____ 宿营
9. ____ high quality质量很高
10. sign an ____ with与……签订协议
11. have a population ____有多少人口
12. ____ relation to关于;涉及;与……有关
13. rise to ____ 出名
14. drop ____下沉;沉落;掉落;退出;不参加
15. be thankful ____ 因……感谢
16. _,___ the top of one's voice高声地
17. be ____ good health身体状况良好
18. struggle ____ one's knees / feet 挣扎着站起来
19. struggle ____ 挣扎着渡过(难关)
20. blow ____ 吹走
21. become ____ 某人(某事物)发生……情况;
  ……怎么对立
22. be known ____ 因……而著名
23. ____ far到目前为止
24. hang ____ 紧紧握住某物
25. be marked ____ 以……为特征
    ☆交际用语☆
1. She seems to me to be the kind of women who...
2. The impression she makes on me is...
3. I think she is the kind of person who...
4. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is.
5. It sometimes seems twice as difficult.
6. New Zealand is an important agricultural country, with
cattle farming on the North Isle.
7. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer.
☆单词聚焦☆
【考点2】admire 的用法
▲ 构词:
① admiration n. 钦佩,赞美,羡慕
② admirer n. 羡慕者,赞赏者,敬慕者
▲ 搭配:
① admire sb. for sth. 赞赏/钦佩某人……
② express admiration for 对……表示钦佩
③ in admiration of 赞美,赏识
④ with admiration 羡慕地
【考例2】[NMET 1993] And Mrs. Clarke was greatly
    ____ at the club for the successful self-protectton.
    A. surprised    B. admired
    C. inspired    D. supported
[考查目标] 本题考查admire的词义。
[答案与解析]B  这句话说的是“由于Mrs. Clarke的
自我保护行为,她得到了人们的尊重”。
【考点7】affect 的用法
▲ 构词:
① affection n. 友爱,爱情
② affective adj. 情感的.表达感情的
③ affected adj. 受到影响的,受(疾病)侵袭的,假装
  的,做作的
▲ 搭配: be affected by 受……影响;被……感动;患
【考例7】[2005成都模拟] He probably didn't know how
much the car was going to  ____ American culture.
    A. affect    B. afford    C. effort    D. effect
[考查目标] 本题考查affect的词义。
[答案与解析]A affect 具有动词词性词义是“影响”,
它的名词形式是effecy。
【考点5】bear 的用法
▲ 搭配:bear in mind牢记在心
▲ 辨析:bear; suffer; endure; stand
这组动词都有“忍受”的意思。
bear 和 suffer 可以表示“对强加的任何东西的忍受”,
bear 侧重于表示“忍受沉重或堆办的事”。而suffer侧
重于表示“忍受或经受令人不愉快的、甚至于痛苦的
事”。例如:
In the end, I could not bear it. 最后,我受不了啦。
When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a ciga—
rette, it was more than I could bear. 当老朋友布赖恩怂
恿我接受一支香烟时,我就受不住了。
endure 强调“长时间的忍受痛苦而不屈服”。例如:
What can't be cured must be endured. 治不好的病就必
须忍受。
Travelers in space have to endure many discomforts in
their rockets. 宇宙旅行家不得不在火箭中忍受许多不
舒适的东西。
stand 表示“忍受令人生厌的事”。例如:
Considering his home situation, he had to tolerate his
wife. 考虑到家中的情形,他不得不忍让妻子。
stand 常与 bear 通用,如果用词确切,stand 总包含着
“不退让”、“不畏缩”的“忍受”之意。例如:
He can stand more pain than anyone else I know. 他比
我认识的任何人都更能忍受痛苦。
He stood the test of war. 他经受住了战争的考验。
【考例5】[NMET 1999] Harry Fields also studying bi—
ology said they wanted to make as much noise as possl-
ble t0 force the government officials to realize what
 everybody was having to  ____.
    A. stand    B. accept    C. know    D. share
[考查目标] 本题考查bear的近义词stand的词义用法。
[答案与解析]A bear和stand在很多场合可以换用,
意思是“忍受,经得起”。
3. inspire vt. 鼓舞,激励,启示
  inspiring 鼓舞人心的
  His advice insoired her to greater efforts.
  他的忠告激励她更加努力。
  The memory of her childhood inspired her first novel.
  儿时的回忆促使她写成第一本小说。
  [词组] inspire sb. to sth. 赋予某人灵感
【考点4】promise的用法
▲ 构词:promising adj. 有希望的,有前途的
▲ 搭配:
① break one's / a promise 违背诺言,违约
② make / give a promlse 答应,许诺
③ keep one's / a promise遵守诺言,守约
④ I promise you. 我敢肯定;说句老实话;我警告你。
⑤ promise oneself决心,指望,期待
⑥ promise well 很有希望,前景很好
【考例4】[2004湖南]I drove Dad into Mijas, and
 ____ to pick him up at 4 pm, then dropped off the
car at the garage.
    A. agreed    B. planned
    C. determined    D. promised
[考查目标] 本题考查promise的词义。
[答案与解析] D  从上下文来看,这句话说的不是“同
意”或“决心”而是“答应”、“许诺”。
4. regret vi. 遗憾,惋惜,悔恨 n. 遗憾,抱歉
  regretful adj. 后悔的
  I regret to do sth. 遗憾地做某事
  I regret doing sth. 后悔做了某事
  I regret spending so much money on a computer.
  我后悔花了这么多钱买这台电脑。
  How I regretted having wasted so much time playing.
  我多么后悔把许多时间都浪费在玩上。
  I regret to say I can not come.
  我遗感地告诉你我不能来。
【考点3】regret 的用法
▲ 构词:
① regretful adj. 后悔的,抱歉的,惋惜的,遗憾的
② regretfully adv. 懊悔地,抱歉地
③ regretless adj. 无悔的,不后悔的,没有遗憾的
▲ 搭配:
① to one's regret 令某人遗憾的是
② regret (to tell you / say) that... 遗憾……;很抱歉
③ It is to be regretted that... 使人遗憾的是……;真可
  惜……
④ regret doing sth 后悔干了某事
【考例3】[2004重庆] This scar will be lasting, but to
this day, I have never ____ what I did.
    A. forgot    B. recognized
    C. considered    D. regretted
[考查目标] 本题考查 regret 的词义。
[答案与解析] D regret 的意思是“后悔”。从本句的
句意可以看出,主人公对过去的事始终不后悔。
【考点1】run 的用法
▲ 构词:
① running n. 奔跑,赛跑。转动.运转
② runner n. 赛跑者
▲ 搭配:
① run for 竞选
② run sb off sb's feet 使疲于奔命
③ run across 偶然遇到
④ run after 追逐,追踪
⑤ run into 碰撞;遇上.偶然遇到;陷于。碰上(困境、麻
  烦等)
⑥ run out 用光,耗尽(不及物)
⑦ run out of 用光/耗尽……
【考例1】[2004北京] All we did during practice was
____.
    A. jump    B. play    C. run    D. shoot
[考查目标] 本题考查run的词义。
[答案与解析]C  在本句中run作was的表语。这是
一个与上文承接的细节。
2. settle vi. 安放,安居,定居 vt. 解决
  My son has settled in Beijing.
  我儿子已定居在北京。
  After years 0{travelling, they decided to settle down
  here.
  旅行多年以后,他们决定定居下来。
  They settled the dispute among themselves.
  他们自己把这个争论解决了。
  [词组] settle down 安下心来
  settle into 习惯于
  settle up 结清
【考点6】settle的用法
▲ 构词:
① settled adj. 固定的,不变的,永久的;(账单上)付讫.
  结讫
② settlement n. 殖民,移民;定居点;和解,解决,决
  定;清算,清账;财产的赠与
③settler n. 定居者
▲ 搭配:
① That settles it! (口)事情就这样定了!这就完了!
② settle down (使)平静下来;(活动一段时间后)舒舒
  服服地坐下,躺下;定居。成家
③s ettle (down) to sth 安下心来做某事
④ settle to do sth 决定去做某事
【考例6】[2004辽宁]..., and laws had to be made to
 protect the water rights of the ____ and the use of
the water resources accordingly.
    A. winners    B. settlers
    C. fighters    D. supporters
[考查目标] 本题考查 settle 派生词的用法。
[答案与解析]B settle的名词形式之一是settler,意思
是“定居者”。
1.surround vt. 包围,环绕
  be surrounded by / with 被……围住
  The village is surrounded on all sides by hill.
  这个村子四面环山。
  She has always been surrounded with fashionable friends.
  她周围总有许多爱赶时髦的朋友。
  [拓展] surrounding adj. 附近的;四周的
  The students in our school come from the surrounding
  area.
  我们学校的学生来自周边地区。
  surroundings n. 常用复数形式,意为“环境”。
  The surroundings a child grows up in may have an
  effect on his development.
  小孩生长的环境会影响他的发展。
5. value n. 价值;重要性
  You must realise the value of the dictionary.
  你必须意识到这本字典的重要性。
  be of (no) value 有(无)价值
  [拓展] value n. 评价,重视,珍视,估价
  How do you value him as a teacher?
  照你的评价他是个怎样的老师?
  We valued the house at $30,000.
  我们估计这栋房子值3万美元。
  I value your friendship very highly.
  我非常珍惜你的友谊。
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(run, admire, regret, bear, promise, settle, affect)
1. The noise was so great that most of the children
   couldn't ____.
2. --Jackie won't come to see you this afternoon.
   -- But he ____.
3. The company my cousin ____ was closed last
   year, leaving a lot of debt.
4. I only ____ that I have too little money to buy a
   house for you.
5. A group of tourists from Taiwan ____ the view
when it began to rain.
6. At last they           in the west of America and
   started their hard life.
7. It is the bad weather that __ the goats' life in
   this area.
☆词语比较☆
1. jommey, voyage, tour, travel, trip
  (1) journey n. “旅行,旅程”,指陆地的远程旅行。
  At first I was afraid the long joumey was too much for
  her.
  I wish you a good journey. 祝你一路平安。
  (2) tour n. 常指观光、考察等的环游旅行。
  They fire on a wedding tour. 他们正在新婚旅行。
  (3) trip n. “旅行”,指来往有定的短距离旅行。
  I enjoy our trip to the seaside.
  I can't afford a trip to Korea.
  (4) voyage n.“旅行”,指距离较长的漫长旅行,也可
  指空中旅行。
  He made a long voyage t0 Africa.
  (5) travel泛指旅行各地,表示“旅行的路途远,时问
  长”。
  He came home after years 0f foreign travel.
  多年在旧外旅行之后他回来r。
2. alone, lonely
  (1) alone 既可用作形容词,又可用作副词,意为“独
  自的(地),单独的(地)”,侧重于说明独自一个人,没
  有同伴或助手,指的是客观情况。
  ① alone 用作形容词时,一般与be动词连用,在句中
  作表语。例如:
  She is alone at home. 她一个人在家。
  He is not alone in this idea.
  有这种想法的不只是他一个人。
  ② alone 用作副词时,修饰动词,放于动词后面作状
  语。
  Han Mei was reading alone when the teacher came into
  the classroom.
  ③ alone用作副词也可作定语,意为“只有,仅仅”,但
  必须置于它所修饰的名词或代词之后。
  He alone was in the street.
  This year alone, we've already planted ten thousand
  trees.
  (2) lonely只用作形容词,它在句中既可作定语,又可
  作表语,表示“孤独的,寂寞的”意思,该词带有浓厚
  的感情色彩,具有“渴望得到同伴”的含义,其比较级
  形式为lonelier。
  ① lonely 用作定语时,意为“孤单的,无伴侣的,荒凉
  的,偏僻的”。
  At heart, I'm a lonely man. 内心深处,我很孤独。
  That's a lonely island. 那足个孤岛。
  ② lonely用作表语时,可以表示“孤寂的,寂寞的”意
  思。
  We never feel lonely in America.
  在美国我们从不觉得孤独。
  I was alone, but I didn't feel lonely.
  我独自一人,但我并不感到孤独。
3. almost, nearly
  (1) almost一般指事实的陈述,而nearly则带有一定
  的感情色彩。
  The book cost me almost 30 yuan. (只陈述事实)
  The honk costme nearly 30 yuan. (指嫌贵的意思)
  (2) almost 后可跟never, no, none, nobody, nothing
  等具有否定意义的词,而nearly不能。
  Almost noone got to school on time yesterday.
  (3) 在more than, any, too之前通常用almost,而不
  用nearly。
  Almost more than ten students failed in the exam.
  不及格的学生几乎不止十个。
  (4) nearly之前可用very, not, pretty修饰,而almast
  则不能。
  It's very nearly dark. Let's go home.
  灭怏黑了,咱们刚家吧!
  [注意] 有时almost与nearly町以互换,但如果要表
  达“差一点儿”,还足用almost确切。
【短语归类】
7. around the corner 就在附近,即将来临,发生
  Victory is just around the comer; make one more
  effort.
  胜利即将来临,再努一把力。
  The bank is around the comer, you can't miss it.
  银行就在附近,你不会错过它的。
  [拓展] cut corners 偷工减料
  cut the corner 抄近路
6. die down 变弱,渐熄,逐渐消失
  The excitement died down as time went by.
  随着时间的过去,激动心情渐渐平息下来。
  The noise has died down. 喧闹声小下来了。
  The wind has died down obviously. 风已明显减弱了。
  [拓展] die out 死光,灭绝,消失
  The fire died out. 火灭了。
  die away 指(风,声音) 逐渐消失
  The noises of the bovs died away.
  男孩子们的吵闹声消失了。
  die for 为……而死;渴望;切望
【考点l】含"make + 介词/副词”的短语
① make for 走向,有助于
② make into 把……制成
③ be made from / of / in / by / out of 由……制成
④ make up 弥补,拼凑成,组成,铺(床)。捏造.虚构
⑤ make out 填写,完成,设法应付,领悟,弄明白,发现
  真相
⑥ make over 转让,改造
[例句] How did he make out while his wife was away?
他妻子不在家时他足怎么生活的?
We made up the bed in the spare room for our guest. 我
们在空着的房间里给客人铺好床。
I couldn't remember a story to tell the children, so I
 made one up as I went along. 我想不出有什么故事可给
孩子讲了,只好现编现讲。
We are making our attic into an extra bedroom. 我们正
在把阁楼装成一间额外的卧室。
Constant arguing doesn't make for a happy marriage. 经
常争吵不利于维系美满的婚姻。
【考例1】(2003北京春招) The idea puzzled me so much
that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____.
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it up    D. make it over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析]A  make out领悟。弄明白。发现真相;
make off连忙跑掉;make up弥补。打扮,组成;make
over转让,改造。本句意为:因为受到迷惑。所以应该试
图发现真相。
9. make up 组成,构成,补充,编造
  The workers and peasants make up the majority of the
  populationn of our country.
  工人和农民占我国人口的大多数。
  We must make up his loss somehow.
  我们必须想办法弥补他的损失。
  The whole story is made up.
  这个事情完全是虚构出来的。
  The actor made himself uD as an old peasant.
  这个演员把自己化装成一个老农民。
8. take up 对……产生兴趣;从事;占用
  Her time is fully taken uD with writing.
  她的时间完全被写作占满了。
  This table takes uD too much room.
  这张桌子太占地方。
  [拓展] bring up 抚养,教育come up 上来,抬头
  eat up 吃光  end up 结束  keep up 保持  make up
  组成,弥补  pick up 拣起  put up 张贴  stay up 熬
  夜,挺住  set up 建立  turn up 出现  wake up 醒来
【考点2】含 “with构成的动词短语”
① be fed up with 厌倦
③ be filled with 充满
③ catch up with 赶上
④ come up with 找到,提出(答案、解决办法等)
⑤ get on well with 与……相处融洽
⑥ quarrel with 吵架
⑦ stay / keep / be in touch with 与……保持联系
⑧ end up with 以……告终
⑨ keep up with 跟上,赶上
⑩ come to terms with 甘心忍受。使自己顺从于某事物⑨ talk with 与某人交谈
⑥ agree with 同意……意见(想法),符合,一致
⑩ disagree with 不同意
⑩ struggle / fight with 和……战斗/斗争
⑩ work with 用……干,和……工作
⑩ put up with 忍受
[例句] Filled with smoke, the room is not pleasant to
stay in. 房间里烟雾弥漫,在里面呆着不舒服。
She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. 她想
出了增加销售量的新主意。
You'll just have to come to terms with the fact that you
are fired. 你不得不接受的现实情况是你被解雇了。
The child was fed up with listening to tim same story.
孩子厌烦听同一个故事。
I can't keep up with all the changes in computer tech-
nology.计算机技术的各种改进有些我已经跟不上了。
【考例2】(2001京、蒙、皖春招)Would you slow down a
bit, please? I can't ____ you.
      A. keep up with        B. put up with
      C. make up to          D. hold on to
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析]A  keep up with 跟上;put up with 忍
受;make up to 是错误搭配;hold on to 坚持。本句话意
思是“请你慢一点儿好吗?我跟不上”。
【考点3】含“动词构成的of短语”
① be afraid of 害怕
② be proud of 以……自豪
③ be full of 充满
④ hear of 听说
⑤ make use of 利用
⑥ speak highly of 称赞
⑦ think highly of 对……高度评价
⑧ take care of 照顾,照料
⑨ think of 认为,想起
⑩ take possession of 占有,占领
⑩ be sure of 对……有把握
⑩ rob...of... 抢劫……
⑩ think of...a...认为……是……
[例句]I didn't menti’on it because I was afraid of upset—
ting him. 我没有提起那件事,因为我怕他心烦意乱。
He felt very proud of having a friend with such noble
ideas. 他非常自豪的是有这样一位思想高尚的朋友。
Make full use of every chance you have to speak Eng—
lish. 要充分利用一切机会说英语。
His work is highly thought of by the critics. 他的作品
深受评论家推崇。
I did think of resigning, but I decided not to. 我原来确
实打算辞职,但后来打消了这个念头。
【考例3】(NMET 1988) The passengers were robbed ____
    all their money.
    A. of    B. off
    C. from    D. away
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 rob的 用法。
[答案与解析]A rob 构成短语rob sb. of sth“抢夺某人
的东西”。
[牛刀小试2]
在下列句子的空白处填上适当的介词或副词:
1. In Britain today women make ____ 44% of the
   workforce, and nearly half the mothers with children
   are in paid work.
2. They were standing so far away that 1 couldn't make
    ____ their faces clearly.
3. -- What do you think ____ Andrew?
   -- There are some things that are not easy to put
       ____  ____, and his coldness is one.
4. In order to improve her skill, she make full use
    ____ her chance to practise.
5.-- What do you think of Linna?
   -- She is a good person that is easy to get  ____ ____.
    ☆句型诠释☆
1. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is
  人们经常说生活本身是很艰难的。
  (1)It is said that...是常见句型,意思是“据说;人们
  说”,类似的结构还有:
  It is thought that / It is reported that / It is believed
  that / It is hoped that...
  此句型也可变成sb. is said to do sth.
  (2) as it is是固定结构,表示“根据现在情况看;就以
  现在这个样子”,常用于句子开头或结尾。
  I thought things would get better, but as it is they
  were getting worse.
  我当初以为情况会好起来的,但事实上:却是每况愈
  下。
2. Talk about the reasons why we admire great women.
  淡一谈为什么我们崇拜伟大女性的原因。
  why we admire great women 是同位语从句,用来解
  释说明reasons。充当同位语从句的连接词的不仅仅
  只有that。whether, when, where, how, why都可用来引导同位语从句。
  He can't answer the question how hc got the money.
  I have no idea when he will he back.
  The suggestion where we should build our new factory
  should be considered.
  We must face the fact that we had spent all the money.
  同位语从句前的名词在从句中不作任何成分。
3. For women it sometimes seems twice as difficult.
  对女人而言,这种困难要大两倍。
  英语中倍数的表达经常用下列例句中的几种办法:
  (1) 倍数 + (形 / 副) 比较级 + than…
  This hall is five times bigger than ours.
  The car runs twice faster than the truck.
  (2)倍数 + as + (形 / 副) 原级 + as...
  Asia is four times as large as Europe.
  The plane flew ten times as high as the kite.
  (3) 倍数 + the size (length / width / height...) + of
  This street is four times the length of that one.
  The hill is twice the height of that hill.
4. I found myself spending a whole day in my tent.
  我发现自己在帐篷里度过一整天了。
  find oneself...意思是“发现自己(处于某种状态);不
  知不觉地”,后面跟动词的-ing形式短语、过去分词
  短语、介词短语作宾语补足语,常见的有这种用法的
动}司有:see / watch / catch / notice / hear / listen to /
feel等。
   I found myself in hospital when I woke up.
   Then I found myself surrounded by a group of boys.
   When I came in, I found him &ring his homework.
5. New Zealand is an important agricultural country,
    with cattle farming on the North Isled, while the
    hilly South Island has more sheep farms.
新两兰是一个重要的农业国家,北部养牛,而南部
山区养羊居多。
with + 名词 + 现在分词/过去分词/介词短语 /副词/
动词不定式/形容测构成 with 的复合结构,这种结
构通常在句子中作定语或状语,作状语时,表伴随
状况或原因。
He likes sleeping with the windows open.
He gave his seat to a woman with a baby in her arms.
With Tom to help us we're sure to complete the task.
He stood there with a group of children surrouilding
him.
With a lot  of difficult  problems to be settled, the
newly-elected president is having a hard time.
【句型归纳】
【考点l】What has become of her. 她的情况怎么样了?
该句中的 become of 常常构成这样的同定句型。例如:
What has become of the injured driver? 那位受伤的司
机情况怎么样了?
“What has / will become of sth / sb?”means“what
happened / will happen to sth / sb?”
意思是“某人、某物情况(遭遇)怎么样了?”例如:
What will become of her children if their mother dies?
如果他们的妈妈死了,这些孩子们的遭遇将会如何?
【考例】】What would ____ my child if I were on
business?
    A. look after    B. care about
    C. become of    D. attend
[考查目标] 考查动词短语。
[答案与解析] C  根据句子的意思是“如果我去出差,
我的孩子情况会怎么样呢?”应该填hecome of。
【考点2】On the third day I was struggling through
stormy weather and during the next week the wind grew
stronger and I found myself spending a whole day in my
tent. 第三天,我与暴风雨天气拼搏。接下来的星期里,
风刮得越发猛烈了,我只好整天呆在帐篷里。
该句中的grow常常作系动词,意思是“逐渐变得”。例
如:
The music grew faint as the band marched away. 音乐
随着乐队走远而渐渐减弱。
系动词常常分为五类:①  有be;② 感官:feel, smile,
taste, look, sound;③ 变化:become, grow, get, turn,
go, fall, come;④ 好像:appear, look, seemt ⑤ 保持:
keep, remain, stay, lie等等,系动词没有被动语态。很
少用进行时态。例如:
Please keep still while taking photos. 照相时,请保持安
静。
The mixture tasted very terrible. 这种混合物尝起来很
可怕。
【考例2】(2004湖北) On hearing the news of the acei—
dent in the coal mine, she ____ pale.
    A. got    B. changed
    C. went    D. appeared
[考查目标] 考查系动词。
[答案与解析] C   A是持续变化过程;B是实义动词,
后面不接形容词;D是表面是这样而事实并非如此;C
是情况由好变坏。故选C。
【考点3】I had fallen into a hole and was hanging on the
ropes tied to the sled. 我掉进了雪洞,挂在绑着雪橇的
绳索上。
该句中的tied作定语。例如:
This is the latest book written by the famous professor
— Stephen Hawking. 这就是那位著名的教授--斯
带芬·霍金--最新出版的书。
【考例3】(2004浙江) Linda worked for the Minnesota
Manufacluring and Mining Company,  ____ as 3M.
    A. knowing    B. known
    C. being known    D. to be known
[考查目标] v-ed作定语。
[答案与解析]B  过去分词作定语,表示过去分词与所
修饰名词为被动关系。
【考点4】Oprah Winfrey is not just a very successful TV
personality in the US, she is also a woman who has in-
spired millions.欧普拉·温弗丽不仅仅是美国一位成
功的电视名人,而且还是位鼓舞了千百万人的女性。
该句中的not just / only...(but) also... 为并列连词。连
接两个简单句。例如:
Singers of the country music do not just come from the
States also from all over the world. 乡村音乐的歌手不
仅仅来自美国,而且来自世界各地。
注意:在并列连词not just / only...(but)also...连接同
等的句子成分,如果连接两个名词或代词作主语,谓语
动词要与后面的名词或代词保持一致。如果连接两个
分句,第一分句需要部分倒装。例如:
Not only Mr. Smith but also his children were invited to
New Year's Party. 不但是史密斯先生,而且他的孩子
们都受邀请出席了新年晚会。
Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor. 莎
士比亚不仅是位作家.而且是演员。
Not only is he fond of doing exercises but also his wife
joins him in it. 不仅是他喜欢运动,而且他的妻子也喜
欢与他一起运动。
【考例4】(2002上海春招) Not only ____ interested
In football but ____ beginning to show an interest
in it.
    A. the teacher himself is; all his students are
    B. the teacher himself is; are all his students
    C. is the teacher himself; are a11 his students
    D. is the teacher himself; all his students are
[考查目标] not just / only...(but)also...一的部分倒装。
[答案与解析]D  根据以上的解释,第一分句需要部分
倒装。第二分句不需要倒装。
【考点5】New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold
aIJ over the world. 新西兰的酒质量很高。畅销全世界。
该句中的be + of + n. 为一个固定结构。例如:
I think listening to English every day is of great help to
learners. 我认为每天听英语,对初学者来说,非常有帮
助。
be + of + n. 意思是“具有……”。其中的名词多为抽象
名词,如: use,help,importance等;这时be+ of + n. =
be + adj. (相对应的形容词)。名词也可以为具体名
词.如:age, weight, height, length, width, size。这种
结构在句中可以作表语、定语或宾语补足语。例如:
The suggestion he made at the meeting is of great use.
(作表语) 他在会上提的建议很有用。
The young guy of average height is our new chemistry
teacher. (作定语)那位中等身材的年轻人是我们的新
化学老师。
We found the dictionary of no use. (作定语)我们发现
这本字典根本没用。
【考例5】(NMET 1998) You'll find this map of great
 ____ in helping you to get round London.
    A. price    B. cost
    C. value    D. useful
[考查目标]be + of + n. 作宾语补足语。
[答案与解析]C  根据句子的意思“你会发现在你在伦
敦转的时候,这张地图很有价值”。所以选value。
[牛刀小试3]
1. Don't use words, expressions, or phrases ____
  only to people with specific knowledge. (2004 上海)
     A. being known         B. having been known
     C. to be known         D. known
2. I don't know what will ____ us if the company
  gocs bankrupt (破产).
     A. happen              B. strike at
     C. become of            D. occur
3. I wonder ____ became ____ the neighbor
   who lived next door.
     A, what; to            B. what; of
     C. if; of               D. whether; to
4. Do you think the lecture is ____ to students be-
   fore NMET comes?
     A. very help            B. very helpful
     C. great helpful         D. whether helpful
5.  ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought
   cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the
   forest. (2004 上海)
     A. Not only they brought
      B. Not only did they bring
     C. Not only brought they
     D. Not only they did bring
    【交际速成】
【考点1】Describing people描述人物
(2005北京东城)
-- Do you like Nack?
     Yes, Nack is good, kind, hard-working and intelli-
  gent; ____, I can't speak too highly of him.
     A. as a result           B. in a word
     C. by the way           D. on the contrary
[答案与解析]B  本题考查在描述人物的语境中短语
的正确使用。根据所提供的情景“ Ican't speak too
highly of him.”(我无论怎么称赞他都不为过)可判断
B项符合语境。
【归纳】当描述人物时.英语中常见表达方式有:
① She seems to me to be the kind of woman who...
② The impression she makes on me is...
③ I think she is the kind of person who--.
④ She could be...
⑤ She looks as if...
⑥ She might be...
⑦ You can see that...
⑧ People like her.-.
⑨ She doesn't seem'"
⑩ It is (not) like him to do...
他做某事(不)与他这个人的风格相称。例如:
It was just Iike him to think of himself first. 凡事都先
考虑他自己,这就是他的作风。
【考点2】Describing location and direction 描述方位和方
-- Can you tell me about Shanghai, l.iu Mei?
-- Of course. Shanghai lies ____ the west of the Pa
  cific Ocean,  where you can't find many islands
   ____ the coast.
     A. on; off             B. to; along
     C. in; off               D. on; along
[答案与解析]A本题考查描述方位和方向的正确表
达方法。on the west of,在……的西面(强调接壤),Dff
the (east) coast 在(东部)沿海,所以A项正确。
【归纳】英语中描述方位和方向的表达方式有:
① It is / lies in the north / south / east / west of...它位
  于……的北部/南部/东部/西部(表在某范围内)
② It is / lies to the north / south / east / west of...它
  位于……的北面/南面/东面/西面/(表在某范围之
  外)
③ It is / lies on the north / south / east / west of... 它
  位于……的北面/南面/东面/西面/(表接壤)
④ It is / lies in the northern / sourhern / eastern /
  western part of…
⑤ It's / lies in the northeastern/northwestern / south—
  eastern / southwestern Sichuan…
[牛刀小试4]
1. There are many islands ____ the northwest coast
  of Scotland, which lies ____ the north of Eng-
  land.
     m. to; on              B. on; to
     C. off; in              D. off; to
2. -- Ann has ____; you can't trust her with any
     secrets.
  -- Really? Then I will be more careful next time.
     A. quick mouth         B. big mouth
     C. a poor mouth        D. a big mouth
3.-- What do you think of the picture ____
     left?
  -- I must say it is really very good.
     A. of     B. on        C. in     D. at
4. -- What is your new teacher like?
     -- ____.
     A. She likes singing'
     B. She doesn't like sports
     C. She seems very kind to us
     D. She's fallen ill
☆精典题例☆
(     ) 1. -- Do you like ____ here?
            -- Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of
                life. Everything is so nice. (NMET 2004)
            A. this               B. these
            C. that               D. it
    【解析】选D    本题考查it的特殊用法,it在这里指
模糊的情形、环境、状况。其余代词指具体事物、
(     ) 2. ____ two exams to worry about,  I have to
            work really hard this weekend. (2004 北京)
            A. With              B. Besides
            C. As for               D. Because of
    【解析】选A  本题考查with结构的用法,在句中
with结构作状语.
(     ) 3. For the sake of her daughter's health, she
             decided to move to a warm ____.
             A. weather            B. temperature
             C. season               D. climate
    【解析】选D    这道题考查几个名词的用法,句意是
“为了女儿的健康,她决定搬迁到气候比较温暖的地方
去”,weather泛指气候或天气,是不可数名词,而climate
则强调某个地区的天气或气候。
(     ) 4. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found
           ____ in the kitchen.
            A. smoke              B. smoking
            C. to smoke            D. smoked
    【解析】选B   这道题考查find的用法,动词find后
面经常跟形容词、现在分词、过去分词、介词短语作宾语补
足语,跟现在分词和过去分词的区别在于:前者表示主动
和动作持续进行,后者表示被动和动作已经完成,当主语
十谓语+宾语+宾语补足语变为被动语态时,宾语补足语
就成为主语补足语。
(     ) 5. All the employees except the manager ____ to
            work online at home. (2004 广东)
            A. encourages          B. encourage
            C. is encouraged        D. are encouraged
    【解析】选D   本题考查主谓一致与时态,本句的主
语是employees。
(     ) 6. When and where to go for the on-salary holiday
         ___ yet. (2003 上海春招)
            A. are not decided
            B. have not been decided
            C. is not being decided
            D. has not been decided
    【解析】选D  由what,who,why,how,when等
“wh-”引导的名词性分句作主语时,其后的谓语动词用单
数.两个由and连接的并列名词性分句如果表示一件事
情.谓语动词要用单数。
(     ) 7. The flu is believed ____ by viruses that like to
            reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and
            throat.  (2004 上海)
            A. causing              B. being caused
            C. to be caused         D. to have caused
    【解析】选C  根据flu和介词by可知应该用被动语
态,所以排除A、D项,再根据is believed,可知C项为最佳
选项,因为sth. is believed / considere / thought是英语中
的一种常见句式。
(    ) 8. There were dirty marks on her trousers
     she had wiped her hands. (2004 全国)
     A. where               B. which
     C. when               D. that
    【解析】选A   本题考查定语从句的关系词,本句意
思为“在她的裤子上,她擦过手的地方,有脏脏的印记”。
where在其引导的定语从句在句中作地点状语。
(     ) 9. Don't leave the water ____ while you brush
            your teeth. (2004 天津)
            A. run                B. running
            C. being run           D. to run
    【解析】选B   本句考查leave + 名词 + 现在分词/过
去分词结构,水流出来属于主动行为,所以要用runniikg。
(     ) 10. -- Is this raincoat yours?
            -- No, mine ____ there behind the door.
            A. hangs              B. has hung
            C. is hanging           D. hung
    【解析】选C   这道题考查动词hang的用法,当hang
作“悬挂着,吊着”讲时,为不及物动词,现在进行时强调动
作的暂时性.答案为C。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 10 SBI Units 19-20
☆重点句型☆
1. What do you think causes these changes?
2. It is on this arable land that the farmers produce food
   for the whole population of China.
3. To make as much use of the land as possible, two or
   more crops are planted each year where possible.
4. Not only is food production important but also taking
    care of the environment.
5. Much of the wisdom discovered by early Chinese
   scientists is still useful for farming.
6. Acting our stereotypes of people from different countries
   can be very funny.
7. What comedians have in common with the players in a
    comedy is their way of playing with words.
8. Typical for China is the crosstalk show, where a pair of
    comedians entertain the audience with word play.
    ☆重点词汇☆
1. protection n. 保护;防卫
2. technique n. 技术;技巧
3. irrigation n. 灌溉;冲洗
4. import n. & v. 进口;输入
5. production n. 产品;总产鼍
6. sow v. 播种;散布
7. wisdom n. 智慧;学识
8. firstly adv. 首先
9. remove vt. 移动;搬开
10. depend v. 依靠;依赖
11. insect n. 昆虫
12. discovery n. 发现;被发现的事物
13. humor n. 幽默;诙谐
14. practical adj. 实际的;实用的
15. fortunately adv. 幸运地
16. intend vt. 打算;想要
17. nationality n.国籍
18. fluent adj. 流利的;流畅的
19. amuse vt. 使发笑;使愉快
20. laughter n. 笑;笑声
21. accent n. 口音;腔调
22. typical adj. 典型的
23. actually adv. 事实上
24. appreciate vt. 欣赏;感激
25. operate v. 运转;操作
26. silence n. 寂静;沉默
27. confuse vt. 使迷惑;混淆
28. applaud v. & n. 拍手喝彩;赞同
29. exist vi. 存在
30. direction n. 方向;指示
    ☆重点短语☆
1. bring in 引进
2. depend on 依靠
3. protect from 保护……免受……
4. make use of 利用
5. make fun of 取笑;嘲笑
6. drive off 赶走;开走
7. date back to 追溯到……
8. look on as 把……看作
9. be on good terms with 和……关系好
10. go against 违背;违犯
11. have an effect on 对……有影响
12. at the right time of the year 在适当季节
13. year after year 年复一年
14. pass on 传递下去
15. the first time 第一次
16. enjoy a long life 健康长寿
17. in great surprise 大吃一惊
18. add to 增添
19. from generation to generation 一代代
20. be different from 与……不同
短语闯关
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据
汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才
能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我
们就开始吧?
1. depend ____    信赖;依靠;取决于
2. and ____ on 等等(表示列举未尽)
3. twister 绕口令
4. make fun ____ 取笑;嘲笑
5. date ____ (to) 回溯到;追溯到
6. make use ____ 利用某事物(某人)
7. be ____ good terms (with sb)(与某人)关系好
8. drive ____ 把(车)开走;赶走;击退
9. look on...____ 把……看作
10. ____ the 1980s在20世纪80年代
11. have an effect ____ 对……产生影响
12. bring ____ 引进
13. not only…but ____   不仅……而且……
14. ____ good money 赚大钱
15. go ____ 违背;违犯
16.     a wide audience得到广大观众的欢迎
l7. play ____ words玩弄词藻
18. be fluent ____ English英语说得流利
19. act ____ small sketches演小品
20. ____ sunset(在)黄昏
21. pass ____ 传递下去
22. ____ a long life健康长寿
23. ____ great surprise大吃一惊
24. all ____ China 全中国
25. act the ____ of 演……角色
    ☆交际用语☆
1. In my opinion you should...
2. If I were you...
3. We can't do both, so...
4. As far as I can see the best thing would be to...
5. Wouldn't it be better if...
6. I hope (wish) to…
7. I intend to...
☆词汇短语☆
6. amuse vt. (1) ……娱乐(消遣) (2) 使……喜欢
  (高兴) (3) 逗……乐(笑)
  amusement n. 娱乐;消遣;娱乐活动
  amused adj. 愉快的;开心的;好玩的
  amusing adj. 有趣的
  His story amuses me.
  他的故事使我发笑。
  The children amused themselves by playing hide-and-
  seek games.
  孩子们玩捉迷藏游戏取乐。
  [词组] be amused at 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣
  (好笑)
  be amused by 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣(好笑)
  be amused with 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣(好笑)
  amuse oneself with 以……自娱
7. appreciate vt. 鉴赏,欣赏;感谢;意识到  vi. 涨价;
  增加
  appreciator n. 鉴别(赏)者;赏识者
  appreciation n. 欣赏;评价;了解;感激
  appreciative adj. 赞赏的;有欣赏力的;感激的
  We all appreciate the holiday after a year of hard work.
  经过一年的辛苦工作之后,我们都十分珍惜这个假
  期。
  A musician can appreciate small differences in sounds.
  音乐家能辨别声音中极细微的差别。
  We shall appreciate hearing from you again.
  我们恭候佳音。
  I don't think you appreciate the danger of this job.
  我认为你完全不了解这项工作的危险性。
  I appreciate your kindness.
  多谢厚意。
  Houses in this area have all appreciated since the new
  road was built.
  这条新路修好后,这个地区的房子都涨价了。
  【注意]appreciate 后接动词的-ing形式,不能接不定
  式,也不可用“人”作宾语。
【考点2】certain 的用法
▲构词:
① certainly adv. 的确,(口语)当然·行
② certainty n. 确实.确定(性);确知,确信;必然的事;
  毫无疑问的事
▲搭配:
① It is certain that... ……”是肯定无疑的
  友情提示:certain在大多时候可以被sure替换,但此
  句型中不可以。
② be certain of / about确信,深信
③ be certain to do sth必然,一定
④ be not certain whether...不能确定是否……
⑤ for certain 肯定地,确凿地
⑥ make certain of / about把……弄清楚,把……弄确
  实
⑦ make certain that... 保证……
【考例2】[NMET 1997] Wait till you are more
____. It's better to be sure than sorry.
    A. inspired    B. satisfied
    C. calm    D. certai,n
[考查目标] 本题考查certain的词义。
[答案与解析]D  从下文的sure可以得到印证,句意是
“等到有把握(确信)”。
5. develop v.
  (1) vt. 发展,养成;形成,培养
  The little boy developed an interest in music.
  这个小男孩对音乐感兴趣。
  Fresh air and exercise develop healthy bodies.
  新鲜空气和体育锻炼造就了健康的体魄。
  (2) 成长,形成
  James has developed into a charming young man.
  詹姆斯已经长成为一个富有魅力的年青人。
  (3) 冲洗 (胶卷)
  Let's have these pictures developed.
  咱们把这些照片冲洗出来吧。
  (4) 开发,建设
  We should develop the natural resources of our country.
  我们应该开发我们国家的自然资源。
  [拓展]developed adj. 发达的
  developed country / society 发达国家/社会
  developing adj. 发展中的
  developing country / society
  发展中国家/社会
  development n. 发展,进步,成长,开发
2. guide vt. 指导;带领 vi. 任向导 n. 领路人,导
  游者,向导
  guidance n. 指导;领导
  guided adj. 有领导的;指导的
  guiding n. 导向;控制
  They guided us to the office.
  他们带领我们到了办公室。
  Be guided by your feeling.
  按你的感觉行事。
  guide后常接介词to,意为“……的指南,……的向
  导”。
  This book is a guide to Ennglish Grammar.
  这是一本英语语法指南。
4. intend vt. (1) 想要,打算;企图  (2) 设计;计划
  (3) 意指;意思足
  intending adj. [主英] 预期的;未来的
  intended adj. 预期的;有意的;已订婚的
    n. 未婚妻/夫
  I intend to go home.
  我想回家。
 The book is intended for beginners.
  本书是为初学者编写的。
  What do you intend by that remark?
  你说这话是什么意思?
  Is that what you intended?
  这是你的原意吗?
  [词组] be intended to (do) 使;是用来
  be intended to be 规定为;确定为
  it is intended that 企图;意图是
  intend for 打算供……使用;打算送给……;打算使
  ……成为;想让……从事某事
【考点1】intend的用法
▲构词:intention n. 意图,打算,目的;意义,用意
▲ 搭配:
① intend that... 打算……
② intend doing sth / to do sth 打算……
③ intend...for...打算供……使用,打算把……送给
  ……;打算使……成为;想让……从事……
④ intend sb to do sth 打算让某人做某事
⑤ be intended / meant for 专门为/专门给
⑥ have no intention of doing…无意做……
⑦ with the intention of 抱有……目的,打算
⑧ without intention 无意中,不是故意地
【考例1】[2004北京]Younger people shouldn't be doing
exercises ____ for 18-year-olds.
    A. used    B. intended
    C. made    D. described
[考查目标] 本题考查intend的基本用法。
[答案与解析]B intend与for的搭配表示“打算供某
人使用,为某人设计使用”等意思。
【考点6】mind 的用法
▲ 构词:
evil-minded 存心不良的
low-minded 卑鄙的
research-minded 富于研究精神的
small-minded 气量小的
strong-minded 意志坚强的
absent-minded 心不在焉地
▲ 搭配:
① against one's mind 违反某人的心愿,没有得到某人
  的同意
② apply bend / give / pay / set one's mind to 专心
  ……,一心一意……
③ be in / have a good mind to do sth 极想,极有意
④ be of / in a / one mind 意见一致
⑤ be out of one's mind 精神不正常,发疯;忘记
⑥ bear / keep...in mind 记住,记在心里
⑦ bring / call...to one's mind 想起,回忆起
⑧ change one's mind 改变想法/主意;变卦
⑨ come to / into one's mind 浮现在某人的脑海中
⑩ give one's (whole) mind to 一心一意地……,专心于
⑨ make up one's mind 决心,打定主意;接受,承认
⑩ read sb's mind / thoughts 看出某人的心思,知道某
  人在想些什么
⑩ to sb's mind 在某人看来;合某人的心意
⑩ with one mind 全体一致地;同心间德
⑩ mind (sb / sb's) doing sth介意/反对(某人)做某事
⑩ never mind 别难过;没关系;不重要
【考例6】[2004山西模拟] To most of us,friendships
are considered very important, but we need to have
clear in our ____ the kinds of friends we want.
    A. hearts    B. thought
    C. actions    D. minds
[考查目标] 本题考查mind的意思及其他和一些近义
词的区别。
[答案与解析]D  in one's mind 意思是“在某人的心目
中”,in one's heart 则常表示“在某人内心深处”,二者使
用的场合不同。
【考点3】operate的用法
▲构词:
① operating-table n. 手术台
② operation n. 运转,操作,实施,作用,业务,工作,
  手术,军事行动
③ operaUve adj. 运转着的,有效的,手术的,起作用
  的,生效的
▲ 搭配:
① operate on / upon sb 给某人动手术
② be in operation 在运转中;在行动中;在实施中;在
  生效中
③ come / go into operation 开始工作/运转;生效
④ perform an operation on sb for a disease 给某人动手
  术
⑤ put / bring into operation 实施,施行
【考例3】I was wondering why suddenly the lift was not
____ properly.
    A. operating on    B. operating
    C. managing    D. controlling
[考查目标]operate的多种含义。
[答案与解析]B  operate可作不及物动词,意为“(机
器电梯等)运转”,结合本题语境,只有B正确。本句意
为“我一直在纳闷为何电梯突然失灵了”。
1. remove vt. 移动,拿开;脱掉,摘掉;去掉,开除。
  He removed his desk to another office after argument.
  争吵后,他把办公桌搬到了另一个办公室。
  Please remove your baggage from the seat so that the
  old man can sit down.
  请把你的行李拿开让这位老人坐下。
  I recognised Tom after he removed his dark glasses.
  汤姆取下墨镜后我才认出他。
【考点4】return的用法
▲ 搭配:
① in relurn (for) 作为……的报答/回礼,交换
② (Wish you) many happy returns!(祝你)福寿无疆,
  长命百岁!
③ write in return 写回信
④ return sb a visit 回访某人
⑤ return ticket 来回票
⑥ in return for 报答……
⑦ make a return 作报告/汇报
⑧ small profits and quick returns 薄利多销
【考例4】[2004湖北]Two weeks later, she ____ to
find her old car cleaned inside and out with three new
tires and the radio fixed.
    A. shocked    B. happened
    C. returned    D. came
[考查目标]本题考查return的基本词义。
[答案与解析]C  根据上下文.本空白所需要的意思是
“回来”。
【考点7】seat的用法
▲ 搭配:
① Please have a seat. 请坐。
② take a seat 坐下
③ take one's seat 就座,坐在自己的座位上;(当选为议
  员后)就职
④ seat oneself (=be seated) 坐下
【考例7】[2003北京西城模拟] At dinner, he was
____ beside a woman full of dignity.
    A. seated    B. placed
    C. arranged    D. kept
[考查目标] 本题考查seat作为动词时的用法。
[答案与解析]A  作为动词的seat意思是“给某人安排
座位,让某人落座”,常用被动语态。
8. suffer vt. 遭受;忍耐 vi. 受苦();受损失;吃亏;
  受罚 (for);患病 (from)
  sufferer n. 受苦的人;受害者;患者
  suffering n. 苦楚;受难 adj.受苦的;患病的
  I will not suffer such conduct.
  我不能容忍这种行为。
  His business suffered greatly during the war.
  他的生意在战争中蒙受了重大损失。
  He suffered for his carelessness.
  他因粗心而吃了亏。
  The child suffers from measles.
  这小孩得了麻疹。
  [词组] suffer for 为……而受苦
  suffer from 患……病;受……苦
【考点5】use的用法
▲ 构词:
① used adj. 用过的,旧的
② usable adj. 可用的,适于使用的
③ user n. 使用者,用户
④ useful adj. 有用的,有助益的
⑤ useless adj. 没用的,无价值的
▲ 搭配:
① use up 用完,耗尽;(口)使筋疲力尽
② make (full) use of (充分)利用,使用
③ of (no) use (没)有用
④ out of use 不再使用了,不通用,作废
⑤ in use 正在用,通用
⑥ bring / put sth into use 开始使用(某物)
⑦ come into use 开始被使用
【考例5】[2004辽宁] With special equipment, some
scientists are studying the ways in which the mountain
snow can be____, and with the help of a repeater
station,...
    A. taken care of    B. made use of
    C. piled up    D. saved up
[考查目标] 本题考查use构成的短语make use of的意
思。
[答案与解析]B  make use of 的意思是“利用”,在本
句中使用了被动语态。
[牛刀小试1]
用所给单词的适当形式填空:
(intend, certain, return, operate, use, seat, mind)
1. Some of the projects are ____ by the women who
  were left in the village.
2. Would you ____ if they smoked in the next carri-
  age?
3. Lisa was that the new film was to be hold
  in our city next month.
4. "Be please," the organizer said to us.
5. Two hours passed but no children ____ to their
  homes.
6. I ____ to act in a film directed by Miss Swift.
7. A good ____ should be made of the computer to
  solve the problem we have been facing these years.
    【短语归类】
9. date back to / from 追溯到……;始于……
  In China needle treatment dates back to ancient times.
  在中国,针刺疗法从古代起就有了。
  This document dates from 1789.
  文件上注明的日期是1789年。
  [词组] break the date 不遵守约会;失约
  bring sth. up to date 使……现代化;使……达到最新
  研究成果 (水平)
  make / have a date with sb. [口](与某人)约会(常指
  男女之间)
  out of date 过时的;废弃的
  up to date 直到最近的;新式的;现代的
  closing date for entries报名截止日期
10. look on...as ……看作
    They all look on him as a member of their family.
    他们都把他看作是自家人。
    Don't look on him as a child. He is old enough to look
    after himself.
    别把他当成孩子看待,他已经能照顾自己了。
    [词组] look after 照料
    look back (与on, to连用) 回想;记起;停滞不前
    took down on 轻视;看不起
    look forward to 盼望;期待
    look in 顺便看望;短暂访问
    look on (常与as连用)旁观;看作(=look upon)
    look out 注意;找出;挑选出
    look over 翻阅;浏览;检查
    look up 好转;在书中查到;寻访到;探访(某人)
    look up to 尊敬
【考点1】含look的短语
① look the same 看起来一样
② look after 照料,照看
③ look at 看
④ look for 寻找
⑤ look over (仔细)检查
⑥ look up 向上看,查找,查寻,改善
⑦ look on...as... 把……看作
⑧ look out 留神,注意
⑨ look like 看起来像
⑩ look through 浏览,细看
⑩ look on 旁观
⑩ look into 调查
⑩ look (a) round 环顾四周
⑩ look down 俯视
[例句] He looked over the food in the refrigerator and
found that he had eaten up all the eggs and butter. 他查
看了一下冰箱里的食物,发现所有的鸡蛋和黄油都吃
光了。
The weather is looking up, so we may go out this
coming Sunday. 天气在好转,所以我们这周日也许能出
去。
There were signs everywhere warning people to look
OUt for falling rocks. 到处都有牌子,提醒人们当心岩石
掉下来。
We look on Kong Fansen as a model for us to learn
from. 我们把孔繁森当作我们学习的楷模。
【考例1】(NMET 1 990) ____ this book and tell me
what you think of it.
    A. Look through    B. Look on
    C. Look into    D. Look up
[考查目标]此题主要考查look短语的短语的用法。
[答案与解析]A  look through 浏览,细看;look on 旁
观;look into 调查;look up 向上看,查找,查寻,改善。
本句话意思是“仔细看一看这本书,告诉我你的想法”。
3. make use of 利用;使用
  He made use of every secx)nd to learn his lessons every
  day.
  每天他分秒必争地学习。
  If better use is made of your spare time, you will make
  great progress in it.
  如果你更好地利用你的业余时间,你会在那方面取
  得更大的进步。
【考点3】含“动词 + on”的短语
① carry on 坚持下去,继续下去
② come on 来吧,跟着来,赶快
③ call on 访问,号召,邀请
④ go on 继续
⑤ go on doing 继续做
⑥ get on 上(车)
⑦ hold on 等一等,不挂断
⑧ live on 继续存在,继续活着.以……为主食,以……
  为依靠
⑨ knock on 敲(门、窗)
⑩ pass on 传递,转移到
⑩ put on 穿上,上演
⑥ turn on 打开
⑩ try on 试穿,试戴
⑩ depend on 依赖,依靠,取决于
⑩ test on 在……(身上)做试验
⑩ be on good terms 关系好
⑩ play a trick on sb 开某人玩笑,欺骗某人
[例句]Though tired and hungry, we carried on until we
reached camp. 尽管又累又饿,我们还是坚持到了宿营
地。
As the years go on, we grow both wiser and sadder. 随
着岁月的流逝,我们变得既明智又有点伤感。
He put on an air of innocence, but it didn't deceive us.
他装出一副无辜的样子,但是这欺骗不了我们。
Several pairs of shoes were tried on, but none of them
were satisfactory. 试穿了几双鞋,但是没有令人满意
的。
The southerners in China mainly live on rice. 中国南方
的人主要以大米为食。
Don't play a trick on me — I want to know the truth. 不
要欺骗我.我想知道真相。
I call on the people of the country to work hard for na—
tional unity. 我号召本国的人民为了国家的统一而努
力。
【考例3】(2005辽宁) Could you please tell me where
you bought the shoes you ____ yesterday?
    A. tried on    B. put on
    C. had on    D. pulled on
[考查目标] 此题主要考查“动词 + on”的短语用法。
[答案与解析]C   句子的意思明显是表达“穿”的意思
(表状态)。而try on 的意思是“试穿”,put on 的意思是
“穿”。但强调的是动作,pull on 也表穿戴的意思,表动
作,多指袜子或帽子等。
【考点2】含“动词+back"的短语
① come back 回来
② bring sb back 送回某人
③ bring...back to life 使苏醒,使生动,使活泼
④ bring back 拿回来,使恢复。使回想起
⑤ go back 回去
⑥ get...back 退还,送回去,取回
⑦ get back 回来,取回
⑧ date back to 回溯至,追溯到
⑨ take back 收回,取回
⑩ keep back 隐瞒不讲,扣留,阻止
⑩ hold bac k阻止
[例句] Her stay among the mountains brought her back
to health. 她在山中逗留使得她恢复了健康。
This custom dates back to the Tang Dynasty. 这种风俗
可追溯到唐朝。
I apologize to you, now I will take back what I said. 我
向你道歉,现在我愿意收回我所说的话。
He may be telling the truth but he is keeping something
back. 他也许在说实话,但是他在隐瞒什么。
His story brought back our happy childhood together.
这个故事把我带到了我们在一起时的快乐童年。
【考例2】(2004 全国卷I) You can take anything from
the shelf and read, but pleas ____ the books when
you've finished with them.
    A. put on    B. put down
    C. put back    D. put off
[考查目标] 此题主要考查put短语的用法。
[答案与解析]C   put on 穿戴,上演;put down 记下,放
下;put back 放回原处;put off 推迟。本句话的意思是“从
书架上你可以拿任何东西来读,但是读完后请放回原处”。
    ☆词语比较☆
1. product, production, produce
  这组词均指通过劳动或努力而生产形成的产品。
  product 是最普通的词,多指某种自然或人工的产品
  或产物,还指文学或艺术方面的作品。
  production 指产品时,常限于人工产品,包括智力和
  艺术劳动产品。亦为戏剧或电影中的常用词。用在
  抽象的意义上,表示“生产;产量”。
  produce 是个集合名词,指自然产品,特别是农业产
  品而非工业品。
  She is the product Of talented parents.
  她是她天资卓越的父母的产物。
  Production of iron has increased in the last few years.
  最近几年铁的产量增加了。
  The farmers brought their produce to town early each
  Saturday.
  农民们每星期六一早把农产品带到镇上去。
2. guide, conduct, lead
  作为动词三者都有“领”“导”或“引”的含义。它们的
  区别在于:guide (抽象名词guidance;具体名词guide
  “向导”) 是通用词,可以用于“为别人带路”“指导别
  人的学习、品行修养”,它的内涵是避免走弯路或遇
  到危险。而conduct (抽象名词conductance“传导
  力”;具体名词conductor"向导者”,公共汽车等的“售
  票员”) 在表示“指导、引导”时含有明显的主从关系,
  即被引导者不服从是不可以的。lead (抽象名词
  leadership"领导”;具体名词leader"领袖、领队”)可以
  表示“领导、带路”,但它总含有领导者走在前面,而
  把被领导者控制在自己的权威之下,或被领导者处
  于秩序井然的状态中的意思。
  Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding
  the dead on their return journey to the other world.
  数千只灯笼慢慢向大海漂去,给死人返回阴间指明
  道路。
  At the top of the bank my guide paused and looked
  back at me.
  我的向导在河岸上稍停了一下,并且回头看了看我。
  He is now studying under the guidance of Professor
  Green.
  他现在正在格林教授的指导下学习。
3. happen, take place, breakout, occur
  (1) happen 往往表示偶然性的没预料到的事情的“发
  生”。
  How did the accident happen? You'd better let me
  know.
  (2) take place 表示必然性的“发生”或指是布置或策
  划好某事后“举行”的。
  Great changes have taken place in our country these
  years.
  这些年我国发生了巨大的变化。
  (3) break out 表示地震、战争、火灾、疾病等“突然发
  生”、“爆发”
  A fire broke out in the neighborhood last night.
  (4) occur 相当于 happen
  It is said that the traffic accident OCCUlTed at midnight.
  [联想] 主语 (人) + happen + 动词不定式
  It (形式主语) + happen + that从句 (真正的主语)
  I happened to see him in the street. (碰巧、恰巧)
4. sure, certain, confident
  意思都是“确信的”。sure强调“主观上确信无疑
  的”。certain 指“有充分根据或理由而相信的”。
  confident 强调“对某人(物)坚信的或满怀信心的”。
  be sure to 中的sure 不能改为certain。
  I'm sure you don't mean it.
  我相信你是无意的。
  This letter made me certain 0f his innocence.
  这封信使我相信他是无罪的。
  He's confident he will win.
  他坚信他会赢。
  [词组] be certain of 确信;深信
  be certain to 必然;一定
  be not certain whether... 不能确定是否……
  for certain 肯定地;确凿地
  make certain (of, that) 把……弄清楚;把……弄确
  实;保证
5. late, later, latest, lately
  late 是形容词或副词,表示“晚,迟”;later 是副词,表
  示“以后,后来”,常单独使用或放于一段时间之后;
  latest 是形容词,表示“最近的”;lately 是副词,表示
  “最近,近来”。
  He went to bed late last night.
  他昨晚睡得很迟。
  I shall call again later.
  我过会儿再打电话。
  People want to buy the latest newspaper, nobody wants
  to buy yesterday's.
  人们都要买最新的报纸,没人要买昨天的。
  Have you seen him lately?
  你近来见到过他吗?
6. deep, deeply
  deep 既可作形容词,又可作副词,表示动作与事物的
  具体深度,注意习惯搭配。deep into, go deep, be
  buried deep,drink deep(痛饮);deeply为副词,常用
  于修饰形容词、分词以及含有抽象意义的动词。
  Our teacher often work deep into the night.
  我们老师常常工作到深夜。
  Her faith goes very deep.
  她的信仰很坚定。
  We are deeply moved by what she said and did.
  她的言行使我们深受感动。
  I'm deeply grateful for the advice you gave me.
  我非常感激你对我的劝告。
7. year after year, year by year
  year after year 意为“年复一年地”,常用来表示每年
  重复,在句中作状语,类似的结构还有:day after day;
  month after month; one after another; letter after
  letter;而 year by year 表示逐渐的变化过程,类似的
  结构还有:day by day; little by little (逐渐地)。
  My grandfather grows older year by year.
  我爷爷一年年老了。
  We call on our teachers on Teachers’Day year after
  year.
  我们年年教师节都要看望老师。
    ☆句型诠释☆
1. What do you think causes these changes?
  你认为是什么(原因)引起这些变化的?
  What effects do you think the changes in eating habits
  will have on agriculture and nature?
  你认为这些饮食变化对农业和自然会起什么作用?
  句中 do you think 是插入语,经常位于疑问词(组)
  后,有时也可放在句尾。
  Where do you think our English teacher comes from?
  你认为我们的英语老师来自哪里?
  Who do you think the old lady is?
  你认为那老太太是谁?
  What is it, do you think?
  你认为这是什么?
2. To make as much ase of the land as possible, two or
  more crops ale planted each year where possible.
  为了充分利用土地,在有条件的地方,每年种植两季
  以上的庄稼。
  句中 as possible和 where possible 是 as it is possible 和
  where it is possible的省略形式,在类似结构中it is /
  was常常被省略。as...as possible是固定的结构,表
  示“尽可能……”。
  We need to send the letter off as soon as possible.
  我们有必要尽可能快地把这封信寄出去。
  Hold your breath for as long as possible.
  屏住呼吸,时间越长越好。
  Fill the words in the blanks where necessary.
  在需要的地方填上单词。
3. Not only is food production important but also taking
  care of the environment.
  粮食牛产固然重要,环保也很重要。
  (1)当 not only...but (also)... 连接两个并列分句
  时,前一个分句要用部分倒装,即部分谓语(助动词、
  系动词、情态动词)提到主语之前,第二个分句不要
  倒装。有时后一个分句与前一个分句的相同部分可
  以省略。(2) 当not only...but (also)...连接两个主
  语时,其谓语与靠近它的主语保持一致。
  Not only did he speak more correctly but he spoke more
  easily.
  他不仅讲话更正确,而且讲得也较不费劲了。
  Not only the students but also the teacher is interested
  in the TV play.
  不仪学生们而儿老师也对这部电视剧感兴趣。
4. Much of the wisdom discovered by early Chinese
  scientists is still useful for farmers and gardeners.
  中国古代科学家所发现的大量知识和经验,对于今
  人的农民和园艺工仍然有用。
  句中 discovered by early Chinese scientists是过去分
  词短语作后置定语,相当于which was discovered by
  …。过去分词短语作定语一般具有以下特点:(1)
  放在修饰侧的后面。(2)与修饰词构成被动关系。
  (3)相当于一个灰示被动的定语从句。单个的过去
  分词作定语一般放在修饰词的前面,在个别情况下
  放在修饰词之后。
  The system used in this school is very successful.
  这学校使用的系统很成功。
  There is a red car parked outside the house.
  房子外边停着一辆红色汽车。
  The window broken in the stoml has now been
  repaired.
  在暴风雨中打破了的窗户,已经修好了。
5. What comedians have in common with the players in a
  comedy is their way of playing with words.
  滑稽演员与喜剧演员,共间点在于说话玩弄词藻。
  句中what引导的从句为主语从句。(have)...in
  common (with) 表示“和……有共同之处”的意思。
  OUt of common 则表示“异乎寻常;不平常”的意思。
  They have a lot in common.
  他们有许多共同之处。
  I haven't a thing in common with my father.
  我与父亲格格不入。
  He had noticed nothing out of common.
    他没有发现异乎寻常的事。
  6. I remember that the last time we met I did most of the
    talking, so perhaps I should Iet you do the talking this
    time.
    我记得,上次见面时主要是我讲话,因此,也许这次
    应该让你讲话了。
    句中 the last time 为连词引导时间状语从句。引导
    时间状语从句的词组有as soon as, hardly...when,
    no sooner...than, the moment, by the time, every
    time, each time 等。
    The moment I saw him, I recognised him.
    我一见到他,就认出了他。
    He had hardly finished the article when the light went
    out.
    他刚写完论文,灯就熄了。
    No sooner had she arrived than she went away again.
她刚到就又走了。
【句型归纳】
【考点l】It is on this arable land that the farmers produce
food for the whole population of China. 就在这些耕地
上,农民们生产了供给全中国人口的粮食。
It was from the early 1990s that scientists started to de-
velop new techniques to increase agricultural production
without harming the environment. 90年代初,科学家开
始了新的技术,在不损害环境的基础上增加农业产量。
该两句中的it用于强调句型。
it可以用来改变句子的结构,使句子的某些成分受到强
调。强调的基本句型结构为:It is / was + 被强调部分
+ that + 句子的剩余成分。
强调句型可分别强调主语、宾语、地点状语、时间状语
等。例如:
It was at Christmas that Jack gave Jane a beautiful red
rose. 就是在圣诞节。杰克送给简一朵漂亮的红玫瑰。
注意:
1. 强调人时,that可以换成who。
2. 当被强涮部分较复杂时,特别记住不能漏写了that。
  例如:
  It was not until he came back at midnight that I left.
  直到他半夜回来,我才离开。
3. 强调句型用于疑问句时,注意语序。例如:
  When and where was it that Liu xiang broke the
  Olympic record? 到底在何时何地。刘翔打破了奥运
  会记录呢?
【考例】】(2003上海) It is these poisonous products
 ____ can cause the symptoms of the flue, such as
headache and aching muscles.
    A. who    B. that
    C. how    D. what
[考查目标] 强调句型。
[答案与解析]B  根据以上的解释.本句强调主语,又
指物,所以用that。
【考点2】What do you think is the most important thing
in yourjob7你认为在你工作当中最重要的是什么?
该句中宾语从句的引导词what位于句首,构成一种特
殊句式。在由 do you think / believe / suppose / expect
/ imagine 等词引导宾语从旬时,需要把宾语从句的引
导阋位于句首,构成一种特殊的疑问句“疑问词 + do
you think / believe / suppose / expect / imagine + 宾语
从句剩余成分”。例如:
When do you suppose he came back to his motherland?
你认为他什么时候回到祖国的?
Which team do you think will Wi’ll the World Cup?你认
为哪一个队将赢得l什界杯?
【考例2】(NMET】991)
-- We haven't heard from Jane for a long time.
-- What do you suppose ____ to her?
    A. was happening    B. to happen
    C. has happened    D. having happened
[考查目标]疑问词 + do you think / suppose / believe
+宾语从句剩余成分”。
[答案与解析]C  根据以上的解释,需要填what的谓
语动词,所以用has happened。
【考点3】Dating back to the Qin Dynasty (221—207BC),
the traditional crosstalk shows, or xiangsheng shows,
have made people all over China roar with laughter for
centuries. 传统的相声表演可以追溯到秦朝(公元前
221—207年),已经使中国人笑了千百年了。
该句中的“dating back to...”在句中作定语,相当于定语
从句which dated back to或which dated from。
v-ing在句中可以作定语。注意它们在句子中与所修饰
的名词的逻辑关系。如果表示主动关系,用v-ing;表示
被动关系,则用being done。例如:
Do you see the girl dancing with your brother? (定语)
你看到那个正在与你弟弟跳舞的姑娘了吗?
The building being built now is our lab. (定语)正在修
建的大楼是我们的实验室。
【考例3】(2000上海)Will those ____ the children
from abroad come the headmaster's office?
    A. teaching    B. teach
    C. who teaches    D. who teaching
[考查目标]v-ing作定语。
[答案与解析]A   根据以上解释,用非谓语动词。teach
与those关系是主动关系,所以用teaching。
【考点4】It's their clothes, makeup and the way they talk
that makes people. 逗人笑的是他们的衣着,装扮和走
路的姿势。
该句中的 they talk 作 the way 的定语从句。
the way充当先行词时,一定要注意“顾后”,即the way
在定语从句中所作的成分。如果 way 是作宾语或表
语,关系词要用that或which;如果way作状语,关系词
要用that,in which或不填。例如:
This is the only way that you can find. 这是你能找到
的惟一的方法。
She is fond of the way the famous Japanese actor
smokes. 她喜欢那位日本男影星抽烟的姿势。
I don't like the way that (in which) he speaks to his
mother. 我不喜欢他对他妈妈说话的方式。
【考例4】(2004湖北) What surprised me was not what
hc said but ____ he said it.
    A. the way    B. in the way that
    C. in the way    D. the way which
[考查目标]定语从句与并列连词“not...but...”。
[答案与解析]A  not…but…连接两个表语成分;the
way引导定语从句,而且在从句中作状语,选theway。
[牛刀小试3]
1. I can't understand the way ____ you worked out
  the math problem.
    A. in which    B. with which
    C. how    D. which
2. It was ____ back home after the experiment.
  (2004湖北)
    A. not until midnight did he go
    B. until midnight that he didn't go
    C. not until midnight that he went
    D. until midnight when he didn't go
3. Why!I have nothing to confess. ____ you want
  me to say?(2004上海)
    A. What is it that  B. What it is that
    C. How is it that    D. How it is that
4. Reading is an experience quite different from watc—
hing TV; there are pictures ____ in mind instead
 0f before your eyes. (2004广西)
    A. to form    B. form
    C. forming    D. having formed
    【交际速成】
【考点1】Giving advice and making decisions 提建议 (劝
告) 和作决定
(2005 浙江二模)
-- Since you can't find a better job,why don't you stick
  to the present one?
-- Well, ____.
    A. I believe not    B. I don't care
    C. Never mind    D. I might as weIl
[答案与解析]D  本题考查对提出劝告的应答用语。
“I might as well (stick to the present one)”表示“那我
还是坚持做目前的工作”。may / might as well do不
妨做,无妨做(比had better更委婉)。
【归纳】英语中表示劝告和作决定的用语有:
① You'd better go to see the doctor.
② You should listen to and read English every day.
③ You need to buy a Chinese-English dictionary.
④ Don't rush / hurry / push.
⑤ Please stand in line.
⑥ If I were you, I'd phone him now.
⑦ In my opinion you should...
⑧ The other idea sounds better to me...
⑨ As far as I can see the best thing would be to...
⑩ Wouldn't it be better if...?
⑩ I think he is right...
⑩  We can't do both, so...
⑩ We have to make a choice...
【考点2】Expressing intentions and plans 表达打算和计
(2005武汉模拟)
-- Hi, I hear you're going to the World Park this week—
  end.
-- ____, I was going to, but l changed my plan.
    A. Actually    B. Finally
    C. Usually    D. Normally
[答案与解析]A  本题考查谈论计划的交际用语。根
据语境,答语意为“实际上,我本来打算要去的,但是我
改变了计划”。
【归纳】英语中表示打算和计划的常见用语有:
(询问某人的打算和计划)
① Are you going to leave for Singapore?
② Do you mean / plan to apply for the position?
③ Have you decided to support him?
④ What do you mean / intend to do?
⑤ What are you doing this evening?
⑥ Will you be there?
⑦ What are you going to do?
(说明自己的打算和计划)
① I will...
② I'm going to...
③ I intend to...
④ I hope to...
⑤ I plan / want to...
⑥ I wish to...
⑦ I've decided (not) to...
⑧ I hope not to...
⑨ I'm thinking of...
[牛刀小试4]
1. -- I think the company may not offer you a good pay.
-- ____, I won't take the job.
    A. That is to say    B. What is more
    C. In other words    D. In that case
2. -- When are you leaving for London?
-- My plan ____ at three tomorrow afternoon.
    A. is taking off    B. is about to take off
    C. takes off    D. will take off
3. -- I hear that Bai Shan can't afford his schooling this
    fall.
-- ____, let's do something for him.
    A. If so    B. Where possible
    C. When necessary  D. What a shame
4. -- I'm going downtown.
-- Come on. ____.
    A. You're welcome  B. I'll give you a lift
C. Don't do that    D. Come with me
 ☆精典题例☆
(  )1. ____ straight on and you'll see a church. You
    won't missing it. (2004湖北)
    A. Go    B. Going
    C. If you go    D. Wheng going
    【解析】选A  “祈使句 + and + 陈述句”的句式相当
于含有if条件句的复合句。
(  )2. ____ the programme,they have to stay there
    for another two weeks. (2004  广东)
    A. Not completing
    B. Not completed
    C. Not having completed
    D. Having not completed
    【解析】选C  not having completed是分词的完成式
的否定结构,在句中表原因。
(  )3. The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a
    few seconds to try to ____. (2003北京春季)
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it uD    D. make it over
    【解析】选A   make out意为“理解”。
(    )4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the
    govemment knows ____. (NMET 2003)
    A. it what to do with  B. what to do it with
    C. what to do with it  D. to do what with it
    【解析】选C  what + 不定式在句中做know的宾语。
(  )5. Americans eat ____ vegetables per person today
    as they did in 1910. (2002上海)
    A. more than twice
    B. astwice asmany
    C. twice asmany as
    D. more than twice as many
【解析】选(:本题考查倍数的表达法。
(   ) 6. -- Do you like ____ here'?
     -- Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of
     life. Everything is so nice.  (2004  全国II)
     A. this                B. these
     C. that               D. it
    【解析】选D此题考查代词的用法联系下文可知
it此处是“不定指代”
(     ) 7. Tony is going camping with ____ boys.
            A. little two other      B. two little other
            C. two other little      D. little other two
    【解析】选C  本题考查多个形容词修饰一个名词的
用法。
(     ) 8. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf,
        ____ five are mine.  (2004  全国)
A. on which           B. in which
C. of which            D. from which
    【解析】选c此句考查非限制性定语从句,且什么
当中的几个要用of。
(     ) 9. They had a pleasant chat ____ a cup of coffee.
            (2003  北京)
            A. for               B. with
            C. during              D. over
【解析】选D。 over在此意为“一边……,一边……”
(     )10. The conference had been held to discuss the
             effects of tourism ____ the wildlife in the
             area. (2003  上海)
             A. in                 B. on
             C. at                D. with
【解析】选B此题考查固定搭配“have effects on sth.”。
 
 
 


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