2008高三英语复习学案SBII Units
发表时间:2008-5-10 21:29:49  编辑:ysg
Chapter I SB I   Units 1 - 2
1. What should a friend be like? 询问对方的看法
2. I think he / she should be…表示个人观点的词语
3. I enjoy reading / I'm fond of singing / I like playing computer games. 等表示喜好的词语
4. Chuck is on a flight when suddenly his plane crashes.
5. What / Who / When / Where is it that...? 强调句的
6. With so many people communicating in English everyday,
  ... “with+宾语+宾补”的结构做状语
7. Can you tell me how to pronounce...? 带连接副词
1. especially v. 特别地
2. imagine v. 想像
3. alone adv. / adj. 单独,孤独的
4. interest n. 兴趣
5. everyday adj. 每天的,日常的
6. deserted adj. 抛弃的
7. hunt v. 搜寻
8. share v. 分享
9. care v. 在乎,关心
10. total n. 总数
11. majority n. 大多数
12. survive v. 生存,活下来
13. adventure n. 冒险
14. scared adj. 吓坏的
15. admit v. 承认
16. while conj. 但是,而
17. boring adj. 令人厌烦的
18. except prep. 除……之外
19. quality n. 质量
20. favourite adj. 最喜爱的
1. be fond of爱好
2. treat…as…把……看作为……
3. make friends with 与……交朋友
4. argue with sb. about / over sth. 与某人争论某事
5. hunt for寻找
6. in order to为了
7. share…with与……分享
8. bring in引进;赚钱
9. a great / good many许多…
10. have difficulty (in) doing做……有困难
11. end up with以……结束
12. except for除……之外
13. come about发生
14. make(a)fire生火
15. make yourself at home别拘束
16. the majority of大多数
17. drop sb. a line给某人写短信
18. for the first time第一次
19. at all根本;竟然
20. have a (good) knowledge of…精通……
l. be fond ____ 喜欢,爱好 of
2. hunt ____    搜索。追寻,寻找 for
3. in to ____ 为了 order
4. care ____  担心,关心 about
5. such ____  例如,诸如 as
6. drop sb a ____ 给某人写信(通常指写短信) line
7. make oneself at ____  别客气 home
8. ____ total  总共 in
9. except ____  除了……之外 for
10. stay ____   不睡,熬夜 up
11. ____ about  发生 come
12. end ____ with  以……告终 up
13. bring ____ 引进,引来 in
14. a great ____   许许多多,极多 many
15. be ____   对……深感兴趣,深深迷上…… into
16. ____ the Internet  上网 surf
17. ____ classes  逃学,逃课 skip
18. get ____   聚会,相聚,聚集 together
19. be proud ____   为……感到骄傲 of
20. keep an ____ on   照看,注意 eye
21. be curious ____    对……感到好奇 about
22. shut ____   (使)住口 up
23. joke ____   开玩笑 about
24. ____ the name of  以……名义 in
25. ____ the time  总是,一直 all
1. I think…
  I like / love / hate...
  I enjoy...
  My interests are...
2. Did you have a good flight?
  You must be very tired.
  Just make yourself at home.
  I beg your pardon?
  Can you tell me how to pronounce...?
  Get it.
1. argue  v. 的用法
▲构词:argument n. 1. [C]争论 2. [U]讨论.辩论3. [C]论据
▲ 搭配:
① argue with / against sb. over / on / about sth. 与某人  争论某事
② argue for / against sth. 辩论赞成/反对某事
③ argue that... 主张,认为,争辩说
④ argue sb into / out of doing sth. 说服某人做/不做某事
  ▲友情提示:“说服某人做/不做某事”还可表达为:talk / persuade / reason sb. into / out of doing sth.
⑤ settle the argument 解决争端
  ▲友情提示:an argument with sb about / over sth. 为某事和某人而发生的争执
【考例】What laughing ____ we had about the socially respectable method for moving spaghetti (意大利式细面条) from plate to mouth.   (2004全国卷I)
   A. speeches   B. lessons  C. sayings  D. arguments
[考查目标] argue名词形式的词义。
[答案与解析] D  argument的词义是“争辩,辩论”。
2. compare  v. 的用法
▲构词:comparison n. 比较
▲搭配:① compare...to... 比拟;比作 ② compare... with / to... 将……和……相比较 ③ compare notes 对笔记;交换意见
【考例】 ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004湖北)
    A. Compare    B. When comparing
    C. Comparing    D. When compared
[考查目标] compare的用法。
[答案与解析] D  本句compare用在句首作状语,并有“被比较”的意思。
3. consider  v. 的用法
▲构词:consideration n. 考虑,思考;体谅,顾及
▲搭配:① consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 ② consider sb (to be / as)... 认为/觉得某人……③ consider that- clause 认为…… ④ take sth into consideration 考虑 ⑤ under consideration 在考虑中
【考例】Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer.  (NMET 1993)
    A. to invent           B. inventing
    C. to have invented   D. having invented
[考查目标] consider的几种常见用法。
[答案与解析] C consider本身是被动语态时,后接不定式的各种结构。如果表示已经发生的事情.用不定式的完成形式。
4. deserted adj. 空无一人的;被遗弃的;被抛弃的
    (1) 空无一人的a deserted street / area空无一人的街道,地区;The office was quite deserted.办公室里空无一人。
    (2) 被遗弃的  a deserted child 被遗弃的孩子
(3) desert ['dezot] n. 沙漠
desert [dI'zo:t] vt. 丢弃;遗弃
    He deserted his wife and children after becoming rich.
5. difficulty n.
  (1) difficulty (通常作复数) 难事,难点,难题She met with many difficulties when travelling.
  (2) 在以下句型中,difficulty是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。
  have (some) difficulty (in) doing sth.
there is (some) difficulty (in) doing sth.
  have (some) difficulty with sth.     
  there is (some) difficulty with sth.
  do sth. with difficulty / without difficulty 困难地/轻而易举地做某事
  We had a lot of difficulty in finding your house.
  Do you have any difficulty with your English?
(1) 以上句型中,difficulty前可加some, little, much, a lot of, no, any修饰
  (2) 以上句型中,亦可用trouble来代替difficulty。
6. favourite = favorite (A. E) 最喜爱的;最喜爱的人或事物
  (1) adj. 最喜爱的My favorite sport is playing football.
  (2) n. [C] 最喜爱的人或事物He is a favorite with his uncle.
7. fun的用法
▲构词:funny adj. 有趣的.滑稽的,好笑的;奇特的,古怪的
① make fun of 取笑;嘲弄;开某人的玩笑
② (just)for / in fun = (just) for the fun of it 取乐,非认真地,说/做着玩的
③ be full of fun…… 很好玩
④ have fun with sb. 和某人开一个玩笑
⑤ have (some) fun 玩得(很)高兴,玩得(很)开心
⑥ It's (great) fun to do sth干某事很有趣;干某事真是一件趣事;干某事真开心
⑦ What fun (it is) to do sth! 干某事多么有趣呀!
⑧ have a lot of fun doing sth 干某事玩得很开心
【考例】 (200上海春招) This is not a match. We're play- ing chess just for ____.
    A. habit    B. hobby    C. fun      D. game
[考查目标] fun构成的短语for fun的意思。
[答案与解析]C,for fun 常在句中用作状语,意思是“说/做着玩的”。
8. imagine的用法
▲构词:① imagination n. [C / U] 想像,想像力,想像的事物 ② imaginative adj. 富有想像力的
▲搭配:① imagine sth / doing sth ② beyond (all) imagination (完全)出乎意料地
【考例】 I can hardly imagine Peter ___across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.  (MET 1991)
    A. sail    B. to sail   C. sailing   D. to have sailed
[考查目标] imagine的基本用法。
[答案与解析] C imagine后接动词的-ing形式,本句的Peter是这个动名词的逻辑主语。
9. interest的用法
interest vt. 使……感兴趣 n. 兴趣,爱好 [U] 利息;利润 He has a great interest in politics. 他对政治极感兴趣。/ a broad interest 广泛的利益 / a common interest 共同的利益 / a strong interest 极强的兴趣
▲构词:① interesting 令人感兴趣的(事物) ② interested (某人对某事)有兴趣的
▲搭配:① interest sb in sth 使某人注意,关心或参入某事;使某人对某事感兴趣 ② be interested in 对……感兴趣(关心) ③have an interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面有兴趣 (关心);在……中有股份、权益等 ④ hold one's interest 吸引住某人的兴趣 ⑤ in the interest(s) of 为……利益;为……起见;对……有利 ⑥ lose interest in 对……不再感兴趣 ⑦ show / take (an) interest in / in doing sth. 对……表示关心(有兴趣) ⑧ have / take / feel no interest in 对……不 (不太) 感兴趣 ⑨ with interest 有兴趣地,津津有味地 ⑩develop / find / feel interest in sth. / in doing sth. 在某方面培养/有兴趣 ⑪ lose interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面失去兴趣
有时interest可与不定冠词连用。He developed an interest in science.
另外:interest作“爱好”解时,是可数名词。 His interests include reading and tennis.
【考例】____, they immediately suggested that she put them together to make a single one long story and paid Tracy a $50,000 advance. (2004全国卷 II)
    A. Interested    B. Anxiously
    C. Seriously     D. Encouraged
[考查目标] interest派生词的词义和用法。
[答案与解析] A interested指(出版商)对这件事有兴趣。
10. prove的用法
▲构词:① proof n. 证据。试验,考验,(印刷)校样
▲搭配:① prove sth to sb 向某人证实…… ② prove to sb that 从句向某人证实…… ③ prove (oneself) to be 证明(自己)是,表现出
【考例】It was in the neighboring country — United States that such resistance to spray was first ____. (05长春模拟)
    A. proved   B. killed   C. thought    D. discussed
[考查目标] 考查prove的意思。
[答案与解析] A  本题was proved的意思是“得到证实”,有被动意味。
11. provide的用法
▲构词:① provider n. 供给者,供应者,养家者 ② provided / providing conj. 倘若
▲搭配:provide sb with sth / sth to sb 给……提供;以……装备
【考例】His son ____ the old man with all the food and the money he needed.
   A. provided    B. fed    C. afforded    D. charred
[答案与解析]A provide与with搭配,意思是“向某人提供某物”。
12. share的用法
▲搭配:① share (in) sth. with sth. 和某人分享、分担、共用某物 ② share sth (out) between / among... 将某物分配、分给…… ③ share joys / happiness and sorrows (with sb) (和某人) 同甘共苦 ④ share one's opinion 同意某人的意见
【考例】Let Harry play with your toys as well, Clare — you must learn to ____. (NMET 2000)
    A. support    B. care    C. spare    D. share
[考查目标] 此题主要考查在语境中选择动词的能力。
[答案与解析] D  四个选项的含义分别为:support 支持;care 在意,关心;spare 挤出(时间),匀出某物;share分享,分担,与某人合用。根据语境可知说话者是想让Clare学会与人共享——把玩具(拿出来)和Harry一起玩,share在此意为“合用玩具”,解此题的关键是信息play with your toys as well。故D为最佳答案。
13. solve的用法
▲构词:solution n. 1. [C] (问题的)解答;(困难的)解决方法 2. [U] 解答,解决 3. [U] 溶解
▲搭配:the solution to 解决……的办法
【考例3】In the end, one suggestion seems to be the solution ____ the problem.  (2001北京春招)
    A. with    B. into  C. for    D. to
[考查目标] solve名词solution的相关搭配。
[答案与解析] D “对于……的解决办法”,介词用to。
14. total n. / adj. 全部(的)
  (1) in total 加起来In total, there must have been 20000 people there.
  (2) a total of 总共His expenses (支出) reached a total of $100.
  (3) the total of...……的总数 The total 0f the bill is 230 dollars.
15. when conj.
  when并列连词,= and then,表示“就在那时,突然”,常见以下句型中:
  (1) be doing...when...正在做……突然……I was wandering through the streets when l caught sight of a tailor's shop.
  (2) had done...when...刚做了……突然……I had just sat down when the light went out.
  (3) be about to do...when...刚要做……突然……I was just about to go swimming when our guide saw me and shouted at me.
16. while conj.
  (1) while从属连词,引导时间状语从句,从句动词用延续性动词,主句的动作发生在从句动作发生的过程之中。Come on, get these things away while I make the tea.
  (2) 并列连词,表前后两个分句意义相反或相对,意为“然而”。Some people waste food while others haven't enough.
  (3) 放在句首,表示“尽管;虽然”,相当于although。While we don't agree, we continue to be friendly.
[牛刀小试1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空:
1. All the novels are considered ____ the young readers in the 1980s. (to have interested)
2. Bob thought it ____ to solve maths problems while others hated it. (fun)
3. The headmaster ignored the ____ between Mrs. Wang and his nephew. (argument)
4. We can't decide. The plan needs to be ____. (considered)
5. ____ with Class Two, ours has more boy students. (Compared)
6. I find a better way ____ this problem. (to solve)
7. Nearly half of the companies ____ the same opinion with the government. (share / shared)
1. especially, specially
  especially adv. 特殊地;尤其是
  (1)侧重于多种事物或人中比较突出的。I like all the subjects at school, especially English. (尤其是英语)
  (2) especially 后可接介词短语或从句。I like the Yuelu Mountains, especially in spring. (尤其是在春天) Noise is unpleasant, especially when you are trying to sleep.
  specially 侧重特意地、专门地做某事 (后面常接for sb. to do sth.)
I made a chocolate cake specially for you.
2. boring, bored, bore
  boring adj. 令人厌烦的 The book is very boring.
  bored adj. 感到厌烦的 I'm bored with the book.
  bore vt. 令人厌烦  This book bores me.
  有些表示情感的及物动词,有与bore类似的用法。如:interest, excite, surprise, amaze, frighten, astonish, move, inspire, touch, scare, disappoint, puzzle, worry 这类词的现在分词形式,为“令人……”;过去分词形式,为“感到……”。
3. except for, except, but, besides
  表示“除了”的词或短语有:except; but; except for; besides; except that (when...) 等。
  (1) except 和 but 都表示“除了……之外。没有”,二者大多数情况下可以互换;但在no, all, nobody, nothing, no one 等词后多用 but。No one knows our teacher's address except / but him. (排除him)
  (2) besides 除……之外,还……,有附加性。What other foreign languages do you know besides English? (English与other languages都属于know的范围)
  (3) except for 只不过……,整体肯定,部分修正,用于排除非同类事物,for表示细节上的修正。 Your article is well written except for a few spelling mistakes.
4. know, know of, know about
  (1) know 用作动词,意思是“(直接地)获知,懂得,认识,熟悉”。I don't know whether he is here or not. / I know him to be honest.
  (2) know of和know about的意思都是“(间接地)获知”,指听别人说到或从书报上看到,二者没有什么区别。
5. for example; such as
  (1) for example“例如”,用来举例说明某一论点或情况。一般只举同类人或物中的“一个”为例,作插入语,可位于句首、句中或句末。可用for instance替换。For example, air is invisible. / His spelling is terrible! Look at this word, for example.
  (2) such as “例如”,用来列举事物,一般列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。插在被列举的事物与前面的名词之间,as后面不可有逗号。Some of the European Languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.
  [注意]如把前面所述情况全部举出,用that is或namely。
1. all的短语
1) first of all 首先 (强调顺序)
2) in all (=in total=altogether) 总共
3) after all 毕竟,终究
4) at all 到底,根本
5) above all 最重要的是 (强调重要性)
6) not (...) at all (= not (...) in the least) 根本不,一点也不
7) all the time 始终,一直
8) all of a sudden (=suddenly) 突然,冷不防
9) all right 行,可以
10) all at once 立刘,马上
11) all day and all night 日日夜夜
12) all over 遍及
13) all alone 独个儿,独立地
14) all but 几乎,差一点
15) all in all 总的说来
16) all together 一道,同时,总共
17) for all 尽管
[例句] I woke up and didn't hear him at all. 我醒了,一点儿也没有听到他说话。/ He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了很多跤,以至于浑身青一块紫一块的。/ You shouldn't scold her. After all, she is only five years old. 你不应该责怪他,毕竟,她只有五岁。/ Children need many things, but above all, they need love. 孩子需要许多东西,最重要的是,需要爱。/ You must have known it all the time. 你一定一直知道这事。
【考例】 People may have different opinions about Karen, but I admire her. ____, she is a great musician. (2004甘肃、青海)
  A. After all B. As a result C. In other words D. As usual
[考查目标] 主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析] A  after all意为“毕竟.终究”;as a result意为“结果”;in other words意为“换句话说”;as usual意为“像往常一样”。本句意思是:虽然人们对她看法不一。但我还是佩服她。因为她毕竟是一个伟大的音乐家。
【考例】I'd like to buy a house -- modern, comfortable, and ____ in a quiet neighborhood.  (2004福建)
    A. in all    B. above all    C. after all    D. at all
[考查目标] 主要考查all构成的四个短语。
[答案与解析] B   in all意为“总共”;above all意为“最重要的是”; after all 意为“毕竟”;at all 意为“到底”。本句话意思是:我想买一个房子,现代的、舒服的,但最重要的是在一个安静的地区。
2. at all
  (1)用在肯定句中,“竟然” I'm surprised that you came at all.
  (2)用在否定句中,“一点也不” There was nothing to worry about at all.
  (3)用在疑问句中,“到底”“究竟” Have you been there at all?
  (4)用在条件句中,“真的,确实” If you do it at all, do it well.
3. “be + 形容词 + 介词的短语
1) be good at 擅长于
2) be interested in 对……感兴趣
3) be pleased / satisfied / content with 对……满意
4) be famous for 因……而出名
5) be kind / good to 对……好
6) be lost in 沉湎于
7) be active in 在某方面积极
8) be sure about / of 确信
9) be afraid of 害怕
10) be full of 充满
11) be filled with 充满
12) be made of / from 由……组成
13) be generous to 对……慷慨
14) be popular with 受欢迎
15) be confident of 确信
16) be fond of 喜欢,喜爱
17) be angry with / at 对……发脾气
18) be late for 迟到
19) be amazed / surprised / astonished / shocked at 对……感到惊讶
20) be busy doing 忙着做……
21) be excited about 对……感到兴奋
22) be worried about 担心
23) be used for / as 用于
24) be curious about 对……好奇
[例句] Lin Lin is confident of his ability to get work for himself. 林林确信自己有能力做这活。He was generous to everybody with money, as a result, he saved little. 他对谁花钱都很慷慨,结果没有攒到多少钱。She is very active in helping the poor. 在帮助穷人方面,她很热心。Pop music is popular with the young generation. 流行歌曲受年轻一代的欢迎。Lost in thought, he didn't realize that I came in. 他陷入思考之中,没有意识到我进来了。I was amazed at the sight so that I didn't know what to do. 看到这一幕我非常惊讶,不知道该做什么。Students in Senior 3 are busy preparing for the coming final exam. 高三学生在忙于准备即将到来的期末考试。
-- You know, Bob is a little slow ____ understanding, so...
 -- So I have to be patient ____ him.
   A. in; with   B. on; with   C. in; to   D. at; for
[考查目标] 同定搭配中介词的选择。
[答案与解析] A    be slow in 意为“在……方面反应迟钝”,be patient with 意为“对……有耐心”。
4. end up with...……结束
  (1) end up with + n. 以……结束
  The party ended up with the singing of Auld Lang Syne.
  (2) end up as...最后成为…He will end up as a president some day.
  (3) end up + 地点状语最后(有……结局) If you drive your car like that, you'll end (up) in hospital.
5. “make + 名词短语
① make a noise 吵闹
② make faces 做鬼脸,做苦脸
③ make room for 给……腾出地方
④ make the bed 整理床铺
⑤ make phone calls 打电话
⑥ make friends with 交朋友
⑦ make money 赚钱
⑧ make use of 利用
⑨ make a decision 做出决定
⑩ make a mistake 犯错误
[例句] The boy made a face at his teacher when she turned her back. 老师转身时,男孩朝老师做了个鬼脸。
Working in the kitchen made the boy into a good cook. 在厨房里干活使男孩成为一位优秀厨师。
They were moved out to a nearby hotel, to make room for more important persons. 为了给更重要的人物腾出
【考例】 The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____. (2003北京春招)
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it up    D. make it over
[考查目标] 主要考查make短语。
[答案与解析] A  make out意为“领悟、弄明白、发现真相” make off 意为“连忙跑掉”;make up 意为“弥补、打扮、组成”;make over 意为“转让、改造”。因为受到迷惑,所以应该是试图发现真相。
-- When shall we start?
-- Let's ____ it at 8:30. Is that all right?  (2002北京)
   A. set     B. meet    C. make    D. take
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 make 短语。
[答案与解析] C  make it“规定时间”为固定短语。本句话意思是“把出发的时间定在8点半”。set意思是“对时间”、“调时间”。
6. make fire点火
  有以下fire (n.) 短语: be on fire 着火了(表示状态) / catch fire 燃着;着火(表示动作) / play with fire 玩火;干冒险的事 / Set sth. on fire = set fire to sth. 放火烧…… / make (a) fire 点火;生火 /  start (cause) a fire引起火灾
  [注意] fire作“火灾”“一堆火”解时,为可数名词。
7. a great / good many许多
(1) a great / good many + 名词复数,中间无“of”。A great many people have seen the film.
(2) a great / good many + of + the / these / those / one's + 名词复数 A great many of the people have seen the film.
8. make yourself at home 别拘束
  (1) make yourself at home 别拘束(主人对客人说的委婉语) -- Good evening, Jim. -- Good evening, Mary. Come in and make yourself at home.
  (2) (all) by oneself 独自(没有别人帮助) You can't possibly do it all by yourself.
  (3) enjoy oneself = have a good time 玩得高兴 Please enjoy yourself while you're spending your holiday in Hawaii.
  (4) for oneself 亲自; 为自己The student wants to think it for himself. / One should not live for oneself alone.
  (5) of oneself 自动地The door closed of itself suddenly.
  (6) be oneself 身体或情绪好 I am not myself today.
  (7) help oneself to + n. / pron. 随便…… Please help yourself to the fish.
  (8) in oneself 本身 This is not a bad idea in itself.
  (9) come to oneself 苏醒The injured man came to him- self in five minutes.
  (10) between ourselves 私下说的话 All this is between ourselves.
9. the majority of... 大多数的……
  (1) a / the majority of + 名词复数,作主语时,谓语动词多用复数。the majority 单独作主语,谓语动词用单数或复数形式均可。The majority of people seem to prefer watching games to playing games./ The majority were (was) in favour of the proposal.
  (2) by a majority of + 数字,以超过……票的多数She won the election by a majority of 900 votes.
10. treat … as … 把…看做… The kind lady treated me as her own daughter.
  【比较】 表示“认为”的短语还有:
  regard…as…     consider…(as)…    think of…as…
look on / upon…as…                take…for…
  [注意] 在consider…as…短语中as可省略,其他短语中不可。
1. If you are ____ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr. Johnson.
A. interested   B. anxious     C. upset   D. curious
2. Her son, ____ whom she was so ____, went abroad 10 years ago.
A. of; loved           B. for; cared
C. to; devoted         D. on; affected
3. In order to continue to learn by ourselves when we have left school, we must ____ learn how to study in the school now.
A. in all   B. after all    C. above all    D. at all
4. -- I am sorry I didn't do a good job.
-- Never mind. ____, you have tried your best.
   A. Above all          B. In all
   C. At all             D. After all
5. Since we can't find a bigger apartment, we'll have to ____ what we have.
A. hope for the best      B. make room for
C. make the best of       D. lay our hope on
1. I don't enjoy singing, nor do I like computers. 我不喜欢唱歌,也不喜欢电脑。/ Rock music is OK, and so is skiing. 摇滚音乐还可以,滑雪也行。
这两句中nor与so用于倒装结构。例如:I don't know, nor do I care. 我不知道,也不关心。so的常见句型有:
(1) so + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语 (意为“主语也 ……” )
(2) neither / nor + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语(意为“主语也不……” )
(3) so it is / was with sb / sth和so it is / was the same with sb / sth (意为“主语也……” ) (用在前文有两个或以上的从句,而且分句有不同的谓语或既有肯定又有否定以及既有系动词义有行为动词的情况)
(4) so + 主语 + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 (意为“主讲确实如此”),表示进一步肯定。
(5) 主语 + did + so (意为“主语按照吩咐做了”)。
【考例】 Mary never does any reading in the evening, ____. (2005全国 III)
A. so does John       B. John does too
C. John doesn't too    D. nor does John
[考查目标] nor表示“也不”引导的倒装结构。
[答案与解析] D  由never可以判断该句为否定句。空格处句意为“约翰也没读书”。nor, so, neither可引起倒装句。
2. Chuck is a businessman who is always so busy that he has little time for his friends. 查克是个生意人,他总是那么忙,几乎没有时间和朋友在一起。
该句中so...that... 和such...that... 都能连接结果状讲从句,但要注意词序不同。例如:Joan is such a lonely girl that all of us like her. = She is so lovely a girl that we all like her.
(1) such + a / an + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + that clause
(2) such + 形容词 + 复数可数名词 + that clause
(3) such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that clause
(4) so + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + that clause
(5) so + 形容词 / 副词 + that clause
(6) so + many / few + 复数可数名词 + that clause
(7) so + much / little + 不可数名词 + that clause
注意:① 当little不表示数量“少”而表示“小”的意思时,仍然  要用such。② 当so + adj. / adv. 或 such + n. 位于句首时,主句需要倒装。
【考例】 So difficult ____ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (2001上海)
A. I have felt           B. have I felt
  C. I did feel             D. did I feel
[考查目标] so + adj. 位于句首时,主句倒装。
[答案与解析] D  A、C语序不对,排除。B时态不对。
3. One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes. 一天,查克在飞越太平洋时.他的飞机突然坠毁了。
该句中的“when”表示“正在这时”,相当于and just或and at that time. 这时不能用while / as 替换。
常见句型:(1) be about to do sth when... (2) be doing sth when... (3) be on the point of doing sth when...
【考例】We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started. (2004北京春招)
A. when    B. while    C. until    D. before
[考查目标] "when" 作连词,表示“正在这时”。
[答案与解析] A  意为“我正在湖中游泳,突然暴风雨来了。”只有when才能用于这种句型。
4. He has to learn how to collect water, hunt for food, and make fire. 他不得不学会收集淡水.寻找食物,生火什么的。
该句中的“how I to collect...”为动词不定式短语作宾语。例如:We must decide which one to buy. 疑问词which, what, how, when, where等与小定式构成不定式短语。
【考例】 I've worked with children before, so I knew what ____ in my new job.  (NMET 2000)
A. expected B. to expect  C. to be expecting D. expects
[考查目标] what to do sth 不定式短语作宾语。
[答案与解析] B  该句需要填非谓语动词。排除A、D。句意为“以前我与孩子在一块儿工作过。因此我知道我的新工作需要什么。”C不表示进行,排除C。
5. In order to survive, Chuck developed a friendship with an unusual friend — a volleyball he called Wilson. 为了生存下去,查克和一位不寻常的朋友--“排球建立了友谊,查克叫他威尔森。
1. 该句中的"in order to",意思为“为了,以便”,作目的  状语。在句子中作同的状语的常见句型有五种结构:to do sth / in order to do sth / so as to do sth / in order that clause / so that clause
注意:(1) so as to do sth 不能位于句首。(2) 如果主句与从句的主语一致时,四个结构可以相互转换。(3) 在in order that / so that 引导的从句中,谓语动词常与can, could, may, might 等情态动词连用。
【考例】(2005北京) I'd like to arrive 20 minutes early ____ I can have time for a cup of tea.
    A. as soon as  B. as a result   C. in case  D. so that
[考查目标] 目的状语。
[答案与解析]D  as soon as “一…就…”;as a result“结果是”;in case “万一”;so that“以便,为的是”。句意:“我想提前二十分钟到以便有时间喝杯茶”。
2. 该句子中 volleyball 是作同位语。例如:He advised farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones that had the best color.
【考例】(NMET 2002) Meeting my uncle after these years was an unforgotten moment, ____ I will always treasure.
   A. that    B. one    C. it    D. what
[考查目标] one作同位语,指代a moment。
[答案与解析] B  that不能引导非限制性定语从句,排除A;if不能作同位语,排除C;what既不能引导非限制定语从句,也不能作同位语。可以填which,这样就成了非限制性定语从句。
6. For a long time the language in America stayed the same, while the language in England changed. 长期以来,美国英语保持不变,但英国英语变化了。
1. 该句中的“while"用作并列连词.表示前后对比,意为  “然而”。“while"充当连词,还能引导时间状语从句。意为“during the time that…”;引导让步状语从句,意 为“although…”。
2. 该句中的 "stay" 为系动词。后接表语 (the same)。 除了stay外,常见的系动词还有: become, get, turn, grow, go, come, run, fall, keep, stay, remain。
【考例】(NMET 2003) Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ____ fresh for several days.
  A. be stayed   B. stay  C. be staying   D. have stayed
[考查目标] 系动词的用法。
[答案与解析] B  系动词没有被动语态,一般不用进行
7. for the first time 第一次
(1) for the first time 第一次,后面不加从句,在句中作状语 They came to Beijing for the first time.
(2) the first time 名词短语,在从句中充当连词,后接时间状语从句,不接that,when等连词。有同样用法的短语还有:every time; next time; the last time
They liked Beijing the first time they went there.
(3) It's / This is the first time that + 从句(用现在完成时)这是……的第一次 It's the first time that I have ever been abroad at all.
8. What is it that...? 是什么……?
(1) 结构:It is / It was (过去时间) + 被强调部分 + that / who (专指人) + 其他部分
(2) 用法:除了谓语动词不能强调,句子的每部分均可强调。  Jim met the student in the street last week.
         主语      宾语    地点状语 时间状语
    强调主语:It was Jim who / that met the student in the street last week.
    强调宾语:It was the student whom / that Jim met in the street last week.
    强调地点状语:It was in the street that Jim met the student last week.
    强调时间状语:It was last week that Jim met the student in the street.
(3) 注意点:
    Was it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now?
    Who is it that will visit our class?
    Where is it that he has gone?
    When was it that she went?
    not … until … 用于强调句:
    It was not until then that I realized I was wrong.
1. -- I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!     -- ____. (2004广西)
A. Nor am I            B. Neither would I
C. Same with me        D. So do I
2. We can't imagine ____ little mice can eat up ____ many crops every year.
A. so; so   B. such; so  C. such; such  D. so; so
3. Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park ____ she was bitten on the leg by a lion.
A. when     B. while    C. since     D. once
4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the govern- ment knows ____. (NMET 2002)
A. it what to do with    B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it    D. to do what with it
5. Roses need special care ___they can live through winter.
(2004 天津)
A. because  B. so that  C. even if     D. as
1. Talking about likes and dislikes. 谈论喜欢和不喜欢
-- I enjoy Chinese food very much. -- ____. (03东北三校)
A. Please taste quickly    B. Have more, please
C. Help yourself         D. Eat slowly while it is hot
(1) This book is very interesting.
(2) I like / love the movie (very much).
(3)I like / love to play computer games.
(4) I like taking photos.
(5) I enjoy listening to music.
(6) I'm interested in science. My hobbies / interests are...
(7) He is fond of music.
(8) This song is bad / awful.
(9) I don't like the movie very much / at all.
(10)I don't enjoy collecting stamps.
(11)I hate to do homework. I hate dancing,
(12)I'm not into classic music.
(13)I think that classic music is terrible / boring.
2. Making apologies 道歉
-- I'm sorry I'm calling you so late. -- ____ Okay. 
A. This is   B. You're     C. That's     D. I'm
[答案与解析] C 本题主要考查英语中道歉及应答用语。A、B、D三项不符合交际英语的习惯,故C项正确。
(1) I'm very sorry. I didn't mean to (hurt your feelings).
(2) I'm terribly sorry about that.
(3) I'm afraid I've brought you too much trouble.
(4) Please excuse me coming late.
(5) Please forgive me.
(6) Excuse me, please.
(7) I beg your pardon.
(1) That's / It's all right.
(2) That's / It's OK.
(3) Never mind.
(4) It doesn't matter.
(5) It's nothing.
(6) Forget it.
(7) Don't worry about that.
(8) Don't mention it.
3. Talking about language difficulties in communication 谈论语言交际困难
-- I'm sorry. I can't catch you. ____
-- OK, it's B—L—A—C—K.
    A. Would you please walk slowly?
    B. I don't understand you.
    C. What's the meaning of this word?
    D. Would you please repeat it more slowly?
[答案与解析] D本题主要考查语言交际困难的功能意念。catch 在整个语境中是“听见,听清”的意思,A项错误理解了catch 在此处的意思,B、C两项语义不连贯, 故正确答案是D。
(1) Pardon? / I beg your pardon.
(2) Sorry, I can't follow you.
(3) Can you speak more slowly, please?
(4 )How do you say...in English.'?
(5) I don't know how to say that in English.
(6) I don't know the word in English.
(7) How do you spell it, please?
(8) I'm sorry I only know a little English.
(9) Could you repeat that, please? Could you say that
  again, please?
(10) What do you mean by killing time?
1. -- ____ I didn't hear you clearly. It's too noisy here.
-- I was saying that the party was great.
A. Repeat.               B. Once again.
C. Sorry?                D. So what?
2. -- Do you like a house with no garden?
-- ____. But anyhow, it's better to have one than none.
A. Not a bit            B. Not a little
C. Not really            D. Not specially
3. -- I'm sorry for stepping on your foot?  -- ____.
A. It's OK              B. You are welcome
C. It's your fault         D. Never you mind
4. -- What you said at the meeting hurt me badly!
-- Sorry. But ____.
A. I didn't mean it       B. I didn't mean to
C. I don't mean it        D. I don't mean to
5. -- You seem to show interest in cooking.
-- ____? On the contrary, I'm tired of it.
A. Really   B. Pardon   C. OK     D. What
1. -- David has made great progress recently.
  -- ____, and ____.
  A. So he has; so have you   B. So has he; so have you
  C. So he has; so you have   D. So has he; so you have
【解析】选A  答句中的he指David,不倒装。“So have you” 意为“你也一样(取得了进步)”。
2. Little ____ what others think.
A. does he care about      B. care he about
C. about he eared         D. about cared he
【解析】选A little为否定副词,置于句首时,句子使用部分倒装。
3. At school, what he enjoys ____ football.
A. playing  B. to play  C. is playing  D. played
【解析】选C what he enjoys为主语从句,谓语动词为be,表语为playing football。不要误以为playing是enjoy的宾语而误选A。
4. At the ____news, all the women present burst out crying.
A. unexpecting          B. disappointing
C. disappointed          D. interesting
5. He was about to tell me the secret ____ someone patted him on the shoulder.
A. as   B. until       C. while      D. when
【解析】选D "when"表示“就在这时,突然”。
6. The wolf said in a ____ voice and the scholar felt ____.
A. frightening; frightened   B. frightened; frightened
C. frightened; frightening   D. frightening; frightening
【解析】选A frightening“令人害怕”;frightened“感
7. In our ____ life, English is ____ used.
A. everyday; wide     B. everyday; widely
C. every day; wide     D. every day; widely
【解析】选B everyday“日常的,每天的”;widely“广泛地”。
8. -- Hello, Mary. I've got a girlfriend.  -- What's she like?
-- ____.
A. I don't know    B. She's like her mother, not father
C. She likes music  D. Not had! Quite pretty
9. The fire ____ for half an hour before the fire fighters arrived.
A. had put out         B. was put out
C. had been out        D. had broken out
【解析】选C be out"火熄灭”,表示状态。
10. It has been suggested that the land ____ equally among the peasants.
A. be shared          B. should be spared
C. saved              D. be spent
【解析】选A suggest后用虚拟语气。be shared前可
11. She took ____ in physics and read ____ on the subject.
A. interest; as books many as she could
B. an interest; as many books as she could
C. interested; as many books as she can
D. interests; as books as she could
12. -- How's the young man? -- ____.
A. He's twenty        B. He's a doctor
C. He is much better   D. He's David
【解析】选C how is sb. “某人身体如何”。
13. Let Harry play with your toys as well. Clare, you must learn to ____.
A. support   B. care   C. spare   D. share
【解析】选D share“分享”;support“支持”;care“在意”;spare“抽出(时间)。节余”。
14. The new dress looks wonderful on you ____ the collar.
A. besides  B. except  C. beside  D. except for
15. -- What about your classmate, Susan?
-- Our teacher ____ her a good and clever student.
A. regards   B. believes  C. suggests   D. considers
【解析】选D consider as…“认为……是……”,as可省略。
Chapter 2 SB I Units 3 - 4
1. Instead of spending your vacation on a bus, ... you may want to try hiking. Instead和instead 0f的用法
2. Say "Hi" / "Hello" / "Thanks" to sb. (for me) 问候的句型
3. Is anybody seeing you off? 进行时表将来
4. She struggled and struggled, and could not get on her feet. (= keep struggling)
5. You should not go rafting unless you know... unless引导条件状语从句,相当于if... not
6. By staying at..., tourists can help the villagers make money so that they can take care of the fiver and the birds. 目的状语从句
7. She was so surprised that she couldn't move. 结果状语从句
8. Tree after tree went down, cut down by water. 过去分词作状语
9. The next moment, the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. 现在分词作状语
10. However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. It didn't take long before the building was destroyed.     before的用法
1. means n. 方法;途径
2. experience n. 经验
3. equipment n. 设备
4. successful adj. 成功的
5. protect v. 保护
6. handle v. 处理
7. consider v. 考虑
8. benefit n. 利益
9. particular adj. 特别的
10. effect n. 效果
11. combine v. 合并
12. unforgettable adj. 不会忘记的
13. advance v. 前进
14. seize v. 抓住
15. struggle v. 奋斗
16. fear v. & n. 害怕
17. strike v. 敲打
18. destroy v. 毁掉
19. publish v. 出版
20. naughty adj. 调皮的
1. get away from 逃离
2. watch / look out 注意,当心
3. go for a hike / go hiking 去徒步旅游
4. as with 正如……一样
5. see off 为某人送行
6. on the other hand 在另一方面
7. take care of 照顾
8. get close / near to 接近,凑近
9. tree after tree 一棵又一棵的树
10. as wall as 也,和……一样(好)
11. protect…from 保护……不受……的伤害
12. be surprised at 因……而吃惊
13. be caught / trapped / struck in 被……困住
14. take place 发生
15. go through 通过,经过;经历(痛苦的事)
16. be upon 临近,逼近
17. hold on to 紧紧抓住
18. refer to 提到,说到;查询(信息)
19. look into 注视……的内部;检查,调查
20. for fear of (doing) sth. 惟恐……
l. get ____ from 逃离  away
2. watch ____ 注意,当心 out
3. protect sb / sth ____ 保护/保卫某人(某事物) from
4. see sb ____ 到火车站、飞机场等某处为某人送行 off
5. on the other ____ 另一方面 hand
6. as ____ as也,还,而且 well
7. ____ place发生,产生 take
8. ____ fire失火 on
9. pull sb ____ 把……往上拽 up
10. get ____ one's feet站立起来;站起身来 on
11. go ____  通过,经受。仔细检查 through
12. ____ holiday在度假 on
13. travel ____ 旅行社代理人 agent
14. be ____ 逼近,临近 upon
15. ____ exercise 进行体育锻炼 take
16. ____ "Hi" to sb for / from sb 代某人向某人问候 say
17. come ____ with提出 up
18. go ____ a hike 去远足 for
19. be caught ____  受困于……,陷于…… in
20. ____ a second 马上,一会儿 in
21. look ____ 往……里面看,调查 into
22. refer ____ 提到.涉及;参考 to
23. hold ____ 抓住,握住 onto
24. sweep ____ 冲走,刮走 away
25. sweep ____ 冲倒,吹倒 down
1. Where would you prefer going...?
2. How would you like to go to...?
3. Have a nice / pleasant trip !
4. Well, I must be off.
5. It's all right.
6. I'm afraid.
7. Come on !
8. It scares me.
9. Don't worry.
10. First..., next..., then..., finally...
1. advance的用法
▲构词:advanced adj. 高等的.先进的,高深的
① in advance 在前头,预先,事先
② in advance of 在……前面;比……进步;超过
③ on the advance (物价)在上涨
【考例】It is said that Miss White had some difficulty in studying the ____ maths.
    A. improved B. developed C. advanced D. increased
[考查目标] 本题考查形容词advanced与近义词的区别。
[答案与解析]C  “高等数学”的英译是advanced maths,advanced意思是“先进的。高级的”。
2. before 的特殊用法
  (1) He had run out of the room before I could stop him.我还没来得及拦住他,他就跑出了屋子。
  (2) Three weeks went by before We knew it. 三周过去了,我们才意识到。(或:时间不知不觉已过三周了。)
  (3) It wasn't / didn't take long before he returned.他没过多久就回来了。
  It won't be long before we graduate. 不要过多久我们就要毕业了。
3. chance的用法
① by any chance 万一,碰巧,或许
② by chance 偶然,意,外地
③ take a / one's chance 冒一冒险,碰碰运气,利用一下机会
【考例6】 (2005南京模拟)Most of the ___are in seasonal work, mainly connected with tourism and agriculture.
    A. work    B. luck    C. chances    D. services
[考查目标] chance的词义。
[答案与解析] C   chance在本句的词义是“机会”。
4. consider v.
  (1) 考虑
  A) consider + n. / doing
  I consider going abroad.
  B) consider + 疑问词 + to do
  You have to consider what to do next.
  (2) 认为
  A) consider + n. (+as / to be) + n. / adj.
  I consider Mary as / to be my best friend.
  They considered Paris the brain and heart of the country.
  B) consider + n. + to have done
  I consider him to have acted disgracefully.
  …,look on…as…,take…as…,think of…as…
5. cost的用法
▲ 构词:costly adj. 昂贵的,贵重的
▲ 搭配:
① cost sb. sth. 花费某人(多少钱);让某人付出(代价)/牺牲……
② at all costs 不惜任何代价.无论如何
③ at any cost 不惜任何代价,无论如何
④ at cost (price) 按成本价格,按原价
⑤ at the cost of 以……为代价,用……换来的;丧失;牺牲
【考例】They wondered how much this kind of car would ____ them.
    A. pay    B. spend    C. cost    D. waste
[考查目标] 本题考查cost和它的几个近义词的区别。
[答案与解析] C  cost的意思是“耗费”,主语是指物的
6. effect n. 效果;作用
have an effect on sth.
  His words had a great pushing effect on his students.
  (1) be of no effect 无效
  (2) come into effect 开始生效;开始实行
  [比较] affect vt. 影响 The climate affected the amount of the rainfall.
7. experience的用法
▲构词: experienced adj. 有经验的,熟练的
① by experience 凭经验;从经验中
② from experience 凭经验;从经验中
③ gain experience in… 获得……经验
④ be experienced in… 某方面有经验
友情提示: experience这个词作为可数名词用时,解释为“经历”,作为不可数名词用时解释为“经验”。
【考例】 (2005山西模拟) ____teaches that he was right. Good friendship is just not easily formed.
    A. Knowledge B. Teachers C. Experience D. Parents
[考查目标] experience的意思。
[答案与解析] C   experience常为不可数名词,意思是“经验”。
8. fear n. & vt.
  (1) n. 恐惧 (多作不可数名词)
  His face was growing pale with fear.
  There is no reason for your fears.
  for fear of 由于怕……,以防
  He left an hour earlier for fear of missing his train.
  for fear (that) 惟恐;怕的是;以防
  She worried for fear that the child would be hurt.
  in fear of 害怕;担心
  The thief  was in fear of the police.
  (2) v. 恐惧;害怕,接 n. / pron.
  Cats fear big dogs.
  恐惧;害怕,接to do
  Don't fear to tell the truth.
  She feared that she might not find him in his room.
▲构词:fearful adj. 可怕的,严重的;惧怕的,胆怯的;担心的,忧虑的 fearless adj. 不怕的,大胆的,勇敢的,无畏的
① be in fear (of) (为……而)提心吊胆
② for fear of 因为怕;以免,怕的是
③ for fear that-clause 生怕;为了防止(某事发生)
④ have a fear that-clause 担心/怕(发生某事)
⑤ with fear 吓得,怕得
⑥ fear (vi.) for... 担心/忧虑……
【考例】(2004江苏)He got to the station early, ____ missing his train.
    A. in case of    B. instead of
    C. for fear of    D. in search
[考查目标] fear构成的短语的用法和意思。
[答案与解析]C   for fear of 常在句中作状语,意思是 “怕的是……。担心……”。
9. fun n. 高兴;乐趣;有趣的人或事
  (1) for fun 为了高兴;为着好玩
  I only did it for fun.
  (2) make fun of 开……的玩笑;取笑
  It is wrong to make fun of a cripple.
  (1) laugh at 笑(某人);嘲笑
  It's unkind to laugh at a person who is in trouble.
  (2) play a joke on 开(某人的)玩笑
10. means n. 手段;办法
  (1) by means of 用……;依靠……
  The water may be carried by means of a pipe.
  (2) by all means 一定;务必;(表示同意)当然可以,没问题:务必,无论如何,千方百计地
  Try by all / every means to persuade him to come.
  (3) by no means 完全不是;一点也不;决不
  This is by no means the first time you have been late.
  还有: by this means 用这种方法; by any means 用一切可能的方法或手段
【考例】(MET 1991)Students sometimes support them- selves by ____ of evening job.
    A. ways    B. offers    C. means   D.helps
[考查目标] by means of 短语的意思。
[答案与解析] C by means of 的意思是“通过某种手段”。
11. normal adj. 正常的;正规的
    the normal temperature, normal behavior
    (1) regular 规则的;有规律的
    keep regular hours 生活有规律;按时作息
    (2) common普通的;常见的
    Tom is a common name in Britain. 共有的;共同的
    have a common interest 有着共同爱好
    (3) usual 惯常的;惯例的
    It's usual with him to go to the office on foot.
    (4) ordinary 平凡的;普通的  in ordinary dress
12. once的用法
▲ 搭配:
① all at once 突然;同时
② at once 立刻,马上;同时
③ (every) once in a while 偶尔,有时,间或
④ for this once (= for once,just for once) 就这一次;  破例一回
⑤ more than once 不止一次,多次
⑥ not once 一次也不
⑦ once again / more再一次
⑧once and again一再,再三
⑨ once or twice 一两次;有时,偶尔
⑩ once too often又(多了)一次
⑪ once upon a time从前
【考例】(2004上海) ____ we have learned something, additional learning increases the length of time we will remember it.
    A. Before    B. Once    C. Until    D. Unless
[考查目标] 连词once的用法和词义。
[答案与解析] B  once在作连词使用时意思是“一旦”。
13. prefer v. 宁愿;更喜欢
  (1) prefer + n. / pron.
  The boy preferred a detective story.
  (2) prefer + v. -ing
  Do you prefer living abroad?
  (3) prefer + to do
  She prefers to live among the working people.
  (4) prefer sb. to do sth.
  She preferred him to stay at home.
  (5) prefer + n. / pron. / doing + to + n. / pron. / doing 喜欢……而不喜欢  I prefer the town to the country. / While he was in the office he preferred doing something to doing nothing.
  (6) prefer to do...rather than do = would rather do ... than do... 宁愿……而不愿 I prefer to walk there rather than go by bus.
  (7) prefer + 从句(谓语动词用should do,should可省略)  She preferred that he should do it in the kitchen.
14. protect的用法
▲ 构词:protection  n. 保护(者/物),防御
▲ 搭配:protect sb from / against 防止……遭受……;使……免于,保护……使不受
【考例】 (MET 1992) Clarke was greatly admired at the club for the successful ____.
    A. self-satisfaction    B. self-protection
    C. self-respect          D. self-service
[考查目标] protect及其派生词的词义。
[答案与解析]B  self-protection是名词,意思是“自我保护”。
15. separate的用法
▲ 构词:separation n. [U]分开,分离
▲ 搭配:
① separate A from B 把A和B分开
② A is separated from B by… A和B为……所分开/阻隔
③ separate sth (up) into… 把……分成(几分)
▲辨析:separate; divide; part 都含“分开”的意思。
separate 指“把原来在一起的人或物分开”。例如: Separate those two boys who are fighting, will you? (你)把那两个打架的孩子拉开,好吗?
divide 指“施加外力或自然地把某人或某物由整体分成若干部分”。
【考例】(NMET 2001)As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends.
    A. separated    B. spared    C. lost    D. missed
[考查目标] 动词separate的词义。
[答案与解析] A  separated和get搭配有被动意义,表
(advance, means, cost, protect, fear, separate)
1. The teacher improved the students'  English by ____ of dictation and recitation. (means)
2. All the goods ___me almost half a million dollars. (cost)
3. We must ____ the wild animals from the hunting. (protect)
4. Every baby should be ____ after he is horn. (separated)
5. None of them ____ death when the enemy came into the village. (feared)
6. There are too many people, so you should have bought a ticket in ____. (advance)
1. wear, put on, have on, dress, be in, try on
  (1) wear v. 穿着;戴;蓄须(发);磨损;(脸容)呈现,显出 He is wearing an overcoat today.
  * wear out (把) 穿破;(把) 用坏;(使) 疲乏;(使) 耗尽I have worn out my shoes. / My patience wore (was worn) out.
  (2) put on 穿上;戴上(侧重穿着的动作)
  Put on your sweater, otherwise you will feel cold.
  (3) dress vt. 给……穿衣服  n. 衣服;连衣裙
  dress sb. (in sth.) 或 be dressed (in sth.) 注意:穿的衣服接在in之后。Mother dressed her baby and then they went downstairs.
  (4) have on 表示穿着的状态,注意不能用进行时。
  At the Spring Festival, all children have on new clothes.
  (5) be in表示穿着的状态 There was a girl in red.
  (6) try on 试穿  Mother was trying on a new dress.
2. strike, hit, beat
  (1) hit vt.
  ① 打;敲;击;击中;射中 He hit a ball over the fence. / The stone hit him on the head.
  ② 使……受到打击 The bad news hit every one hard.
  (2) beat vt. & vi.
  ① 连续有节奏地打;敲
The rain heat against the window.
  ② (心)跳动 His heart had stopped beating.
  ③ (鸟翼) 扑动
 The bird beat its wings rapidly as it flew on.
  ④ 打败;打赢;取胜
  Our champion can beat all runners in the country.
  (3) strike vt. & vi.
  ① 打;敲;击;砍;打中;击中
  He struck me with his fist.
  The house was struck by lightning.
  ② 发起进攻;袭击
  He moved away as the animal struck.
  ③ 撞;触(礁)
  His head struck the table as he fell.
  ④ 擦(火柴)
  I struck a match and held it to his cigarette.
  ⑤ (某种想法) 忽然出现;忽然想起,相当于occur to。
  A happy thought struck her.
  ⑥ 给人深刻印象(常用于被动语态)
  I was struck by her beauty.
  ⑦ 罢工  They are striking for higher pay.
  ⑧ (钟)敲(响) We waited for the clock to strike six.
3. complete, finish
complete 可作形容词,表示“彻底的;全面的”。
(1) complete 作及物动词,只接 n. 或 pron.,常用于完成预定的任务,工程建设等The railway is not completed yet.
(2) finish vi. / vt. 指完成,结束一件事情;可接 n. 或doing。如:finish one's homework / middle school / writing the book
1. cut down
  (1) 砍倒 If you cut down all the trees you will rain the land.
  (2) 减少;削减 I have decided to cut down my smoking.
① get back 回来,恢复,送回
② get off下来,动身,起飞  ③ get up 起床,站起来
④ get on 上(车)
⑤ get on / along with 与某人相处.某事的进展
⑥ get together 聚首,碰头   ⑦ get away from 逃离
⑧ get on one's feet 站起来   ⑨ get down 下来
⑩ get on well with 与……相处融洽
⑪ get married 结婚         ⑫ get to 到达
⑬ get through 通过,接通
⑭ get down to 开始着手做某事
⑮ get across (使)通过      ⑯ get(a)round 传开,说服
⑰ get in 进入。收获      ⑱ get out 出去,逃脱
[例句]How are you getting along with your business? 生意进展如何? / If you take Mary out for a drive you must promise to get her back for her music lesson. 如果你带玛丽去兜风的话,你必须答应带她回来上音乐课。/ I can't get my boots off, for they are too tight. 我脱不掉靴子,它太紧了。/ We all try to get together at least once a year at Christmas time. 在圣诞期间我们尽量一年至少聚会一次。/ When one has business on hand it is hard to get away from home. 如果一个人手头有事,离开家很难。
【考例】(2004辽宁) The final examination is coming up soon. It's time for us to ____ our studies.
    A. get down to B. get out  C. get back for D. get over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查get短语。
[答案与解析]A  get down to 意为“开始着手做某事”;get out 意为“离开,摆脱”;get back for 意为“回去拿”;get over意为“克服,渡过”。本句话意思是:期末考试就要到了,我们该开始学习了。
【考例】(NMET 1993)Readers can ____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.
    A. get over  B. get in  C. get along  D. get through
[答案与解析]C   get over 意为“痊愈,克服”;get in 意为“插话”;get along 意为“进展.继续”;gel through 意为“接通。办完”。本句话意思是:读者不必准确知道每个词的意思就能继续下去。
3. get away (from)
  (1) 摆脱 Ways must be found to get away from poverty.
  (2)走开;离开 She didn't get away until nine last night.
  (3)逃走,使离开The bank robbers used a stolen car to get away.
  (4)拿走 Get all thee party dishes away!
4. get close to
  (1) close adj. 靠近;接近
  The church is close to the shops.
  Are you a close friend of theirs?
  (2) close adv. 靠近;接近
  He was standing close to the door.
  (3) close v. 关上;关闭(不开发);结束
  She closed her eyes. / Her eyes closed. (闭上)
  (4 ) closely adv. 紧密地;仔细地;密切地
  He got closely in touch with the magazines of today.
  The little baby was closely looked after by her.
  (1) close 与 closely 作副词时,close含具体之意,closely 含抽象之意。
  (2) 类似的词组有 high (高) -- highly (高度地),deep (深深地) -- deeply (深入地),wide (很开,宽) -- widely (广  泛地),low (低的)-- lowly (低贱的) (作形容词)
5. hand in 交上去(给老师或上级);交来(hand v.)
  Each student has to hand in a composition once a week.
  (1) hand down 传下来;传给 Our father handed down these customs to us.
    (2) hand on…to…传给,传递They will hand the photograph to those who have not seen it.
    (3) hand out 发给大家;散发 The teacher handed out the books at the beginning of the lesson.
6. instead of 代替……
  (1) instead of + n. / pron.
  Give me the red one instead 0f the green one.
  (2) instead of + doing
  We walked down the stairs instead of taking the elevator.
  (3) instead of + 介词短语
  He studies in the evening instead of during the day.
  (1) instead adv. 作为替代 (……而),代替 If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead.
  (2) rather than 而不是,与其……宁愿 He ran rather than walked.
  (3) in place of 代替,……而不用The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks.
7. take的短语
① take a picture 照相,拍照
② take a taxi / bus, etc. 打的(坐公交车等)
③ take away 拿走,夺取,使离去
④ take care of 小心,照料,保管
⑤ take off 脱,去掉,取消,起飞
⑥ take out 拿出,带……出去
⑦ take one's place 就坐,坐某人的座位,代替某人的位置
⑧ take place 发生,产生
⑨ take exercise 做运动
⑩ take a seat 坐下
⑪ take turns 轮流
⑫ take an active part in 积极参加
⑬ take a message 捎口信
⑭ take on 从事,呈现
⑮ take the place of 取代,代替
⑯ take apart 拆开
⑰ take down 拿下,记下
⑱ take...for... 误认为……
⑲ take in 吸收,接纳
⑳ take up 拿起.从事.占据
[例句] Father was convinced that Peter was unhappy at boarding school, and made arrangements to take him away. 父亲确信彼得在寄宿学校不开心,决定把他带走。/ Will you lake care of buying the wine for tonight's party? 你负责为今晚的晚会买酒水好吗? / The boys got into the car and took off for the drug store. 男孩们进到车里,开车去了药店。/ He took my place in the queue so that I could go and get something to eat. 他替我排好了队,以便我能够回
8. used to
  (1) used to do sth. 过去常常……(现在已不如此)
  We used to grow beautiful roses.
  You usedn’t to make that mistake.
  She didn't use(d) to do it, did she?
  You used to smoke a pipe, didn't you? / use(d) n't you?
  (2) be / get / become used to + n. / doing 习惯于
  I have always been used to hard work.
  He got used to living in the country.
  (3) be used to do 被用来做……
  This knife is used to cut bread.
  表示过去常常……”时,used towould区别:
  (1) would 只强调“过去常常……”,used to 说明现在不是如此。
  The old woman would sit there for hours doing nothing.
  (2) would 只接行为动词,used to 可接行为动词和表状态的词。如:be, like, know, have。There used to be a temple at the foot of the mountain.
9. watch out 当心;注意
  You'll be cheated if you don't watch out.
  (1) watch out for = look out for 提防;当心
  You must always watch out for the traffic here!
  (2) watch over 照看;看守;负责
  The mother bird is watching over her young.
10. 动词 + out”短语
① come out 出来,出版,传出
② go out 出去,熄灭,不时兴
③ look out 当心,注意
④ take out 拿出,取出,带……出去
⑤ rush out 冲出去,匆忙大量生产
⑥ try out 尝试,试验
⑦ watch out 小心
⑧ wear out 穿破,用坏,(使)疲乏,消磨
⑨ find out 找出,查出
⑩ make out 填写,完成.设法应付
⑪ get out 出去,逃离,泄露,公布
⑫ pick out 看出,选出
⑬ think out 想出
⑭ give out 发出,筋疲力尽
⑮ set out出发,陈述
[例句]Please go out and tell the children to make less noise. 请出去告诉孩子们不要吵闹。/ These bicycles have been rushed out and not up to our usual standard. 这些自行车匆忙大量生产,没有达到我们的正常标准。/ Watch out. The train is coming. 小心,火车来了。/ Your will wear out your patience in time, my friend. 朋友,最终我们会没有耐心的。
【考例】(2005湖北) This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder if you can ____ my father.
     A. find out              B. pick out
     C. look out              D. speak out
[答案与解析]B  pick out意为“挑选,辨别出”;find out意为“找出.发现”;look out意为“留神,注意”: speak out意为“大声说出”。
(get away,take up,take on,think out,get down to)
1. -- Shall we set off right now?  -- Sorry. I'm too busy to ____ for the moment. (get away)
2. The final examination is coming: you really must ____ your studies. (get down)
3. The manager doesn't have much free time as his work ____ nearly all his spare time. (takes up)
4. We also shared a number of qualities which we fell were in our favor when we ____ the task. (took on)
5. He might have ___his idea about the art exhibition much better, if he had planned what he wanted to say.  (thought out)
1. You shouldn't go rafting unless you know how to swim, and you should always wear a life jacket. 除非你会游泳,而且要一直穿着救生衣,否则就不应该去做漂流运动。
该句中的unless引导状语从句。例如:One can't learn a foreign language well unless he studies hard.
【考例】(200l北京春招)The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster.
    A. if    B. unless    C. whether    D. that
[答案与解析]B  句子意思是“如果医生不快点工作,
2. Eco-travel is a way to find out what can be done to help animals and plants as well as people. 生态游可以找到既帮助别人.又帮助动植物的途径。
该句中的as well as是连词,连接两个并列成分。例如: He can speak German as well as French.
1. well是副词,意思是“好,优秀”,as well as是形容词  同级比较结构。
2. as well as是固定短语,意思是“和”,相当于"not only … but also..."。
3. as well as连接两个并列成分作主语时,句子的谓语动词应该与前面那个名词或代词的人称或数保持一致。
4. as well as还可当作复杂介词用,意思是“除了……之外,还有”;相当于"besides,apart from"。
5. as well,是副词短语,意思是“也”,相当于“too / also”常位于句尾,与too位置相当。
6. may / might as well do sth 表示“还是……的好”。
【考例】(NMET 1994) John plays football ____, if not better than David.
A. as well   B. as well as   C. so well   D. so well as
[考查目标] as well as连接比较状语从句。
[答案与解析]B  该句中 if not better than相当于插入语,起干扰作用,如果不予考虑,原句就变成了同级比较结构 "John plays football as well as David"。
3. Before she could moveshe heard a loud noise. 她还没有来得及动弹,就听见很响的声音。
However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. 但还没有回过身来,洪水便逼近了她。
该两句中的before用作连词,后接时间状语从句。before用作连词,接时间状语从句时,表示“在……之前”。但在不同的语境中,往往有比较灵活的译法。例如: He knocked me down before he saw me. 他差一点把我撞倒,才看到我。
【考例】(2005广东) The American Civil War lasted four years the North won in the end.
    A. after    B. before    C. when    D. then
[考查目标] 时间状语从句的引导词选择。
[答案与解析]B   before 表示“直到……”。
4. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 洪水想必深达三米,树一棵接一棵地倒了,被洪水冲断了。
该句中的must have been表示推测。例如:You look so tired. You must have stayed up last night.
情态动词may,might,most.can,could常用来表示推测。may,might,must多用在肯定句中,can,could多用在否定句和疑问句中。may,might,must,can,could后接动词原形表示对现在的推测;may,might,must,can,could后接have done。表示对过去的推测。例如:
You may be a professor. / She must have met a fairy.
【考例】(2005辽宁)This cake is very sweet. You ____ a lot of sugar in it.
    A. should put    B. could have put
    C. might put    D. must have put
[考查目标] 情态动词表示推测。
[答案与解析] D  前文说蛋糕很甜,由此可知一定是糖
放多了。对于过去的动作的推测应使用have done的
结构,所以应在B、D之间做选择,又因为could have
5. ... she heard a loud noisewhich grew to a terrible roar. ……她听见了很响的声音,接着就变成了可怕的隆隆轰鸣声。
该句中的which引导非限制性定语从句。例如:He bought some reference books, which were all about science. 他买了许多的参考资料.都是有关理科的。
which 作为关系代词.既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。例如:The train which left for Beijing pulled in on time. 前往北京的火车按时进站了。His dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.他的狗,现在老了,生病死了。
【考例】(2005浙江) Jim passed the driving test, ____ surprised everybody in the office.
    A. which    B. that    C. this    D. it
[答案与解析]A  which引导非限制性定语从句。指代
现在进行时的用法(is / am / are + doing)
1. 表示现在(说话的瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。 Look! The monkey is climbing the banana tree.
2. 表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。(说话时动作不一定正在进行。) We are preparing for the meeting to be held next Friday now.
3. 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表示赞叹、惊讶、厌恶等。(常与always, constantly, continually, all the time, forever 等副词连用),表反复的动作。He is always think- ing of others. (表赞许) She is always asking the same question. (表厌恶) You are always changing your mind. (表抱怨)
4. 表示在最近计划或安排要进行的动作。常用于go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, work, stay 等表移动、方向的动词。He is starting the work in a few minutes. / He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow morning.
  1. 不用进行时的词有:
  (1) 系动词: feel, sound, smell, taste, look, appear, seem, remain, prove 等。
(2) 表结果的感官动词: see, notice, hear 等。
(3) 非延续性的动词,此动作开始即是结束:enter, accept, receive等。
(4) 表心理状态,存在状态,拥有的动词:love, like, hate, care, dislike, respect, prefer, know, understand, forget, remember, believe, want, wish, hope, mind, agree, belong to, depend on, own, have等。
2. 用进行时的特殊词有系动词get, turn, grow, become, go, come, fall 等表由一种状态转入另一种状态时,用进行时表示渐近。Today, many rivers that were polluted are getting cleaner and cleaner. 当今,许多过去遭污染的河流又变得越来越清澈了。
(1) 现在进行时表近期的,事先已经计划安排好的
-- How are you getting to the airport?
-- By taxi. Bob is coming with me to the airport.
(2) will do 和 shall do
① 表客观将来。shall用于第一人称,will用于第一、
二、三人称。I will / shall finish middle school next month.
② 表有科学根据的预测。The weather report says it will rain tomorrow.
③ 表客观必然。Man will make mistakes.
(3) be going to
① 表现在打算在近期或将来要做某事。I'm going to finish my homework tonight.
② 表根据已有迹象的预测。It's so dark outside, I think it's going to rain.
③ be going to不与come, go连用,而用be coming, be going 形式。Mary is coming here this evening.
表计划、安排、规定要做的事,用“be + to do”。此外,表示按时刻表运行的动作常用一般现在时表将来。The meeting is to be held at 9:00 a. m. / Our plane leaves at 6:00 a. m. .
1. ____ you call me to say you're not coming, I'll see you at the theatre. (2004 吉林)
A. Though    B. Whether  C. Until   D. Unless
2. Now that you've got a chance, you ____ make full use of it. (NMET 1999)
A. had better to         B. might as well
C. might as well as      D. would rather
3. It was evening ____ we reached the little town of Winchester. (2004 天津)
A. that    B. until  C. since    D. before
4. There is no light in the dormitory. They must have gone to the lecture, ____? (2004  上海春招)
A. didn't they           B. don't they
C. mustn't they          D. haven't they
5. The result of the experiment was very good, ____ we hadn't expected. (2000 北京春招)
A. when    B. that     C. which     D. what
【考点1】Talking about intentions and plans. 谈论意愿和打算 (2004江苏)
  -- How long are you staying?  -- I don't know. ____.
    A. That's OK    B. Never mind
    C. It depends    D. It doesn't matter
[答案与解析]C  本题考查具体语境下被询问打算时的应答。A项用于回答感谢和道歉,B、D两项用于回答道歉,C 项表示“看情况而定”。
① I'll go with you.
② I'm going to see my head teacher this afternoon.
③ I'd like to make a phone call to her after class.
④ I want / hope to find an English pen friend.
⑤ I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer.
⑥ We are ready to move to a new house.
⑦ Bill intends to spend his vocation in California.
⑧ I'm thinking of driving to Beijing.
⑨ Where would you prefer going...?
⑩ How would you like to go to...?
⑪ When are you going off to...?
⑫ How are you going to...?
【考点2】Expressing good wishes祝愿
Tom: Mike, our team will play against the Rockets this weekend. I'm sure we will win.   
Mike: ____!
A. Congratulations      B. Cheers
   C. Best wishes         D. Good luck
[答案与解析]D  考查祝愿用语。在比赛前表示祝愿的话用Good luck。Congratulations用于成功之后的祝贺。Cheers意为“干杯”。Best wishes多用于书面语,表示“万事如意”的意思。
① Have a good day / time!
② Have a good journey / trip!
③ Good luck!
④ Enjoy yourself!
⑤ Best wishes to you!
⑥ Happy New Year!
⑦ Happy birthday!
⑧ Merry Christmas!
① Thank you.
② You, too.
③ The same to you.
【考点3】Describing emotions 描述人物的情感
-- I'm afraid I can't finish the book within this week.
-- ____.
    A. Please go ahead    B. That's all right
    C. Not at all    D. Take your time
[答案与解析]D  本题考查时表示遗憾情感的应答。A项表示“请吧,说吧”,用于回答许可或让对方先行。B、C两项是感谢或道歉的答语,D项表示“别着急,慢慢来”,符合语境。
① (恐惧) Help! / How terrible! / I'm afraid of... / I'm afraid to... / You scared me! / It scares me!
② (高兴) (It's) well done! / How wonderful! / That's great! / I'm pleased to...
③ (惊奇) Really! / Oh dear! / Is that so? / What a surprise! / How surprising!
④ (忧虑) What's wrong? / what's the matter? / Anything wrong? / What should we do?
⑤ (安慰)There, there. / Don't be afraid. /Don't worry. / It's (quite) all right. / It'll be OK / all right.
⑥ (满意) Good! / Well done! / Perfect! / That's fine. / That's better.
⑦ (遗憾) I'm so sorry! / It's a great pity! / What a shame! / That's too bad!
⑧ (同情) I'm so sorry! / I'm so sorry (about your illness). / I'm sorry to hear that.
⑨ (愤怒) Damn! / How annoying!
⑩ (鼓励) Well done! / Come on! / Keep trying. / You can do it!
1. -- I'd like to take a week's holiday.
-- ____, we're too busy.
A. Don't worry         B. Don't mention it
C. Forget it            D. Pardon me
2. -- I was so sure that our experiment was going to succeed, but something went wrong at the last moment.
-- ____, but don't give it up.
A. Find out the reason       B. Never mind
C. I'm sorry to hear that      D. You don't 'mean that
3. -- I just heard that the tickets for tonight's show have been sold out.  -- Oh no! ____.
A. I was looking forward to that  B. It doesn't matter
C. I knew it already  D. It's not at all interesting
4. -- We are going to travel to Italy.  -- ____.
A. Good bye             B. Go ahead
C. I like to go, too        D. Have a good time
5. -- I'd rather have some tea, if you don't mind.
-- ____.
A. Thank you very much  B. Yes, I like so
C. No, it's nothing     D. Of course, anything you want
1. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. (NMET 2002春上海)
    A. cut  B. are cut  C. are being cut  D. had been cut
【解析】选C  本题是在语境中考查现在进行时的被动语态。本句意为“雨林以这样的速度被砍伐和焚烧,会导致它在不久的将来从地球上消失。”体会语境和句意便知此处选择C项,表示现阶段在进行的动作。
2. Twenty-three hours has passed after the explosion in the mine, but rescue efforts to recover the missing ____ carried out.
    A. are still being    B. have already been
    C. are always    D. will soon be
3. -- When are you leaving?  -- My plane ____ at 10:45.
A. takes off            B. took off
    C. is about to take off    D. will take off
4. -- Excuse me, what time is it now?
    -- Sorry, my watch ____. It ____ at the shop.
    A. isn't working; is being repaired
    B. doesn't work; is being repaired
    C. isn't working; is repaired
    D. doesn't work; is repaired
【解析】选B doesn't work说明“手表不工作”的状态,而不只是现在才坏了。后句意为“手表正在商店里修理”,故应用is being repaired。
5. John, who is considered ____ a warm-hearted man, is considering ____ his neighbor out of trouble.
A. to be; to help    B. to be; helping
C. being; to help    D. being; helping
【解析】选B be considered to be “被认为是……”;consider doing “考虑做某事”。
6. He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation ____ it got worse.
A. until    B. when    C. before    D. as
7. -- There is something wrong with my bike.
-- It doesn't matter. I ____ lend you mine.
A. am to  B. am going to  C. was going to   D. will
【解析】选D be to表示按计划安排将来的动作,be going to 表示最近打算做某事,will 在此是情态动词,表示“意志;意愿”。如:I will tell you all about it.
8. Children at the beginning of this century ____ a lot and ____ themselves greatly even without television.
A. used to read; enjoying    B. used to read; enjoyed
C. were used to reading; enjoy
D. were used to read; enjoying
【解析】选B  前后时态要保持一致。
Chapter 3 SB I Units 5 - 6
1. While still a student, she played roles in many plays.
  连词 + 名词做时间状语
2. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said…    连词+过去分词做时间状语
3. When drinking to someone's health, you raise your glasses.    连词 + 现在分词做时间状语
4. It's a custom in China to have some tea before the meal is served.     It 做形式主语
5. Many people like this film not just because..., but also
  because... 并列连词
6. Having good table manners means knowing...
1. comment v. 评论
2. marry v. 结婚
3. create v. 创造
4. attack v. 进攻
5. cruelty n. 残酷
6. escape v. 逃跑
7. advice n. 忠告;建议
8. afford v. 花得起(钱、时间)
9. encourage v. 鼓励
10. research n. 研究
11. interrupt v. 打断;打扰
12. apologize v. 道歉
13. pray v. 请求;祈祷
14. forgive v. 原谅;宽恕
15. match v. 相配;相适应
16. manners n. 礼貌
17. impression n. 印象
18. live adj. & adv. 活的;直播的(地)
19. custom n. 习惯;风俗
20. introduce vt. 介绍;引进
1. take off 脱掉;起飞;成功
2. go wrong 出错;出问题
3. can't help doing 情不自禁做某事
4. take one's place 代替某人
5. run after 追逐;追踪
6. win a prize 获奖
7. think highly of 赞扬……;对……高度评价
8. call for 需要;索取
9. in all 总共
10. play a role 扮演角色(作用)
11. make money 挣钱
12. win over 争取过来
13. work on 从事,致力于
14. owe success to 把成功归功于某人
15. start with 以……开始
16. run away from school逃学
17. on the air 正在播出的
18. do research 进行调查
19. speed up 加速
20. follow the fashion 追随时尚
l. ____ screen 银幕,电影(业)
2. take ____ 成功;成名;脱掉(衣服);(飞机)起飞
3. ____ wrong 走错路;误入歧途;不对头;出毛病
4. owe sth ____ sb 把……归功于某人
5. ____ all 总共;总之
6. stay ____ 不在家,外出
7. ____ school 小学
8. lock sb ____ 将某人锁于某处不得进出;将某人监禁起来
9. run ____  追赶
10. bring sb ____ 送回某人
11. ____ the air正在播出的
12. think highly ____ 对……高度评价
13. leave ____ 省去;遗漏;不考虑
14. stare ____ 盯着
15. make ____ about sb 以某人为笑柄
16. drink (a toast) ____ 为……祝酒;为……干杯
17. win ____ 战胜
18. ____ comments on对……加以评论
19. look sb ____ 看望,拜访某人
20. ____ a role in 在……中扮演角色;在……方面起作用
21. ____ a prize获奖
22. to sb for (doing) sth因某事向某人道歉
23. make a good impression ____ 给……留下好印象
24. ____ silent 保持沉默
25. pay a visit ____ 拜访
1. What do you think has happened?
2. What do you know about…?
3. How do you like…? / What do you think of…? / What db you feel...?
4. May I interrupt you for a moment?
5. Excuse me / Forgive me for... / I apologize for…
6. I'm (very / so / terribly) sorry. It's all my fault.
7. That's all right. / That's OK. / No problem.
8. I wish you all the best.
9. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to...
10. Let's drink (a toast) to...!
1. afford
  (1) (和can,could,be able to连用) 有 (时间、经济等)  条件(做某事) + to do
  We can't afford to pay such a price.
  afford + n. / pron. (出得起;买得起等)
  They donot consider whether they can afford it or not.
  (2) 经得起 (做某事或发生某事) (多+to do)
  He could not afford to lose his fortune entirely.
2. apologize的用法
▲ 构词:apology n. 辩解,道歉
▲ 搭配:
① apologize to sb for (doing) sth = make an apology的 sb for (doing) sth向某人为某事(为做了某事)道歉
② apologize for oneself 为自己辩解或辩护
【考例】[NMET 1993]The captain ____ an apology to the passengers for the delay caused by bad weather.
    A. made    B. said    C. put    D. passed
[考查目标] apologize及其名词的用法和搭配。
[答案与解析]A make an apology的意思是“道歉”。
3. choice的用法
① make a choice 选择
② make choice of 挑选,选择,选定
③ make / take one's choice 任意挑选
④ have no choice but to do sth 非……不可,除……之外别无他法
【考例】[MET 1993] We've missed the last bus, I'm afraid we have no ____ but to take a taxi.
    A. way   B. choice  C. possibility    D. selection
[考查目标] choice的意思和习惯搭配。
[答案与解析]B  choice是choose的名词形式.意思是
“选择”,在本句中构成固定搭配have no choice but to
do sth“不得不干……”。
4. determine的用法
▲ 构词:determination n. 决心,决断,决意;决定,确定
▲ 搭配:
① determine to do sth 决定做某事
② determine on / upon (doing) sth 决定
③ a man of determination 有决断力的人
▲ 辨析:decide;determine这两个词都有“决定”的意思。decide的含义是“不再迟疑不定”,而
在be determined to do…这个固定的结构中。过去分词determined的词义为“下定了决心”。
decide的名词为decision,determine的名词为determination。例如:At first,she decided to go to the police,…起初,她决定去找警察……
▲ 友情提示: decide后跟宾语从句时,其含义有时是“断
定”。I decided that I must have taken a wrong turning somewhere. 我断定我一定是在某处拐错弯了。The determination of the meaning of a word is often difficult without a context. 脱离上下文来确定一个词的含义常常是困难的。
注:在determine to do...,determine on (upon)... 和determine that...。(宾语从句)三个搭配中,determine的词义和decide几乎没有多大差异。He determined / decided to learn medicine. 他决定学医。
注:decide sb to do sth 决定使某人做某事What decided you to give up your job? 什么因素使你决定放弃你的工作?
【考例】[2001京皖春招] Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he must know why it does not work. For example, he must ____ the parts that are wrong.
    A. check   B. determine   C. correct   D. recover
[答案与解析]B  determine和decide在一般情况下意思相同。
5. encourage的用法
▲ 构词:
① encouraging adj. 鼓励的,给予希望的,振奋人心的。令人欢欣鼓舞的
② encouraged adj. 被激励的,受到鼓舞的
③ encouragement n. 鼓励,激励
④ discourage v. 使泄气;劝阻
▲ 搭配:① encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事 ② be encouraged by 受……鼓励/鼓舞
【考例】 [2004北京]My advisor encouraged ___a summer course to improve my writing skills.
    A. for me taking     B. me taking
    C. for me to take    D. me to take
[考查目标] encourage的用法。
[答案与解析]D encourage sb to do sth鼓励某人干某事。句意为:我的导师鼓励我参加一个夏季课程来提高我的写作技巧。
6. escape (vi, vt ) escaped, escaping
  (1) 逃走;跑掉 + from / out of = run away from
  The soldier escaped from the enemy's prison.
  (2)逃脱;逃避 + n. / doing
  He narrowly escaped death / being killed.
  There's no way to escape doing the work.
①(液体等)漏出 gas escaping from the pipe 煤气从管中漏出Water escaped rapidly from the drainpipe. 水从排水管中迅速流出。
② 避免escaped death 免于一死There is no escaping him. 怎么也避不开他。
③ 疏忽,忽略 Nothing escaped his attention. 什么也逃不过他的注意。 You cannot expect that something may escape the teacher's attention. 你不要奢望有什么能逃过老师的注意。
escape n
① 逃走The thief made his escape. 小偷逃走了。
②(气体)漏出,泄出;解闷She reads love stories as an escape. 她读爱情小说解闷。
7. hunt的用法
▲ 构词:hunter n. 猎人,搜寻者
▲ 搭配:
① hunt for / after追猎;寻找,搜寻
② hunt out 找出;调查出
【考例】He wandered in the street, ____ a new jacket for his nephew.
    A. hunting for    B. waiting for
    C. shooting for    D. aiming for
[考查目标]本题考查hunt for的意思。
[答案与解析]A hunt for原来是“猎取”的意思,引中为“搜寻,寻找”。
8. impression n. 印象
  (1) impression (on sb.) (给某人)印象His speech made a strong impression on his audience.
  (2) impression (of sth.) (对某事物)印象;想法That's my first impression of the new college.
  (3) impress sb. with sth. 给予某人深刻印象 = impress sth. on sb. 使某人铭记 The teacher impressed on his students the importance of speaking. = The teacher impre- ssed his students with the importance of speaking.
9. interrupt的用法vt, vi
① 阻断;中断 Don't interrupt me. 别打断我。Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm. 市内交通被暴风雪所阻断。
② 打岔;插嘴 It is rude to interrupt. 打断别人的话,是不礼貌的。 “Don't interrupt,” he said.“别插话, ”他说。
① interrupter n. 打岔者,打断者
② interruption n. 打岔.打断,使中断的事物
【考例】[2005山西模拟] Be quiet! It's rude to ____ people when they are talking.
    A. stop   B. introduce   C. prevent    D. interrupt
[考查目标] interrupt的词义。
[答案与解析]D  interrupt的意思是“打断;使中断”.
10. marry
  (1) vi. 结婚  He didn't marry until he was fifty.
  (2) vt. 和……结婚  Jean is going to marry Hubert.
  (3) vt. (父母)嫁(女儿) He married his daughter to a businessman.
  (4) vt. (教士等) 为……主持结婚仪式 We've come to ask if you will marry them.
  (1) get married (to sb.) 强调动作
  His oldest girl got married last month.
  (2) be married (to sb.) 强调状态
  How long have you been married?
11. moment的用法 n.
① 片刻;瞬间 He will be here in a moment. 他一会儿就来。At the moment I am working.  此刻我正在工作。
② 时机;机遇;时宜 Choose your moment to visit him. 你选个合适的时机去拜访他。
③ 重要性 a matter of great moment
① at any moment 随时;在任何时候;马上
② at the last moment 在最后关头
③ at the moment 此刻;(正当)那时
④ every moment 时时刻刻
⑤ for a moment 片刻
⑥ in a moment 一会儿,不久;立即,马上
⑦ the moment(that)... 一……就……
【考例】[NMET 2004 II] "Can I? I don't think I can," Racy said with a laugh. "But I do have ____ when things come to me for no reason."
    A. events  B. chances   C. feelings    D. moments
[考查目标] moment的词义。
[答案与解析] D moment可以指“时刻”,在本句中用了复数,意思是“一些次”。
12. owe的用法owed, owing
▲ 搭配:
①(常与for连用)欠,欠债I owe you for your help.我感谢你的帮助。(也可以是owe sth.或owe sb. sth) The food cost £4 , but I only paid £3 so I still owe £1. 食品要4英镑,可我只付了3英镑,因此我还欠1英镑。I owe you an apology. 我该向你道歉。
☆ owe sb sth for sth 或 owe sth to sb for sth 为…欠某人…
② 对…负有义务;感恩;感激We owe our parents a lot. 我们十分感激父母。
③(常与to连用)归功于;由于She owes her success to good luck. 她把成功归功于幸运。The young writer owed his success to his teacher's encouragement. 年轻作家把自己的成功归于他老师的鼓励。
【考例】[2004湖北] "How much do I ____ you?" "Oh, no," Paul said.
    A. Owe    B. lend    C. give    D. offer
[答案与解析]A owe表示“欠”的时候是及物动词,可以接双宾语。
13. reason n. 原因;理由
  (1) + to do sth. You haven't any reason to leave me.
(2) + for sth. / doing People must have a reason for saying such things.
(3) + 从句;从句用why / for which引导 That is the reason why you should leave.
(4) for + reason,为了某种原因He is retiring for reasons of health.
[比较] cause“原因;起因
 the cause of the fire 火灾的起因(引起某种后果的起因)
 the reason for being late 迟到的理由(做某件事的理由)
14. role
  (1) (戏剧中的) 角色Oliver played (acted) the role / part of Hamlet.
  (2) (现实生活中的) 身份;作用
  What is your role on the Committee?
(3) play a...role in... = play a...part in在……中扮演……角色或作用The headmaster plays an important role / part in the good running of a school.
15. serve v.
  (1) 为……服务/工作 A slave serves his master.
  (2) 接待(顾客) The shop assistant is serving a customer.
  (3) 侍候吃饭,端(菜);供应(饭菜) Lunch is served now.
  (4) serve as 充任(某职务)作……用 She served as a model for several painters. / This box will serve as / for a seat.
16. speed的用法
① at a high speed 以很大的速度
② at full / top speed 用全速,开足马力,尽力(快)地;
③ with great / an speed 用全速,开足马力
④ speed up 加速,快点
【考例】We had tried our best but the boss still shouted, " ____!"
    A. Speed up       B. No hurry
    C. Wait a minute    D. Slow down
[答案与解析]A  speed up意思是“加速,快点”的意思。
17. stare的用法 vi, vt -- stared, staring 凝视,注视
He stared at the word trying to remember what it meant. 他盯着这个单词,努力想记起它的意思。
[习惯用语] stare one in the face 近在眼前;摆在眼前
gaze表示“目不转睛地看”,并含有“惊叹”、“羡慕”或“入迷”的意思。例如:She gazed at the carpet for some time, and then added, "You don't need bookcases at all." 她对地毯凝视了一会儿,然后补充说:“你根本不需要书柜。”
stare 特别表示睁大眼睛凝视,并含有惊奇傲慢茫然的意思。例如:The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds. 那位贵族对那张空白纸凝视了几秒钟。
glare 表示“凶狠而且带有威胁性的瞪眼睛”的意思。例如:The trapped eagle glared at his captors. 被诱捕到的雄鹰凶狠地瞪着捕获它的人。
【考例】[NMET 1999] ____ him and then try to copy what he does.
    A. Mind    B. Glance at   C. Stare at    D. Watch
[考查目标] stare 等近义词辨别。
[答案与解析]D  watch意思是“观察”,是长时问关注;而stare at却是“盯着”。含有惊奇、傲慢的感情色彩。
18. trouble
  (1) 麻烦;烦恼;烦心的事 (可数,不可数) It is a pity to give you so much trouble. / Life is full of troubles.
  (2) 困难;费事 (不可数) have trouble with sth. / have trouble (in) doing sth. (= difficulty)  Did you have much trouble in finding the post office? / I hope you won't have any trouble with the work.
  (1) ask for trouble 自寻烦恼;自找麻烦 What made you write such a letter? It was asking for trouble.
  (2) (be) in trouble 有烦事;有困难;出事;惹麻烦 He never came except when he was in trouble.
  (3) put sb. to trouble 给某人造成麻烦;增添麻烦 I am sorry for putting you to so much trouble.
  (4) take trouble to do sth. 费心做某事;费心 It was good of you to take the trouble to help us.
[牛刀小试1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空:(speed,owe,encourage,decide,moment,apologize)
1. will never forget the ____ given by Mr. Wang, which helped me overcome a lot difficulty.
2. I have made a ___that every department in our company should buy a computer of this kind.
3. I recognized the man the ____ I saw him at the corner.
4. Since it was a bit later,we had to ____ up.
5. We must ____ our success to our parents and teachers.
6. The parents came from the far-away village, making an ____ for their naughty son.
1. win, beat, defeat  表示获胜、取胜的词语
  (1) win v. 赢……,获胜,接比赛或奖项 win a game / a prize / an honor / a race. / Our team won the game 8 to 7. / He won by five points. / He won her love at last. / He won the first place in the competition.
  (2) beat + 对手,表打败(尤指体育比赛)  I can easily beat him at golf.
  (3) defeat 表战胜,接对手The enemy was defeated in the battle.
2. in the end, finally, at last
finally 一般用在句中动词前面,而 at last 与 in the end 的位置则较为灵活;
三者中at last 语气最为强烈,且可单独作为感叹句使用。After putting it off three times, we finally managed to have a holiday in Dalian. / At last he knew the meaning of life. / At last! Where on earth have you been? / But in the end he gave in.
  另外,finally还可用在列举事项时,引出最后一个内容,相当于lastly。 Firstly, we should make a plan; secondly, we should carry it out; finally we should make a conclu- sion.
3. by sea, by the sea, in the sea, on the sea, at sea
  (1) by sea “走海路,乘船”,用来表示交通方式,同 by ship 同义。 These heavy boxes should be sent by sea.
  (2) by the sea “在海边”,相当于 by (at) the seaside。The children enjoyed themselves by the sea on Children's Day.
  (3) in the sea “在海里,在海水中” There are many plants and animals in the sea.
  (4) on the sea “在海面上”,“在海岸边”。I want to live in a town with a beautiful position on the sea.
  (5) at sea 在海上;在航海 When he woke up, the ship was at sea.
4. be afraid, be afraid to do sth., be afraid of (doing) sth.
  (1) be afraid 意为“担心,害怕”,多用于口语,常用来表示一种歉意,或遗憾,后可接 so 或 not,也可接 that 从句。I'm afraid (that) 其语意相当于 I'm sorry, but...。
  -- Are we on time? 我们准时吗? -- I'm afraid not. 恐怕不准时。I'm afraid you'll get caught in the rain.
  (2) be afraid to do sth 常表示“由于胆小而不敢做某事”。She is afraid to be here alone. / He is afraid to jump into the river from the bridge.
  (3) be afraid of (doing) sth. 常表示“担心或害怕某事(发生)”。I was afraid of hurting her feelings.
5. live, living, alive, lively
  (1) live adj.
  ① 活的;活生生的;(只修饰生物;只作前置定语) The laboratory is doing experiments with several live monkeys.
  ② 实况直播的 (不是录音)It wasn't a recorded show. It was live.
  ③ 带电的;燃着的;可爆炸的 This is a live wire.
  (2) living adj. 活着的,有生命的(作表语或定语) She was, he thought, the best living novelist in England. / The old man is still living. (或alive)
  (3) alive adj. ① 活着的;② 有活力的;有生气
作后置定语:Who's the greatest man alive?
  作表语:Was the snake alive or dead? / My grandmother is more alive than a lot of young people.
  作补语:Let's keep the fish alive.
  (4) lively adj. 活泼的;有生气的;活跃的(作表语或定语) The music is bright and lively.
6. take off, take down, take in, take on, take up
  (1) take off
  ① (飞机)起飞 A helicopter is able to take off and land straight up or down.
  ② 脱下(衣裳等);取下 He took off his wet shoes. / Who took the knob off the door?
  ③ 休假;请假;歇工 When his wife was sick he took off from work.
  ④ (指观念、产品) 大受欢迎;(事业)突然发达,成功The new type of cell phones has really taken off. / His business began to take off when he was in his forties.
  (2) take down
  ① 拿下来;取下来 He reached up to the third shelf of the bookcase and took down a dictionary.
  ② 记下来 He read out the names and his secretary took them down.
  (3) take in
  ① 接受 (房客,客人等);收留 The farmers took in the lost travelers for the night.
  ② 理解;领会;明白 The boys could not take in his meaning.
  ③包括;涉及 The study of physics takes in many different subjects.
  ④使上当;欺骗We were completely taken in by her story.
  (4) take on
  ① 接受;从事(某工作) After his father died, Bill took on the management of the factory.
  ② 雇用Is the supermarket taking on any more assis- tant?
  ③ 具有(新面貌、意思等) The city has taken on a new look.
  (5) take up
  ① 从事某项活动;发展某种爱好 So many young men want to take up writing.
  ② 开始做(某项工作);开始学习(某个课程) Then she took up the task of getting the breakfast. / He dropped medicine and took up physics.
  ③ 占去 (时间或空间) The meeting took up the whole morning. / The table takes up too much room.
  ④ 接受I'd like to take up your offer of a ride into town.
7. call for, call on, call up
  (1) call for
  ① 来找(某人);来取(某物) I'll call for you at your house.
  ②要求;需要Success in school calls for much hard work.
  (2) call on
  ① call on / upon sb. 拜访;去会(某人) I hope to call on you at your office at 3 o’clock today.
  ② call on / upon sb. to do sth. 请/叫某人做某事He called upon me to speak immediately.
  ③ 号召;呼吁;要求 The President called on his people to serve the country.
  (3) call up
  ① 给……打电话 (英 ring up) I tried to call you up last night, but no one answered the phone.
  ② 征召入役;调用 (后备部队) Three boys in our street were called up last week.
8. too much, much too
  (1) too much “太多”之意,可以作形容词,修饰不可数  名词,也可作副词,修饰动词。 There is too much rain here in spring. / She talked too much at the meeting.
  (2) much too “简直太,过于”,只能作副词,用来修饰  形容词或别的副词,不能修饰动词。This book is much too difficult for me. / The old man walks much too slowly.
9. custom, habit
  (1) custom 指传统风俗、习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接不定式。They broke some of the old customs. / It is the custom in China to eat dumplings during the spring Festival.
  (2) habit 指个人生活习惯。“(有)养成……习惯”常
  用be in / fall into / get into / form / have the habit of doing sth. 句型;“戒掉……习惯”常用 give up / kick / break away from / get out of the habit of doing sth. 句型。It's easy to get into a bad habit but its hard to give it up. / The drug easily get one into the habit of smoking.
10. arise, rise, raise
  raise vt.“使……上升;升起;提高”等;
rise vi.“上升;升起”;
arise vi.“站起来(stand up)”,“起床(get up)”,rise和arise用作站起,起床都属正式用法;arise主要表示“出现、发生”等意思。She raised her voice in anger. (抬高) The wind raised the fallen leaves from the ground. (刮起) The child rose from the ground and ran to his mother. (=The child raised himself from the ground and ran to his mother.) (爬起) She rises before it is light. (起床) Difficulties will arise as we do the work. (出现)
1. can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事,不由得不做某事
  She couldn't hep smiling.
  (1) can't help but do 不得不……;不能不 When the streets are full of melting snow, you can't help but get your shoes wet.
  (2) cannot but 不能不,只能He could not but feel disappointed.
(1) help (sb.) (to) do sth. Help me get him back to bed at once. / By helping them we are helping save ourselves.
(2) help...with sth. 帮助……做某事 In those days he used to help her mother with her gardening.
  (3) help oneself / sb. to sth. 给自己 / 别人夹菜 / 拿烟
  等;擅自拿用 May I help you to some more vegetables?
  (4) help...in sth. 在……方面帮助某人 She offered to help Rose in the housekeeping when I am not here.
  (5) help out 帮忙 (做事;克服困难等) I've often helped Bob out when he's been a bit short of money.
2. go的短语
① go around 到处走/跑.(疾病)流传,(谣言)传开;go after 追求;go ahead 说吧,请吧,做吧;go away 离开,出去
② go back 走网头路,翻悔改变;go bad 变坏;go boating 去划船
③ go fishing 去钓鱼;go for a walk去 散步
④ go hiking 去徒步旅行;go home 回家
⑤ go in for 喜爱,从事于;go into 进入,加入
⑥ go mad 发疯
⑦ go off 离去,去世;go on 继续,进展,依据;go on doing 继续做;go out 出去,发出去,熄灭,不时兴;go over 研究,检查,搜查
⑧ go shopping 去商店;go skating 去滑冰;go straight along 沿着;go swimming 去游泳
⑨ go through 通过,经受,仔细检查;go to bed 上床
⑩ go up 上升
⑪ go wrong 走错路,误入歧途
[例句] We'll go through the items one by one. 我们要逐条研究。She has gone back to her old habits. 她又回到了已往的习惯。Come on Sunday by yourself - we can go over the house together. 星期天你要过来.我们一起检查一下房子。His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的演讲持续很长时间,结果人们开始想睡。That expression has gone out. Nobody Uses it today. 那个短语已经过时了,现在没有人在用它。The young fellow hasn't realized that he has gone wrong. 这个年轻人还没有意识到他已经误入歧途。Tired of going shopping with his wife,Mr. Liu pretended to have something important to do. 厌烦与妻子一起去购物,刘先生假装有重要的事情要做。
【考例2】(2004北京) I don't ____ rock' n' roll. It's much too noisy for my taste.
    A. go after       B. go away with
    C. go into       D. go in for
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个动词短语的意思。
[答案与解析]D   go after 追求;go away with 带走;go into进入,加入;go in for 喜爱,爱好。根据句子意思“摇滚音乐太嘈杂。不合乎我的口味.所以我不喜欢”。
【考例】(NMET 1998) Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ____.
    A. be put up    B. give in
    C. be turned on    D. go out
[答案与解析] D   put up 挂起;give in 屈服;turn on 打开;go out 熄灭。本句话意思是“没有人注意到贼溜进了屋子,因为灯碰巧熄灭了”。
3. go wrong
  (1) 走错路;弄错方向
  (2) 失败;不顺利All our plans went wrong. / Everything went wrong in those days.
  (3)发生故障  The clock went wrong.
(1) go 表示由积极向消极方面变化Fish soon goes bad in hot weather. 又如:go mad / pale / blind / hungry
  (2) become / get 表示由积极向消极或消极向积极方
  面变化 The weather is getting quite warm. / Gradually he became silent.
  (3) turn 多接表颜色的词 This ink turns black when it dries. / He used to be a teacher till he turned writer.
  注意:become a writer
  (4) grow 侧重变化过程 The sea is growing calm.
  (5) fall 进入某种状态  All three children fell asleep.
4. owe...to... 受到恩惠;归功于……
(1) 欠(钱)owe sb. money = owe money to sb.
I owe £50 to my tailor. = I owe my tailor £50.
(2) 得过(某人的)好处;欠(某人的)人情债
We owe a great deal to our parents and teachers.
(3) 应当给予 You owe me an apology.
(4) ……应归功于;……都亏得
We owe the general theory of relativity to Einstein.
[拓展]表示“由于”的词组:owing to / because of / thanks to / due to / as a result of
5. take one's place
(1) 入座,站好位置,取得地位Take your places, please. We are about to start.
(2) take one's place = take the place of sb. 代替(职务或工作等);接替Electric trains have now taken the place of steam trains in England.
(1) in place (of)代替;……而不用The grown-ups had coffee but the children wanted milk in place of coffee.
(2) take one's seat 在自己座位上坐下;有时等于 take one's place:More men entered and took their seats.
6. think highly of 赞扬
(1) think / speak highly / well / much...of: The people think very highly of him.
(2) think little / badly / poorly / nothing...of: Joan thought little of walking two miles to school.
7. 动词 + away”的短语
① do away with 去掉
② get away 逃脱,(使)离开
③ go away 离去,出去
④ put away 放好,把……收拾起来,存(钱)以备它日之用
⑤ run away 逃走,离开
⑥ smooth away 去除,克服
⑦ stay away (from) 不在家,外出
⑧ take away 拿走,带走,夺去,使离去
⑨ throw away 扔掉.浪费.坐失(良机)
[例句]Don't throw away such a good chance. Or you'll regret. 不要放弃这么好的机会,不然的话,你会后悔
的。Put away the tools before you leave. 离开前把工具收拾好。Why did you stay away from school? 你为什么不去上学? I had hoped to take a good holiday this year but I wasn't able to get away. 我本打算今年好好去度假,但是我离不开。
【考例】(2004重庆)Before the war broke out, many
people ____ in safe places possessions they could
not take with them.
    A. threw away    B. put away
    C. gave away    D. carried away
[答案与解析]B throw away 扔掉;put way 放好,把
……收拾起来;give away 分发.泄露;carry away 冲
8. 动词 + off”的短语
① drop off 放下,下车
② fall off (从……)掉下来
③ get off (从……)下来,动身,起飞,脱下来
④ give off 发出,放出
⑤ jump off 跳离
⑥ put off 推迟,延期
⑦ set off 出发,引起,启程
⑧ see sb off 为某人送行,为……送行
⑨ switch off 关掉
⑩ take off 脱,去掉,起飞,匆匆离开,成名
⑪ throw off 匆忙脱掉
⑫ turn off 关掉,避开,拐弯
[例句]The electricity supply must be turned off at the mains before you change the lighting circuit. 在改变火线前,主干线的电力供应必须切断。 Mrs Garey as usual went to the door to see him off. Garey夫人像通常一样把他送到门口。He had to put off an appointment with me on account of illness. 因为疾病的缘故,他不得不推迟了与我的约会。Before the body of the car can be properly repaired, all the external fittings must be taken off. 车身适当修理前,所有外部的配件必须拿下来。The fire doesn't seem to be giving off much heat. 这炉火好像不大热。
【考例】(2005广东) John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will ____ him ____ at the airport.
    A. send...away    B. leave...off
    C. see...off       D. show...around
[考查目标]此题主要考查短语see off的用法。
[答案与解析]C   see off 意为“给某人送行”;send away意为“派遣”;leave off意为“停止,不再穿”;show around意为“带领某人参观”。
1. My grandmother had put ____ over$50,000 when she was sixty—five years old.
2. His mother had thought it would be good for his charac- ter to get ____ home and earn some money on his own.
3. The market was filled ____ salted fish, giving the worst smell that you can imagine.
4. -- What do you think the contest? -- I was told that the English Speech Contest went ____ successfully last night.
5. If you had gone ____ your test paper carefully before handing it in you would have made fewer mistakes.
1. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low. 他没能上电影学院是因为他的分数太低了。
1. 句中that引导的表语从句说明主语reason的具体内容,往往被看作是固定句型:The reason is / was that clause. 当主语是reason / cause时,一般不能用because或why引导表语从句,以免造成语意重复。当主语是This / That时,可以由because / why引导表语从句。例如:One reason is that people traveled to America from all European countries.
【考例】(NMET 1999)
-- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
-- Is that ____ you had a few days off?
    A. why  B. when  C. what  D. where
[考查目标] 表语从句。
[答案与解析]A  句子的意思是“那就是你请了几天假的原因吗?”因此可知答案为why。
2. why在句中是关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰先行词reason,同时它在定语从句中作状语,此时why = for which,但要注意:关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,要用关系代词that或which。
【考例】(2002上海春招)Is this the reason ____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
    A. he explained        B. what he explained
    C. how he explained    D. why he explained
[答案与解析]A  what,how不能引导定语从句,排除B、C两项;the reason在定语从句中作explained的宾语,可填that / which,或者也可以省略。
2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 好多看过这个片子的人一想起片中鲨鱼食人的场面.就不敢下海游泳了。
该句是一个复杂长句,从when到句子末尾是状语从句,在从句中包含一个由which引导的定语从句,修饰先行词scenes; 在前面的主句里面。包含一个由who引导的定语从句,修饰先行词people。例如:Those who want to go camping next Sunday sign your name here before class is over.
定语从句关系词的选择,要遵循“瞻前顾后”的原则,所谓“瞻前”即看前面的先行词指人还是指物;“顾后”即后面的定语从句,看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。例如:This is the factory where he works. (状语) / This is the factory (that / which) he visited. (宾语)
【考例】(NMET 1992)In the dark street,there wasn't a single person ____ she could turn for help.
    A. that    B. who   C. from whom    D. to whom
[答案与解析]D “turn to sb for help”为固定短语,意思是“向某人求助”,所以选to whom。
3. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children. 当有人问起他成功的秘诀时。史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格说起他的成功和幸福主要来自于妻子和孩子。
该句中的 "when" 是时间状语从句的省略形式。在状语从句中,如果从句主语与主句主语一致或从句主语是it,而且从句谓语动词是be或包含be时,常常将从句主语与be省略。例如:Although born in Chicago, the author is famous for his stories about New York.
【考例】 (2003上海春招) Unless ___to speak,you should remain silent at the conference.
    A. invited         B. inviting
    C. being invited    D. having invited
[答案与解析]A unless为连词,后面省略了you are,所以选invited。
4. Having good table manners means knowing, for example, how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table. 在餐桌上,懂礼节意味着你知道如何使用刀叉,何时祝酒以及如何在用餐时举止得体。
该句中having good manners为v-ing形式作主语。例如:Collecting stamps is one of his hobbies.
▲友情提示:在v -ing 形式前加形容词性物主代词或名词所有格,构成v -ing复合结构,在句中作主语、宾语。
【考例5】(2001上海)Fishing is his favorite hobby, and ____.
    A. he'd like to collect coins as well
    B. he feels like collecting coins, too
    C. to collect coins is also his hobby
    D. collecting coins gives him great pleasure
[考查目标]v -ing 作主语。
[答案与解析]D   A、B、C三项句法都无错误,但在and连接的并列句中,两个简单句的主语要保持一致的形式 fishing and collecting coins分别做两个简单句的主语。
5. It's polite to finish eating everything on your plate, so don't take more food than you need. 餐盘里的东西要吃光才礼貌,所以不要多拿。
该句中的it为形式主语,真正的主语为to finish eating …例如:It's not right to tell lies. 撒谎是不对的。
1. It + be + adj. + to do sth  2. It + be + n. + to do sth
3. It + be + PP. to do sth
【考例】(2001上海) In fact ____ is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match.
    A. this    B. that    C. there    D. it
[考查目标] 形式主语。
[答案与解析]D  只有it才可以作形式主语。
1. When / While / Though / Unless / If + n. / adj. / 现在分词/过去分词……
状语从句有些成分有时可省略,一般是主语和be省略;有时it和be可以省略: He made no answer when (he is) spoken to. /Though (he was) born in Chicago, the author is most famous for his stories about New York. / Come back early if (it is) possible.
[注意]用法详见Chapter 10语法活用“省略和插入语”。
2. Not only / just…but (also) 连接相同的句子成分
Not only the teacher but all the students are going to visit the Science Museum. (连接主语时根据就近原则) / They not only sang but (also) danced for a whole night. / Many people go to see this film not just because the film is interesting, but also the leading actors and actresses are all world famous. / Not only do we learn for our country, but we'll work for her in the future. (连接句子时,not only后的句子要部分倒装)
1. The reason ____ you failed, I think,  was ____ you had turned a deaf ear to your mother's advice.
A. that; because         B. why; because
C. why; that            D. for that; that
2. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. (2004 全国卷I)
A. for which             B. at which
C. in which              D. on which
3. When ____, the museum will be open to the public next year. (2002 上海春招)
A. completed             B. completing
C. being completed        D. to be completed
4. ____ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. (2003 上海)
A. The president will attend
B. The president to attend
C. The president attend
D. The president's attending
5. I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.  (NMET 1990)
A. this    B. that    C. its    D. it
1. Giving opinions and Making comments 询问看法与作出评价
-- How do you find the talk given by Mr.Smith? -- ____.
    A. Very well  B. Excited   C. Boring  D. Not at an
[答案与解析]C  本题考查对事物提出看法或作出评价的用语。A、B两项词法错误,若改为Very good或Exciting,就可回答提问了。D项不合语境。此句完整为:(It's) Boring.
① How do you like / find...?
② What do you think of / about...?
③ What do you feel about...?
2. Describing sequences按次序描述事件发生的过程
Mother first did some washing and then did some cooking, ____ she had a rest.
    A. finally    B. in the end
    C. by the end    D. at last
[答案与解析] A   本题考查如何描述事情发生的顺序。finally 用于在列举一系列内容之后。要引出最后一项内容的场合;也可与at last互换,表示所盼望的事迟迟到来。in the end强调结果。有时可与口at last意义相同。
① First,.... Next,....Then.... Finally, ....例如:
  First, we went to Leshan. Next, we climbed Mount Emei. Then we played with some moneys. Finally, towards evening we were on the way back to Chengdu.
② What did you do next?
3. Thanks致谢
(2002北京)  -- It's been a wonderful evening, Thank you very much.  -- ____.
    A. My pleasure    B. I'm glad to hear that
    C. No, thanks     D. It's OK
[答案与解析]A  本题考查英语中如何表达感谢及应答。My pleasure是回答感谢的客套话。
① Thank you (very much).
② Thanks a lot.
③ Thank you for your help.
④ It's very kind / nice of you.
⑤ Many thanks.
⑥ I appreciate your help.
⑦ I can never thank you enough.
⑧ I'm extremely grateful to you.
① It's a pleasure.
② My pleasure.
③ That's OK / all right.
④ You're welcome.
⑤ Not at all.
⑥ Don't mention it.
⑦ No trouble at all (没什么).
⑧ At your service (愿为你效劳).
⑨ Think nothing of it.
1. -- Thank you ever so much for your help. -- ____.
A. Glad to hear that      B. Not worth thanking
C. Think nothing of it    D. You're too polite
2. -- How did you find your visit to the museum, Jane?
-- ____.
A. Oh, wonderful, indeed  B. By taking a No. 3 bus
C. I went there alone
D. A classmate of mine showed me the way
3. -- ____ the articles of Times?  -- I'm not sure. I glanced through them but I haven't formed an opinion yet.
A. How do you think of    B. What did you like
C. How did you like       D. What do you think of
4. -- Thank you very much for the meal. -- Not at all. ____.
A. I'm very glad to hear that B. I'm glad you could come
C. Make yourself at home  D. With pleasure
1. Generally speaking, ____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003年上海)
A. when taking    B. when taken
C. when to take    D. when to be taken
【解析】选B take和drug是动宾关系,要用过去分词作状语。可看作是when it is taken的省略。
2. Unless ____ to speak,you should remain silent at the conference. (2003年春季上海)
A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited
【解析】选A you与invite是动宾关系,要用过去分
3. The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it. (NMET 2002)
A. begins            B. having begun
C. beginning          D. begun
【解析】选D once begun 在句中作状语;once这里是连词,“一旦”。
4. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004年 湖北)
A. Compare           B. When comparing
C. Comparing         D. When compared
【解析】选D  相当于when it is compared。
5. ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (2004年 上海)
A. Not only they brought   B. Not only did they bring
C. Not only brought they    D. Not only they did bring
【解析】选B not only...but also引导的并列句;以not only开头的句子要部分倒装。
6. ____, he used to helped his father on the farm.
A. When was a boy     B. As he was a boy
C. As a boy           D. During a boy
【解析】选C   as在这里是连词;as a boy = when (he was) a boy。
Chapter 4 SBI  Units 7- 8
1. Where there is a river, there is a city.
where 引导地点状语从句
2. Strong, proud and united, the people of St. Petersburg are the modem heroes of Russia.  形容词作状语
3. We would do everything we can to save our city.
4. I'd rather watch it than play it.
would rather的用法
5. Every four years, athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games.    表示“每隔……”的说法
6. To make it the best ever games, the capital city will make several big changes.     不定式作目的状语
7. It is true / certain...that...  it作形式主语代替主语从句
8. Yao Ming has more than just size.  more than 的用法
1. cultural adj. 文化的
2. represent vt. 代表;表现
3. include vt. 包括;包含
4. beauty n. 美;美景
5. portrait n. 肖像
6. recreate vt. 再创造
7. period n. 一段时间
8. damage n. & vt. 损害;伤害
9. website n. 网址
10. ancient adj. 古代的
11. project n. 计划;方案;工程
12. official n. & adj. 官员;官方的
13. pollution n. 污染
14. limit vt. & n. 限制;有限
15. sincerely adv. 真诚地
16. continent n. 大陆;陆地
17. athlete n. 运动员
18. competitor n. 竞争者;对手
19. motto n. 座右铭
20. rank vi. 分等级;排名
21. prepare vt. 准备
22. profile n. 简介
23. weight n. 重力;重量
24. position n. 位置;职位
25. facial adj. 面部的
26. gesture n. 手势;姿态
27. effect n. 影响;效果
28. title n. 题目;头衔
1. give in 让步;投降
2. in ruins废墟;遗迹
3. bring...back to life 使苏醒;使生动
4. pull down 拆毁;推毁
5. set up 设立;建立
6. stand for 代表;代替
7. because of 因为;由于
8. in preparation for 为……准备
9. in one's opinion 以某人看来
10. under attack 被袭
11. with the help of 在……的帮助下
12. In modem times 在现代;在近代
13. as follows 如下
14. change one's mind 改变主意
15. live one's dream 实践某人的梦想
16. in pieces 碎片
17. track and field 田径
18. take part in 参加
19. so far 到目前为止
20. have great effects on sb. 对某人有深刻的影响
1. give ____   让步;投降;屈服
2. ____ ruins 成为废墟;遭到严重破坏
3. bring...back to ____  使苏醒;使生动;使活泼
4. pull ____ 拆毁,摧毁;推翻
5. set ____ 设立,创立
6. stand ____ 代表;代替;象征;支持
7. because ____ 因为,由于
8. ____ skating 速滑
9. ____ and field 田径
10. would ____ 宁愿,宁可
11. take ____ 参加
12. ____ preparation for 为……准备
13. ____ four years 每四年
14. look ____ over俯视;面朝……
15. ____ modern times(在)现代
16. do / try one's ____ 尽全力
17. live one's ____ 实现梦想
18. be ____ on建立在……基础上
19. ____ one's opinion在某人看来
20. ____ attack受到攻击
1. You should take the advice of your teacher.
2. It might be, I suppose.
3. Good try, but not quite right.
4. Thanks for your advice but I have to consider it myself.
5. What about…?   How about…?    Why not…?
6. What's your favorite sport?
7. Which would you prefer  or ... ?
8. Are you interbred in ... ?
9. I prefer fishing to swimming.
10. What position do you play?
▲构词:effective adj. 有效的.被实施的,给人深刻印象
① be of no effect 无效,没有作用。不中用
② bring / carry / put into effect实行,实施,使生效,实
③ come / go into effect 开始生效,开始实施
④ have (an) effect on / upon 对……有影响;对……起
⑤ have / take effect 见效,生效;开始发生作用;实施,
⑥ in effect 实际上;(规律,法律等)生效,有效,在实行
【考例2】[2004辽宁] Deciding on the amount of water
that will be used in any particular period requires care—
ful planning, so that people can manage and use water
more ____.
    A. effectively    B. easily
    C. conveniently    D. actively
[答案与解析]A  effectively是effect的副词形式.
① escape from / out of 从……漏出/逸出;从……逃脱
② escape doing sth 避免做某事
【考例5】The fire was too strong that nobody could
____ from the building.
  A. rescue    B. escape
  C. set free    D. let out
[考查目标] 本题考查escape的词义。
[答案与解析]B  escape意思是“逃脱,逃跑”,常和
① feed...on / with sth 以某物喂(养)……
② feed sth to... 把某物喂给……
③ feed on sth 以某物为食
【考例6】The news came that the baby ____ very
 well, so the parents stopped worrying.
    A. was fed    B. was fed on
    C. fed    D. fed on
[考查目标] 本题考查feed以及feed on的用法。
[答案与解析]A  on的后面接表示“食品”的名词或代
①freedom n. 自由,自主,无拘束,率直,随便
②freely adv.
① be free to do sth 可以自由/随便做某事
② for free = free of charge 免费地,无偿地
③ set sb. free 释放某人,使某人获得自由
【考例3】[2000京皖春招] The new ones always went
wild at first,but this never lasted long. The ____
took some getting used to.
    A. freedom    B. habit
    C. time    D. people
[答案与解析]A freedom是free的名词形式,意思是
① get / take / catch / lay / keep / seize hold of 抓住
② lose hold of松手放开.放弃
③ hold back 踌躇,阻止.抑制(情感、情绪),隐而不宣
④ hold down 保有(一份T作);压迫;压低;控制
⑤ hold in 抑制,压抑
⑥ hold oneself in 压抑自己的情感
⑦ hold off (使)保持距离
⑧ hold on 坚持,保持坚定;(打电话时)等一下。别挂断
⑨ hold on to 不丢掉;保持
【考例4】[NMET 2002] We thought of selling this old
furniture, but we've decided to ____ it. It might be
    A. hold 0n to    B. keep uD with
    C. turn to    D. look after
[考查目标] hold构成的词组的意义。
[答案与解析] A  hold on to意思是“保存.不丢弃”。
1. include vt. 包括;包含;列在里面
  I think you'll find the plan includes most of your
  I included eggson the list of things to buy.
  My job doesn't include making coffee for the boss.
  [比较] including “包括”,表主动;included “包括”,表被动
  I'm ordering some extra office equipment.
   some new desks and a word processor included.
   including some new desks and a word processor.
▲构词:limited adj. 有限的
① go beyond / over the limit 超过限度
② reach the limit of 达到……的极限
limit 指时、空、程度、蟹等方面的“限定”。其内涵是如果
You should limit your speech to 15 minutes. 你必须把
restrict 区别于 limit 的地方在于:restrict"限制”的是范
ln democratic countries any efforts to restrict the free—
dom of the Press are rightly condemned. 在民主的国家
The trees restrict our view. 这些树局限了我们的视野。
【考例7】Mark said his English was so ____ that he
wasn't too sure about some of the idioms.
    A. limit    B. limited
    C. limiting    D. limitless
[考查目标] 本题考查limit相关分词的用法。
[答案与解析] B  limited是limit的过去分词,意思是
① at this point 在此地,在此刻
② be on the point of doing sth 正要做某事
③ to the point 切题,说中要害
④ off the point 离题,走题
【考例8】Every time we were on the ____ of giving
up, the captain called us back.
    A. edge    B. top    C. point    D. centre
[答案与解析]C on the point of... 意思是“就要(差点)
①preparation n. 准备,预备
②prepared adj. 准备好的.精制的
① prepare (sth) for.../ to do sth 为……作准备(……)
② prepare sb / oneself for... / to do sth 使某人/自己准
③ be prepared for... / to do sth 准备好……
④ be in preparation 在准备中;在编辑中
⑤ in preparation for 作为……的准备
⑥ make preparations against 为对付……作准备
⑦ make preparations for 为……作准备
-- What's that terrible noise?
-- The neighbors ____ for a party.
    A. have prepared    B. are preparing
    C. prepare D. will prepare
[答案与解析]B  从上句叙述的情况来看,“准备”正在
2. prepare vt. / vi. 准备
  [拓展] preparation n. 准备;make preparations for...
  [词组] prepare sb. for / to do sth. 使某人对……作
  The teachers are preparing the students for the final
  prepare sb. sth. 为某人准备……
  The host and the hostress prepared us a ddicious meal.
  prepare for sth. 准备做……
  The students are busy preparing for the college entrance
  be prepared for... 为……准备;对……做好了准备,
  The students are well prepared for the sports meeting.
  prepare sth. 宾语必须是动作的直接承受者。例如:
  prepare the lesson / a speech / a meal。
  prepare for sth. 中for的宾语是表示准备的目的。例
  如:prepare for the exanl / an operation / a trip。
[牛刀小试 1]
(enjoy, prepare, effect, limit, point)
1. Few students in this college got ____ for the fu-
   ture work.
2. The medicine left no ____ on the patient, so he
   left the hospital at last.
3. The emperor walked on the street, ____ up his
   head high.
4. The driver said to the policeman that he didn't know
   the speed ____.
5. Long. long ago the scientists ____ out it is
   wrong to go against nature in the agriculture produc-
1. realize,come true
  realize 和 come true都有“实现(理想/愿望等)”之意,
  realize sth. 这种结构;come true 是不及物动词词组,
  The Chinese people ale working hard to realize the
  His dream of becoming a teacher came true.
2. be able to, can (could)
  (1) be able to 可用于多种时态,can 只有现在时和过
  One day people will be able to run a kilometre in two
  He has not been able to come.
  (2) can 和 could 除了表示“能力”,还可表示“可能
  My grandmother can be very unpleasant at times.
  (3) be able to 的过去式was / were able to 表示在过去
  to do;而could则无此意义。
  The fire was very big; only a few people were able to
  escape from it.
3. ruin, destroy, damage
  You'll ruin your health if you go On like that.
  The earthauake destroyed many lives.
  The strong wind damaged several houses.
4. join in, take part in, attend, join
  (1) take part in + activities / work, discussion /
  take parr in 强调参与性,特别是有众多人参加的活
  Millions of workers took part in (=joined in) the
  strike / revolutionary movement / fighting.
  He took an active part in (joined actively in)
  international academic exchanges.
We'll take part in social activities during summer
(2) join可表示参加一个组织或成为其中一员或与人
为伴,和某人一起做某事,而take part in则不这样
He joined the army / League / Part / club / students
Pleasejdn us / my family / Mary.
(3)join in + activities (相当于take part in) 或 join sb.
in + activities. 指和他人一起参加活动、比赛等。
I didn't join them in writing that book.
All of us joined in the English speech competition.
(4) attend v.“参加”是正式用语,指出席会议,参加
He was invited to attend Mary's wedding ceremony.
5. competition, game, race, match
  (1) competition 意为“比赛”,“竞争”,可指各种形式
  (2) game意为“游戏”,“比赛”,通常指有一定规则,
  育运动会,如:Olympic Games 奥运会,the Asian
  Games 亚运会。
  (3) race 通常指一种跑的竞赛,可以是人也可以是动
  物,一般不指短距离赛跑 (短距离赛跑用dash),如:
  (4) match 常指体育代表团之间的较重大的公开赛,
6. hold, take place, happen
  (1) hold为及物动词,“举行;召开”。
  The meeting will be held next Sunday.
  (2) take place指按计划或安排所要发生的事情,它是
  The meeting is going to take place tomorrow.
  (3) happen多指偶然发生的事,不及物动词,无被动
  Do you know what has happened over there?
7. more than, more…than
  (1) more than主要有以下用法:
  ① 后接名词,表示超出该名词之所指,意为“不只是,
  Bamboo is used for more than building.
  ② 后接形容词或动词,用来加强语气,“很;非常”。
  She is more than pleased with her daughter's
  ③ 后接副词,加强语气,表“十分”,“不止”之意。
  He was dressed more than simply.
  ④ 后接含有情态动词Carl的从句,其本意是“超过”,
  The beauty of this city is more than words can describe.
  ⑤ 后接数词,表示超出该数,意思是“多于;大于”。
  The factory turns out more than one ,hundred cars
  (2) more...than 结构中间常插入形容词或副词,表
  ① 表示普通的比较级,指两种不同的事物(人)在同
  This coat is more expensive than that one.
  ② 表示“与其说是……不如说是……”,指对同一事
  She is more diligent than wise.
8. weigh,weight,weighty
  weigh vt. 称……;vi. 重
  weight n. 重量;重要性
  weighty adj. 重的
  They weighed the apples they picked from the trees.
  The goods were carefully weighed before they were
  shipped off.
  -- Howmuch doesthe boxweigh?
  -- It weighs six pounds.
  What is your weight? = How much do you weigh?
4. bring...back to life 使恢复;使苏醒;使生动
  They did all they could to bring him back to life.
  A great actor can bring a character to life.
  [拓展] bring...back to health 使……恢复健康
  come back tolife 苏醒过来
  bring about 引起;造成
  bring up 提出;抚养大
  bring together 使和解
  bring back 使回想起
  bring down 降低;减少
  bring in 有收入;请来;引进
  bring on 引起;使发生
5. change one's mind改变主意
  Nothing could change her mind, so the meeting broke
  [词组]bring back to mind 使回想起
  keepinmind 记住
  have something / somebndy in mind 心里想着某事/某
  make up one's mind 下决心(mind在此可数)
  read one's mind 看出某人的心思
  take something off one’s mind去掉某人的心事
6. in modem times 在现代
  time 做“时代”解时,通常用复数形式 (times)。
  Times have changed, and we shouldn't fall behind
  Inancient times, people lived on wild fruits and wild
  in no time 立刻;马上  at one time 曾经
  on time 按时    in time 及时
  at a time 一次    for a time 一度
  behind the times 落伍  at all times 一直;经常
  at times 有时候    from time to time 不时;有时
① set off 出发,动身,启程
② set one's mind to 一心想做……
③ set free 释放
④ set up 设立.创立
⑤ set out 出发.陈列,陈述
⑥ set down (使)放下;写下,记下
⑦ set to work 开始工作
[例句]They have set off on a journey round the world.
The government has set up a working party to look into
the problem of drug abuse. 政府已经成立T作组调查滥
Liu Xiang has set up a new world record in men's 110m
hurdles. 刘翔创下了新的110米栏世界纪录。
You could be a very good writer if you set your mind to
it. 你只要专心.就可能成为优秀作家。
【考例2】(2004江苏) It's ten years since the scientist
    ____ on his life's work of discovering the valuable
    A. made for    B. set out
    C. took off    D. turned up
[答案与解析]B  make for走向,有利于;set out开始,
着手;take off 脱下,起飞;turn up 出现,到达。本句话
3. under attack 遭受攻击。under 表示“在……(状态)
  [词组] under repair 在修理中
    under study 在研究着
    under construction 在建设中
【考点3】动词 + down的短语
① come down 下来
② fall down 倒下,跌落,从……落下,失败
③ go down 下降,下跌
④ get down 下来
⑤ put down 把……放下来;平定,镇压
⑥ sit down 坐下
⑦ shut down 把……关上
⑧ turn down 关小,调低,拒绝
⑨ slow down 减缓,减速,放慢
⑩ write / set / note / put down写下,记下
⑩ pull down 拆毁,摧毁.推翻
⑩ get down to business 言归正传
[例句] The plan fell down because it proved to be too
expensive. 这项计划因费用过高而告吹。
More American troops were sent to Iraq to put down
the rebellions. 很多美国军队被派往伊拉克去镇压反
Turn the radio down — I'm trying to get some sleep. 把
收音机声音调小点儿 — 我想睡会觉。
He can't do heavy work, for he has been pulled down
by his long illness. 他不能干重活,因为长期患病使得
The road was slippery, so Mr. Jones slowed down the
car. 公路滑,所以琼斯先生放慢了车速。
Make sure you write down every word the speaker
says. 务必记下讲话者所说的每一个单词。
【考例3l(2003全国)News reports say peace talks be—
tween the two countries ____ with no agreement
    A. have broken down
    B. have broken out
    C. have broken in
    D. have broken up
[答案与解析]A  break down失败.坏了}break out突
然发生。爆发;break in 闯入;break up分开,分解。本
① clean up 清除,收拾干净
② eat up 吃光
③ get up 起床
④ give up 放弃
⑤ grow up 长大,成长
⑥ hurry up 赶快
⑦ lock sb. up将某人监禁起来
⑧ look up 向上看,抬头看,好转,有气色,查寻
g) make up 弥补.拼凑成
⑩ pick up 拾起.捡起,学会。获悉,听到,见到,恢复健康
⑩ pull up 往上拽
⑩ put up 举起,张贴,为……提供食宿
⑩ ring up 打电话
⑩ stay up 不睡.熬夜
⑩ wake up 醒来.唤醒
⑩ open up 开设,开业,开放
⑩ set up 建立.开创.使某人有钱创业
@ clear up 放晴
[例句] She soon picked up French when she went to live
in France. 她到法国居住后很快就学会了法语。
You don't look up well today. What's the trouble? 你
These days many girls make up when they are still quite
young. 如今许多女孩还很年轻就化装。
When he was twenty-one, his father set him up in the
clothing business. 他21岁时,他父亲把他安顿在服装
I've an important meeting to attend. Be sure to wake
me up at seven o'clock. 我有一个重要的会议要参加,一
Now that it was raining heavily, they decided to put us
up for the night. 由于雨下得很大,他们决定留我们过
Ring me up if you learn the truth. 一了解到真相就给我
She promised the children they could stay up for their
favourite TV programme. 她答应孩子们可以晚点睡,看
【考例1】(2004上海)To keep healthy,Professor John—
son ____ cycling as a regular form of exercise after
he retired.
    A. took up    B. caught on
    C. carried out    D. made for
[答案与解析]A take up开始从事;catch on 继续下
去、坚持下去;carry out完成、履行;make for走向、有
1. Everyone in the hospital hoped that he gave up after a
  few days' treatment, and she was optimistic.
2. There are thousand dollars, but we still need one
  thousand dollars to eat up the sum we ask for.
3. You make a good singer if you set your mind to sing—
4. -- Jack, how was it come about that you made so
    many mistakes in your homework?
  -- I myself haven't figured it out yet!
5. The lift had broke down yesterday. We'll have to
  walk up to the eighth floor this evening.
【考点1】Where there is a river, there is a city. 凡有河
Where is water, there is life.
能用in which来替换;使用时,注意与定语从句中关系
in which来替换。
【考例l】(NMET 1997) After the war, a new school
building was put up ____ there had once been a
    A. that    B.where  C. which    D. when
[答案与解析]B  根据句子意思“战后在原来戏院的地
【考点2】Which one would you like to see most? 你最想
该句中的would like表示“想,打算”。
would like是表示“打算,想”的常用短语,后常接名词.
代词,不定式,复合宾语等。也可以写成would love;而
表示“想要的”feel like后接doing sth。例如:
Would you like a glass of beer?来杯啤酒怎么样?
He feels like being invited to give all kinds of lectures.
How would you like sth? 这一句型用来“询问某人对
某事物的印象或看法。” 例如:
-- How would you like Guilin?
-- Good. It is worth visiting again.
而“What be + 主语 + (look) like?”则表示“主语看起来
-- What was the earthquake like? 地震像什么?
-- It was like being on a boat. 像坐在船上。
【考例2】(NMET 1997)1 would love ____ to the
party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a
    A. to go    B. to have gone
    C. going    D. having gone
[考查目标]句型“would love to do sth"。
[答案与解析]B  首先排除C、D两项;A项表示对将
来的打算;would love / like to have done 表示“本来打
【考点3】Most of the sports were the slime as they are
now. 许多项目跟现在一样。
Do in Rome as the Romans do. 人乡随俗。
as 作为连词,可以引导5种从句。
1. 时间状语从句。例如:
  As time went by, it became colder and colder.
2. 原因状语从句。例如:
    As he developed a bad cold, he didn't go to school
3. 方式状语从句。例如:
  Do as I tell you to.
4. 让步状语从句。例如:
  Child as he is, he knows a lot.
  lt is not as hot in Beijing as in Wuhan
【考例3】(NMET 1990) ____ the day went on, the
weather got worse.
    A. With    B. Since  C. While    D. As
[答案与解析]D  句子的意思是“随着岁月的推移,天
【考点4】In sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals,
ranking third of all the competing countries. 在悉尼奥运
He went away.Ieaving the door open他走了,没有关
【考例4】(2004吉林) "We can’t go out in this weather,"
said Bob, ____ out of the window.
    A. looking    B. to look
    C. looked    D. having looked
[答案与解析]A  句子意思是“鲍勃看了看窗外,说这
1. Where there is a river, there is a city.
  在这个句子中,where 引导了一个地点状语从句,意
  Where there is a will, thereis a way.
  Where there is enough sunlight and water, crops grow
  Go where he tells you to go.
  [拓展] where 引导的状语从句与定语从句的区别
  where 引导定语从句时,其前面有名词做先行词,
  where 可以换成“介词 + which"。
  Make marks where you have any questions. (状语从
  Make marks at the places where you have any
  questions. (定语从句)
2. Strong, proud and united, the people of St.
    Petersburg are the inodenl heroes of Russia.
    本句中strong,proud and united是形容词作状语,
    Helpless, we watched the house being destroyed by
    the strong wind.
    The thief hid himself in the corner, afraid of being
    do what one can to do sth.
3. do au one can to do sth.
  do everything olle caIl to do sth.
  do one's best to do sth.
  做某事”。do what one carl to do sth. 中的 what 引导
  一个宾语从句;do all one can to do sth. 和 do
  everything one can to do sth. 中省略了定语从句的关
  系代词that,all 和everything 做先行词。在这几个
  We should do everything / we can / what we can / our best to learn English well.
  [拓展] make every possibl effort / mare the greatest effort to do sth.
4. I'd rather watch it than play it.
  (1) rather...than... 常与 would / had 连用,意思是
    He is rather wise than honest.
    I would rather stay at home than go for a walk.
    = I would stay at home rather than go for a walk.
    (2) rather than 而不;宁可;情愿
    He prefers to chemistry mther than physics.
    Rather than go by air, I'd take the slowest train.
    [拓展] would mther 后接动词原形,它常用于以下结
    Would rather do sth. / not do sth. / do sth. than
    Would rather 有时接从句,从句的谓语动词要用虚拟
    I'd rather you met her at the airport tomorrow morning.
5. Every four years athletes from all over the world take
    part in the Olympic Games.
    (1 )every 和表示数量的词连用
    every 可与表示数量的词连用,表示时间或空间。
    I usually gO to my uncle's every three days ( =every
    third day).
    They looked up and gave a smlle to each other every
    few minutes.
    【注意】every 后可接few,但不能接 a few,因every-
    several, many等词。
    (2) every后接序数词时,则修饰单数可数名词。
    every可与other + 单数可数名词连用,表示“每隔......”。
    Please write on every other line (third line).
    They planted a tree every other metre along the road.
1. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, es-
   pecially ____ father  was  away  in  France.
   (NMET 1994)
     A. as                   B. that
     C. during               D. if
2. The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born
  and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. (2002 上海春招)
     A. when                B. whenever
     C. where                D. wherever
3. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this
  evening. (NMET 1992)
     A. to be taken          B. to take
     C. being taken          D. taking
4. Suddenly,  a tall man driving a golden carriage
   ____ the girl and took her away, ____ into
   the woods. (2004 上海春招)
     A. seizing; disappeared B. seized; disappeared
     C. seizing; disappearing D. seized; disappearing
【考点l】Giving advice Making suggestions 提出意见和
-- Let's go and have a good drink tonight.
-- ____ Have you got the first prize in the competi-
    A. What for?    B. Thanks a lot.
    C. Yes, I'd like to.    D. Glad to hear that.
[答案与解析]A  本题考查对提出建议的应答。根据
① Let's...
② You'd better...
③ I think it's better (for you / us) to...
④ I suggest (that) you (should) ...
⑤ I advise you (not) to ...
⑥ I wonder if you should...
⑦ Let's..., shall we?
⑧ Maybe we eould...
⑨ I'd 1ike to...
⑩ Can't / Should / Shall we...?
⑩ Would you like / love to...?
⑩ Have you considered...?
⑩ What shaIl we...?
⑩ why not...?
⑩ Why don't you / we...?
⑩ What / How about...?
【考点2】Talking about interests and hobbies 谈论兴趣和
-- I enjoy Chinese food very much.
    -- ____.
    A. Please taste quickly
    B. Have more.DIease
    C. HeIp yourself
    D. Eat slOWly whiIe it is hot
[答案与解析] C  本题考查谈论兴趣和爱好时的功能
① Which d0 you like, ...or...?
② I like...
③ What's your favorite sport?
④ Which sport do you like best?
⑤ Which d0 you prefer...or...?
⑥ What about...?
⑦ Are you interested in...?
⑧ I prefer...to...
① Shooting, I think.
② I'd rather watch it than play it.
③ Yes, very much.
④ No, not really.
⑤ Sure. I love sports..
[牛刀小试 4]
1. --What about having a drink?
     -- ____.
     A. Good idea          B. Help yourself
     C. Go ahead, please   D. Me, too
2.-- Ladies and gentlemen, let's drink to Mr. Brown's
     -- ____.
     A. Congratulations     B. Good luck
     C. Cheers              D. Good idea
3. -- Do you want tea or coffee?
  -- ____. I really don't mind.
     A. Both               B. None
     C. Either             D. Neither
4. -- Can't you wait a few more minutes?
  -- ____. I have no time.
     A. Yes, I can          B. No, I can't
     C. Yes, I can't wait   D. No, I can't do
(  )1. The Foreign Minister said, " ____ " our hope
    that the two sides will work towards peace."
    A. This is    B. Thereis
    C. That is    D. It is
    【解析】选D   it作形式主语;that引导的从句作真正
(  )2. The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born
    and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. (2002上海
    A. when    B. whenever
    C. where    D. wherever
    【解析】选C  where在此引导一个状语从句。
(  )3. He's got himself into a dangerous situation
    ____ he is likely to lose control over the plane.
    A. where    B. which
    C. while    D. why
    【解析】选A where在此引导一个定语从句。where
(  )4. -- Can the project be finished as planned?
    -- Sure, ____ it completed in time, we'll
    work two more hours a day. (2005 福建)
    A. having got    B. to get
    C. getting    D. get
(    )5. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but
    everyone ____ get out.
    A. had to    B. could
    C. would    D. was able to
    【解析】选D Was ableto在此表示“努力并成功地做
了某事”,相当于Succeeded in doing sth., managed to do
sth., could则没有这种用法。
(  )6. These plants are watered ____. (2001北京
    A. each other day    B. every other day
    C. each of two days    D. every of two days
    【解析】选B every other day表示“每隔一天”。
(  )7. -- Shall me go skating or stay at home?
    -- Which ____ do yourself?
    A. do you rather    B. would you rather
    C. will you rather    D. should you rather
    【解析】选B would rather是固定搭配。
(  )8. -- What's that terrible noise?
    -- The neighbors ____ for a party. (2004北
    A. have prepared    B. are preparing
     C. prepare    D. will prepare
(  )9. You should make it a rule to leave thirigs ____
    you can find them again.
    A. when    B. where
    C. then    D. which
    【解析】选B  where引导地点状语从句。
(  ) 10. The sailors returned twenty days later, ____.
     A. felt ill, tired and unhappy
     B. ill, tired and unhappy
C. ill, tiring and unhappy
D. feeling ill, tired, unhappily
【解析】选B  形容词作伴随状语。
Chapter 5 SB I  Units 9 - 10
1. Cell phones, or mobile phones make it possible for us to talk to anyone from anywhere.   it 作形式宾语的用法
2. I don't dare to use the phone in school.  dare 的用法
3. The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we are or what we are doing.
no matter + 疑问词引导的让步状语从句
4. The cell phone helps her do whatever she wants to do.
whatever 引导的名词从句
5. We human beings could not survive without all plants and animals around us.     表双重否定
6. We may be able to take measures before it is too late.
before 的译法
7. Steve Jones tries to keep animals and plants from becom- ing endangered.    表示“阻止某人做某事”
1. agreement n. 一致,协定
2. absolutely adv. 绝对地,完全地
3. press vt. & vi. 按,压,逼迫
4. teenager n. (13--19岁的)青少年
5. throughout prep. 遍及,贯穿
6. add vt. 增加,添加,补充说
7. 1atest adj. 最近的,最新的
8. calendar n. 日历
9. appointment n. 约会,指定
10. behaviour n. 行为,举止
11. obey v. 服从
12. emergency n. 紧急情况
13. dial vt. 拨号
14. unexpected adj. 想不到的
15. particular adj. 特别的,个别的
16. succeed v. 成功
17. force n. & vt. 力量,强制
18. wonder n. 奇迹
19. defeat vt. & n. 击败,失败
20. department n. 部,局,系
21. interview vt. & n. 接见,会见
22. environmental adj. 环境的
23. common adj. 共同的,普遍的
24. valuable adj. 有价值的
25. reduce vt. 减少
26. respond vi. 回答,响应
27. material n. 材料,原料
28. attractive adj. 吸引人的
29. organize vt. & vi. 组织
30. amount n. 数量
1. keep / stay in touch with 与……保持联络
2. call for 要求,需要
3. in case of 假设,万一
4. according to 根据,据……所说
5. take over 接收,接管
6. break down 毁掉,坏掉
7. in danger 在危险中
8. die out 灭绝,逐渐消失
9. as a result of 作为(……的)结果
10. lead to 导致某种结果
11. take measures 采取措施
12. adapt to 适应
13. make a difference 有关系,有影响
14. devote...to 献身于……,专心于……
15. at present 现在,目前
16. set free 释放
17. in the wild 在自然环境下
18. throw away 扔掉
19. on the go 忙个不停,四处奔走
20. remind...of... 使人想起……
21. dream of 梦想
22. come up with 提出
23. first of all 首先
24. make money 赚钱
25. depend on 依靠
1. stay in ____ with 与……保持联络
2. call ____ 要求,需要
3. ____ case(of) 假设;万一
4. according ____ 按照;根据……所说
5. take ____ 接收;接管
6. break ____ 毁掉,坏掉;中止
7. ____ danger 在危险中;垂危
8. die ____ 灭绝;逐渐消失
9. ____ a result of作为(……的)结果;由于
10. lead ____ 导致某种结果
11. ____ measures 采取措施
12. adapt ____ 适应(新环境等)
13. make a ____ 有关系;有影响
14. devote ____ 献身于……;专心于……
15. present ____  现在;目前
16. ____ free 释放
17. ____ the wild 在自然环境下
18. throw ____ 扔掉;浪费
19. ____ the go 忙个不停;四处奔走;跑来跑去
20. turn...inside ____ 把……翻过来
1. I can't agree with you on this point.
2. That's the point.
3. Well, it depends.
4. Does anyone share David's opinion?
5. I absolutely agree.
6. That's how I see it.
7. Why can't we drink the water in our rivers and lakes? Because the water is polluted.
8. Cars and factories cause air pollution. As a result of air pollution, many people get sick.
9. People get sick because of air pollution. It follows that we must do something about it.
1. adapt vt. 使适应;使配合
(1) adapt + n. + to + n. 使……适应,使……适合
He could not adapt his way of life to the school. 他的生活方式无法适应学校的要求。
(2) adapt (oneself) to 适应……She quickly adapted to new circumstances. 她能够很快地适应新环境。/ I suggested he should adapt himself to his new conditions. 我建议他应该调整自己,以适应新的环境。
2. add vt. & vi. 增加,加入,补充说
If the tea is too strong, add some more water. 如果茶太浓,再加些水。/ Many words have been added to this edition of the dictionary。这一版字典增加了很多词。/ The bad weather only added to our difficulties. 恶劣的天气只会增添我们的困难。/ "And I hope you will realize it one day." he added. 他接着说:“我希耀你总有一天会明白这一点。” / I should like to add that we are pleased with the result. 我想补充一句,我们对这个成果感到高兴。
add...to... 在……中加上……  add to 增加,增添
add up 加起来  add up to 总计,总共有……
Your carelessness added to our difficulty. 你的粗心增加了我们的困难。/ The money he spent added up to no more than £1,000. 他花的钱总计1000英镑。
3. add 的用法
▲ 构词:
① addition n. 加,加起来,增加物,增加,加法
② additional adj. 外加的,附加的,另加的
▲ 搭配:
① add sth in 算人;包括
② add A to B 把A加到B上,往A里添加B
③ add to 增加,加到
④ in addition 加上,又,另外
⑤ in addition to 加上,除……外,又
⑥ add sth up 把……加起来,总计
⑦ add up (to…)总计共达;表示,等于说。意味着;总而言之
【考例】The president talked with the official for a long
time, ____ that he still trusted him.
A. added   B. adding   C. adding up  D. adding up to
[考查目标] 本题考查add及其构成短语的意思。
[答案与解析]B   adding的意思是“补充(说)”。add up to意思是“加起来等于”。
4. amount n. 量,常与不可数名词连用
“the amount of + 不可数名词”表示“……的量”。
“a large amount of + 不可数名词”后跟单数谓语
“large amounts of + 不可数名词”后跟复数谓语
There is a large amount of / are large amounts of coal to be sent there. 大量的煤要运往那儿。
[比较] number 也意为“量”,但它指可数的事物的“数目,数量”。the number of ……的数目 / numbers of / a number of 大量的 后跟复数名词
5. case的用法
▲ 搭配:
① as is often the case 这是常有的事
② as the case stands 在目前的情况下,就现有的情况而论
③ in this / that case 如果是这样/那样的话
④ in any case 无论如何,总之
⑤ in case (that)-clause 假使。如果,万一
⑥ in case of 万一……,如果发生……
⑦ (just)in case 以防(万一)
⑧ in most cases 在大多数情况下
【考例】(2005广东)You'd better take something to read when you go to see the doctor ____ you have to wait.
A. even if    B. as if    C. in case   D. in order that
[考查目标]考查 case 构成的短语的用法。
[答案与解析]C   句意:“当你去看医生的时候最好带点东西读以防等待”。in case 意为“万一”;even if意为“即使”;as if,意为“好像”;in order that 意为“为了……”。就高考而言,除了 in case 之外,意为“以防万一”的引导词还应掌握-,for fear that 和lest。
6. defeat 的用法
▲ 构词:defeatist n. 失败主义者
▲ 搭配:suffer a defeat战败;遭受挫败
▲ 辨析:defeat;beat;conquer 这组动词的一般含义是“打败”。
defeat 的含义是“打败”,但被打败者不一定服输。例如:The public bet a lot of money on Mendoza, but he was defeated. 公众为门杜萨下了一大笔赌注,但是他被击败了。
例如:It was not until his third match in 1790 that he finally beat Humphries and become Champion of England. 直到1790年第三次比赛时,他才最后打败汉弗莱斯,而成为英国的冠军。
conquer 更可强调“把对方征服”,而且被征服者或被征服的国家为征服者所有,可以任意支配,特别指“获得
对人、物或感情的控制。例如:Some countries may be defeated but can never be conquered. 有的国家可能被打败,但决不能被征服。
【考例】-- Who ____  the team from No. 2 Middle school? -- I'm not sure. Perhaps the team from the nearby county.
A. defeated    B. won    C. beat    D. gained
[答案与解析]A  defeat 意思是“打败”,后面跟的是表示“人”或“组织”的名词或代词。
7. depend 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① That depends. 要看情况而定。
② It (all) depends. 要看情况而定。
③ depend on / upon 依靠;由……而定.取决于;从属于;依赖其维持
-- How long are you staying?  -- I don't know. ____.
A. That's OK    B. Never mind
C. It depends    D. It doesn't matter
[答案与解析]C  it depends 意思是“看情况。不能确
8. devote vt. 投入于;献身
devoted 忠实的;献身……的;专用的
devote one's time / life / energy / oneself to (doing) sth. 致力于……;献身于…… = be devoted to...致力于……;献身于……;忠实于…… After that, he devoted his entire energy to these studies. 从那以后,他全力以赴从事这些研究工作。/ He is very devoted to his wife. 他很忠实于他的妻子。
9. devote 的用法
▲ 构词:
① devotion n. 献身;奉献;忠诚;热心,专心
② devoted adj. 忠诚的;挚爱的;喜欢的
③ devotedly adv. 忠实地,一心一意地
① devote...to 把……献给;把……专用于
② devote oneself to 致力于,献身于;专心于
③ be devoted to 专心于,忠于
【考例】[2004全国卷IV] First of all, I respected his ____ to teaching.
A. attention            B. introduction
C. relation              D. devotion
[考查目标] 本题考查 devote 派生词的词义和用法。
[答案与解析]D  devote的名词形式是devotion,也应
该和介词 to 搭配。
10. force n. [U][C]力量,势力,暴力 vt. 强迫,促使,强制 He didn't use much force. 他没怎么用力。/ They refused to bow before force. 他们拒绝向暴力低头。/ They have come to know the forces of nature. 他们终于知道了大自然的力量。
[注意]the forces 可表示军队,兵力
force sb. to do sth.;force sb. into doing sth.;force sb. / sth. + 形容词 / 副词 / 介词短语 I was forced to leave. 我被迫离开。(= into leaving) / The strong man forced himself into the empty room. 那个身体强壮的男子强行进入了那个宅房间。
by force 靠武力,强行    be in force 生效
come / go into force 生效  put in / into force 使生效
force one's way 强行前进或进入
11. hurry 的用法
▲ 构词:
① hurried adj. 匆忙的
② hurriedly adv. 仓促地.慌忙地
▲ 搭配:
① in a hurry 匆忙地
② in no hurry 不忙,有充分的时间;不急于
③ no hurry 不忙.不必着急,有充裕的时间
④ hurry up 快点,赶紧做;催促(快点)
▲ 辨析:hurry; haste; speed 均含“动作上的快速”的意思。
hurry 指“动作不轻松、不自然的快,有时表示不必要的快”,并且常有“忙乱仓促”的意思。例如:In her hurry she forgot to leave her address. 在匆忙中,她忘了留下地址。
haste 着重“想办法赶快”的意思,并常表示“匆忙的动作。有时动作过分仓促而不能得到预期的结果”。例如:All his haste was of no use. 他白忙了。/ Haste makes waste. 欲速则不达。
speed 指“人(物)快捷(速)的动作”。例如:It is dangerous to corner at speed. 高速转弯是危险的。
【考例】[2004湖南] When l there ____ I apologized for being late, and told him I'd come as quickly as I could,...
A. went    B. ran    C. walked    D. hurried
[考查目标] 考查几个与“走”有关的近义词的区别。
[答案与解析]D  从上下文看,当时,是”匆忙”的。
12. lie的用法
▲构词:liar n. 说谎者
① lie down 躺下;磨洋工;停止战斗
② lie in 在于;位于
③ tell a lie = tell lies 撒谎
【考例】[2002北京] I would ____ very still so that the "enemy" would not discover me.
A. lay    B. hide     C. rest    D. lie
[答案与解析]D   lie是动词原形,意思是“躺”或“撒谎”。在本句中是“躺”的意思。
13. measure 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① make sth to sb's measure 按某人的尺寸制作某物
② take measures 采取措施  ③ beyond / above measure 无法估量地;无限的,极度地,非常,极为
【考例】[2004天津] I realized strength and courage aren't always ____ in medals and victories, but in the struggle we overcome.
A. measured    B. praised  C. tested    D. increased
[考查目标] 本题考查measure的意思。
[答案与解析]A  measure的基本词义是“衡量,量”。
14. press vt. & vi. 按,压,夹 n. 压力,印刷机,新闻界  Press this button to start the engine. 按下这个按钮启动发动机。/ My shoes presses my toe. 我的鞋挤脚趾。/ The power of the press is very great. 舆论的力量是巨大的。
[拓展] pressure n. 劳累,紧张;pressing adj. 紧迫的,恳切的
[短语] be pressed for time / money 缺时间/钱;press on 加紧赶路,奋力前进;in the press 正在印刷
15. reduce vt. & vi 减少,缩减,减化
reduce prices 降低价格
reduce air pollution 减少空气污染
reduce one's weight 减肥
reduce noise 减少噪音
[注意]reduce 作不及物动词时,仅作“减肥”讲。I must reduce to get into that dress. 我必须减肥才能穿上那条裙子。
[拓展]reduce...to 使……陷入不良状况;把……归纳成;把……降职为(to为介词) He was reduced to begging for food. 他沦落到讨饭的地步。
[短语]        order 使……恢复秩序;整理
reduce...to     silence使安静,使沉默下来
tears 使哭了起来
16. remind
(1) vt. 提醒
① remind sb. of / about sth. 提醒某人某物;提醒某人注意某事Be sure to remind her of the meeting she has to attend. 务必提醒她要参加那次会议。
② remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事Please remind me to post the letter. 请提醒我寄那封信。
③ remind sb. that-clause 提醒某人…… She reminded me that I hadn't written to mother. 她提醒了我,我还没给妈妈写信。
(2) vt. 使(人)想起,使记起
① remind sb. of sb. / sth. 使……想到某人或某物 He reminds me of his father. 看到他使我想起他的父亲。
② remind sb. that-clause 使人回忆起…… The sight of the clock reminded me that I was late. 看到钟使我想起我已经晚了。
【考例】[2000上海春招]what you said just now ____ me of that American professor.
A. mentioned B. informed  C. reminded D. memorized
[考查目标] remind基本用法。
[答案与解析]C  remind表示“提醒;让……想起”。
17. wonder v. 惊奇,惊叹,对……感到惊奇,想知道
[C] 奇迹,奇观奇事I wondered that he couldn't answer such an easy question. 他竟然回答不出这样简单的问题,真让我感到奇怪。/ I don't wonder at her refusing to marry him. 她拒绝嫁给他,对此我一点也不奇怪。/ It is really a wonder that he can recover from the SARS. 他能从非典型性肺炎中康复真是一个奇迹。
▲ 构词:wonderful adj. 令人惊奇的.奇妙的,极好的,令人愉快的
▲ 搭配:
① what a wonder! 多么令人惊异!真想不到!
② It is a wonder that... 奇怪的是……
③ (It's) no / little / small wonder (that…) 难怪…,…并不奇怪It's no wonder that you are so happy. 难怪你这么高兴。
④ do / perform / work wonders 创造奇迹,取得惊人成就
【考例】(2005湖北) He hasn't slept at all for three days. ____ he is tired out.
A. There is no point       B. There is no need
C. It is no wonder        D. It is no way
[考查目标] 考查 wonder 的词义。
[答案与解析]C   “他已经三天没有睡觉了,现在筋疲力尽也不足为奇。”根据句意,答案选C。 no wonder 表示“不足为奇的”;no point 表示“没有意义”;no need表示“没有……的必要”;no way 表示“决不”。
(lie, remind, case, depend, add, measure, hurry)
1. The Smiths said they would take ____ to repair the windows by themselves.
2. There's plenty of time left; No ____.
3. The policemen rushed into the bedroom, only to find the couple ____ on the bed, dead.
4. -- Would you like to go swimming with Jack and Jim?
  -- That ____.
5. The heavy storm ____to our trouble in the long marching, besides we were too tired.
6. When I couldn't remember the exact words, my brother ____ me of them.
7. I know there's no need to take so much money with me, but still I want to bring some in ____.
1. as 的短语
① as usual 像平常一样
② as if / as though 好像
③ as long as 长达……;只要
④ as soon as possible 尽可能早地,尽快
⑤ as well 也,又,同样地
⑥ as often as 每次.每当
⑦ as a / the result of 作为……的结果
⑧ as well as 也,还,和……一样好
⑨ as soon as 一……就…….和……一样快
⑩ as far as 和……一样远,就……,尽……
⑪ may /  might as well 不妨
⑫ as a result 结果,因此
[例句] As if unsure of where she was, she hesitated and looked around. 她仿佛茫然不知身在何处,犹犹豫豫向
四周张望。/ As long as it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go fishing. 只要明天不下雨,我们就去钓鱼。/ The flight was delayed as the result of fog. 因为有雾该 航班误点。/ She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. 她不但是摄影师还是个天才音乐家。/ His parents supported him as far as they could. 他父母竭尽全力抚养他。/ As often as I tried to phone him, the line was engaged. 每次我给他打电话都占线。
【考例】(2003北京) ____ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it.
    A. Even though  B. Unless C. As long as  D. While
[答案与解析]C   even though / if 即使;unless 如果
不;as long as 只要;while 当……时候。本句话意思是
【考例】(2005湖南) The more I think about him, the more reasons I find for loving him ____ I did.
    A. as much as     B. as long as
    C. as soon as     D. as far as
[答案与解析] A   A项as much as (和……一样多)符合题意:“我越想他就越发现有更多的理由让我像从前一样地爱他。”
2. at present 目前;presently 副词,相当于soon,意思是不久for the present 眼下,暂时 (= for the moment)At present, he is on holiday. 目前,他在度假。 / I will finish the work presently. 我就要完成这个工作。/ He is busy writing a book for the present. 他眼下正忙于写书。
  另外,be present at 到场,出席,反义词 be absent from  缺席;present 还作后置定语,意思是“到场的,在座  的”;present 用作名词“礼物,赠品”。All but one were present at the meeting last night. 除了一人外,大家都出席了昨天晚上的会议。Present at the meeting were the leading members of the departments concerned. 有关部门的负责人出席了会议。
11. come up with 提出,找到(答案);赶上
  He came up with a new suggestion.
  Let's go slowly so that the others may come up with
  [注意]come up 意为“被提出”,主语是物。
  Some practical suggestions came up at the meeting.
3. die out绝种,灭种 Elephants would die out soon if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wish.如果允许人们随心所欲地射杀大象,那么它们不久就会灭绝。
  [拓展] die out 还可表示“熄灭;(风俗、习惯等)逐渐消失”。Many old customs are dying out. 许多古老的风俗正逐渐消失。
  [链接] die off 一个个死掉 (或枯死) / die away 渐消;平息 / die down 平息;变弱 / die for 急切想要 / die from 因……致死,死于(外因) / die of 死于(内因)
4. “in + 名词构成的短语
① in fact 事实上
② in case (of) 假使,以防,万一
③ in surprise 惊讶地,惊奇地,吃惊地
④ in general 一般,大体上
⑤ in total 总共
⑥ in all 总共
⑦ in future 从今以后
⑧ in particular 尤其,特别是
⑨ in trouble 处于困境
⑩ in time 及时,总有一天
⑪ in a hurry 匆忙地
⑫ in front of 在……前面
⑬in the open air 在户外,在野外
⑭ in front 前方,正对面
⑮ in the future 将来
⑯ in the end 最后
⑰ in the day 在白天
⑱ in danger 在危险中,垂危
⑲ in the wild 在自然环境中
⑳ in ruins 成为废墟,遭到严重破坏
⑳ in a word 总之
[例句] No one believed it, but in fact, Mary did win the prize. 没有人相信,但的确玛丽获奖了。/ Do you think we can get there in time for the first act? 你认为我们能赶上看第一幕吗? / When he was in trouble, he always turned to me for help. 他有困难时。总是向我求助。/ In common with many people, he prefers classical music to pop. 和许多人一样,他喜欢古典音乐胜过流行音乐。/ If you keep on doing so, you will regret in time. 如果你总是这样做,总有一天你会后悔的。/ In general, her work has been good, but his essay is dreadful. 总的说来,她的作品不错,不过他的文章糟透了。/ The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent. 整顿饭都很好,尤其是葡萄酒更好。/ In case he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait. 万一他在我回来前到达,请让他等我。
【考例】(NMET 2000) I don't think I'll need any money but I will bring some ____.
    A. at last    B. in case   C. once again   D. in time
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]B   at last 终于,最后;once again 再次;in time 及时,总有一天;in case 万一。本句话意思是“我认为我们不需要钱,但是为预防万一,我还是要带点”。
5. in case of 是介词短语,意为(有坏事的)情况下  “万一发生……”① In case of fire, phone the police.万一发生火灾,就给警察打电话。② The match will be put off in case of rain. 万一下雨,比赛就延期。
  [拓展] in case单独使用时,可用作状语,也可引起从  句,意为“以免,以防”。 ③ Take a taxi in case you are late for the meeting. 坐出租车吧,以防开会迟到。 ④ I'll keep some of these unused in case. 这些不用的东西我要留一些,以防万一。
  [注意]in case 引起的从句表示条件,所以从句中不用将来时态,但可用should,might。⑤ Take your raincoat in case it should rain.带上雨衣以防下雨。
  [相关短语] in no case 决不(置于句首,句子用倒装) / in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 / in that case 如果那样    ⑥ In no case should you give up. 你绝不应该放弃。/ ⑦ In any case, do it better. 无论如何,要尽力而为。/ ⑧ In that case he would have telephoned the restaurant. 那样的话他本来会给餐馆打电话的。
 [提示]case可表达多种意义:⑨ That isn't the case with Peter. 彼得的情况并不如此。(情况,情形) ⑩ The worst cases have been sent to hospital.情况最严重的患者已被送往医院。(患者,病人) ⑪ The case will be tried in the court next week. 下周要审这个案子。(案情,案例)
6. in danger在危险中
  [短语]in danger of有……的危险
  out of danger 脱离危险
  full of danger 充满危险的
  a danger to society 社会的危险人物/事物
  [拓展]dangerous 危险的,指给别人造成危险
  The boy is seriously iIl and his life is in danger.那个男孩病得很重,生命垂危。He has been very ill. The doctor says that he is now out of danger.他一直病得很厉害,医生说他现在已脱离了危险。
7. make a difference 造成差别,有影响
  make a big difference = make much difference 造成很大差别
  make no / little difference 没有差别
  make some / any difference 有些差别
  Who will win makes no difference to me.谁将获胜对于我来说没什么两样。= It makes no difference to me who ,will win. / Does it make any difference whether he will come? 他来不来会有差别吗?
8. stay in touch with = keep in touch with ……保持联系(状态) The salesman stays / keeps in touch with the office by phone. 推销员通过电话与办公室保持联系。
  [短语]be in touch with 和…有联系(状态);get in touch with 和…取得联系(动作) ;lose touch with 和…失去联系(动作);be out of touch with 和…失去联系(状态)
9. take measures
  (1) measure ① 名词“措施,办法”,take measures to do something 采取措施做某事;②名词“最度,尺寸” make clothes to one's own measure 根据某人的尺寸做衣服;名词“计量单位”。We must take necessary measures to solve these problems one by one.我们必须采取必要的措施逐个解决这些问题。/ I went to the tailor's to make a suit to my own measure last week. 上周我去裁缝店量体做一套衣服。/ A meter is a measure of length. 米是长度单位。
  (2) measure 既可以用作及物动词也可以用作不及物动词,意思是“量,测量”。 My mother is measuring me for clothes. 我妈妈在给我量尺寸做衣服。/ It measures easily if spread on the table. 要是把它铺在桌子上,量起来可更容易些。
 [注意]表示“采取措施做某事”还可以用do something / things to do something。We must do something to prevent SARS. 我们必须采取措施预防非典型性肺炎。/Have you done anything to deal with that problem? 你采取措施解决那个问题了吗?
10. 含介词 to 的短语
(1) according to 根据……所说
(2) adapt to 适应
(3) come to oneself 苏醒,恢复知觉
(4) devote...to 献身于……,专心于……
(5) get to 到达
(6) give birth to 生(孩子)
(7) lead to 通向,导致
(8) listen to 听
(9) make one's way to... 往……走
(10) make a contribution to 贡献给,捐赠
(11) on one's way to 在……途中
(12) owe...to...把……归功于……
(13) point to 指向……
(14) prefer...to... 喜欢……胜似……;宁愿干……而不愿
(15) to one's surprise 令(某人)惊讶
(16) say goodbye to 告别,告辞
(17) thanks to 由于,多亏
(18) get down to 着手
(19) belong to 属于
(20) pay attention to 注意
(21) stick to 坚持
(22) object to 反对
(23) be opposed to 反对
(24) refer to 参阅,涉及
[例句]Everyone should make a contribution to a charity collection. 每个人都应该给慈善事业捐赠。/ At first I couldn't see anything when l stepped out of the room,but my eyes adapted to the dark bit by bit. 我刚走出房间时,起初什么也看不到,但是慢慢地我的眼睛适应了漆黑的环境。/ Thanks to the arrival of the police, the murderer was caught. 由于警察的赶到凶手才被捉住。/ We owe our great achievements to the correct leadership of the Party. 我们把取得的伟大成就归功于党的正确领导。/ After I graduated from university, l continued to devote myself to research. 我大学毕业后继续进行研究。/ Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness. 劳动量大且休息得很少经常导致疾病。
【考例】(2004湖北) Once a decision has been made, all of us should ____ it.
    A. direct to    B. stick to   C. lead to   D. refer to
[答案与解析]B  direct to 指引,指导;stick to 坚持;lead to 通向,导致;refer to 提到,谈到,参考。本句话意思是“一旦做出决定,就应该坚持”。
【考例】(2005浙江) The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ____ his notes.
    A. bringing up    B. referring to
    C. looking for    D. trying on
[答案与解析]B  refer to 意为“参照,提到”;bring up意为“抚养,养育”;look for 意为“寻找”;try on 意为“试穿”。题意“主席在商务会议上做了将近一小时的发言没有看稿。”
1. In generally, most teenagers now listen to rock music. However, Jonah prefers classical music.
2. I suppose Robert is fit the job in case he can put his mind to it.
3. Eat too much fat can lead to heart disease and cause high blood pressure.
4. He has devoted his whole life to benefit mankind.
5. Tom's interests include basketball, bowling, and surfing the Web as good as studying his favorable subjects.
1. spend, cost, take, pay, pay for
  (1) spend的主语必须是“人”,宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等,其后用on+名词或用in(可省略) + 动名词形式,不接不定式。He spends much money on books. 他平时将很多钱用在买书上。/ He spent a lot of money (in) buying a new car. 他花很多钱买一辆新车。
  (2) cost的主语必须是“物”或“事”,表示“费用”、“耗费”,后接life,money,health,time等,侧重于“花费”的代价。The book cost him one dollar. 这本书用了他一美元。/ Making experiments like this costs much time and labor. 做这样的实验要花很多时间和劳力。
  [注意]cost后不能与具体的时间长度连用,只能与表示抽象概念的时间短语连用。如:some time, much time, ten years of hard work 等。可说It cost him ten years of work. 不可说It cost him ten years to work.
(3) take 表示“花费”时,其主语一般是“一件事”,有时主语也可以是人,它说明事情完成“花费了……”。 It took me ten minutes to go to the post office.到邮局用去了我十分钟时间。/ The producer took two years to make the film.  制片商用了两年时间拍这部新影片。
  [说明] take...to do sth. 句型侧重完成该动作花费的时间,而spend...doing sth. 有时并不说明动作的完成。It took him an hour to read the book.他用一小时读完了这本书。/ He spent an hour (in) reading the book.他用了一小时读这本书。(是否读完并未说明)
  (4) pay 的基本意思是“支付”,作为及物动词,宾语可  以是“人”、“钱”。He paid the taxi and hurried to the station.  他付了出租车的钱,急忙向车站赶去。We'll pay you in a few days. 几天后我们会给你钱。
  (5) pay for的宾语为“物”、“事”,for 表示支付的原因。  You'll have to pay me ten dollars a week for your meals.你得每周付给我十美元饭钱。
(1)下面两句中pay for的意义不同。Of course we have to pay for what we buy.当然我们买东西得付钱。Don't worry about money. I'll pay for you. 别担心钱,我会替你付的。
  (2) pay the bill 付账;pay taxes 纳税;pay wages 发工资
2. agree with, agree to, agree on
  (1) ① agree with 的意思是“同意”,“赞成”。后面常接表示人或意见(看法)的名词或代词作宾语。Does she agree with us? 她同意我们的意见吗?
  ② agree with 还有“与……一致”,“(气候、食物等)适  合”的意思。His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。Too much meat doesn't agree with her.吃太多肉食对她身体不合适。
  [注意]agree with不能用于被动语态。
  (2) agree to 意为“同意”,“赞成”,后面跟表示“提议”,“办法”,“计划”,“安排”等的名词或代词。Please agree to this arrangement.请同意这个安排。
  (3) agree on 表示“对……取得一致意见”,指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或是达成了某种协议。After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire. 经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。
3. common, ordinary, usual, normal
  (1) ① common“常见的,普遍的”(即“司空见惯的”意思) common names 常见的名字;common mistakes 常犯的错误;common sense 常识;common event 普通(平凡)的事件;common use 普遍用法
  ② common 还有“共同的”意思。common interest 共同的兴趣;common language 共同语言;common market共同市场;common purpose 共同目标
  [短语]have much / a lot in common 有很多共同之处have nothing / little in common 没有共同之处
  (2) ordinary 普通的,平凡的(强调“平淡无奇”) an ordinary worker 一个普通工人;ordinary-looking 相貌平常的
  (3) usual 通常的,惯常的(强调“遵循常例”) It is a usual thing with him. 这件事他习以为常。
  [短语]as usual像往常一样;it is usual for sb. to do sth.
  (4) normal 正常的,正规的 (即“合乎标准”) normal temperature 正常体温;normal state 正常状态
  [短语]above / below normal 标准以上(以下),return to normal 恢复正常
4. in away, in the way, by the way, by way of
  (1) in a way 意为“在某种程度上”,相当于in one
  way, in some way。
  The reforms are an improvement in a way.
  (2) in the way 挡路
  A big stone is in the way. Move it away, please.
  (3) by the way 顺便问一下,在途中
  They stopped for a rest by the way.
  By the way, could you show me the way to the
  (4) by way of 途经,路经(某处);作为,当作
  He is travelling to Shenzhen by way of Beijng.
  Let's go to the restaurant for supper by way of a
5. first of all,above all,first,at first
  (1)first of all“首先,第一”,指按照时问顺序处于第
  First of all, we must check the number.
  First of all, let me say how glad I am to be here.
  (2) above all“首先,最重要的足”,相当于most
  important of all。(强调重要性)
  We must work hard, and above all we must believe
  that each of us is able to do something well.
  (3) first“首先”,是从动作的先后角度来考虑的。
  Beforewe go, I must first change my clothes.
  (4) at first“起初”,相当于at the beginning,含有后来
  At first I didn't like her, but now I do.
6. hurt,harm,wound,injure
  (I)hurt “伤害,受伤”,主要用于有生命的东西,多指
  He fell off the bike and hurt his arm.
  (2) harm “损害,伤害”,指使有生命或无生命的东西
  She's afraid that in their fight he would harm the
  (3) wound “受害,受伤”,指受袭击或暴力时所受的
  The bullet wounded him in the leg.
  He felt wounded in his honor.
  (4) injure2伤害,损害”,意义较广,着承指偶然事故
  John fell down from the tree and injured his back.
  I hope I didn’t injure her feelings.
【考点1】Wang Mei is one of many Chinese teenagers who
live life "on the go" and use cellphones. 跟许多中国青少
例如:This is one of the exciting matches that I have ev—
er seen.
注意: “one of+名词单数”作主语,谓语动词用复数;
“the (only / very) one of + the + 名词复数”作主语,谓
【考例1】(2002上海) He is the only one of the students
who ____ a wumer of scholarship for three years.
    A. is    B. are
    C. have been    D. has been
[考查目标] 主谓一致。
[答案与解析]D  根据以上解释,排除B、C两项;根据
for three years,排除A项。
【考点2】Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer,
since we can call for help in case of an emergency. 有了
该句中in case引导状语从句。例如:
Take an umbrella with you in case it rains. 带上雨伞,以
in case 表示“一旦;万一;以防”,后接从句;in case of后
接名词;而 in case 后接从句,该句在特定的语境中可以
Take an umbrella with you in case of rain. 带上雨伞,
【考例2】(2000京、皖春招)John may phone tonight, I
don't want to go out ____ he phones.
    A. as long as    B. in order that
    C. in case    D. so that
[考查目标] 状语从句的连接词。
[答案与解析]C  B项引导状语从句,表示目的;D项
导状语从句,意思是“只要……就……”;C项in case表
【考点3】The answer seems to be that we have a need to
stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we
are or what we are doing. 答案似乎是:无论我们在何处
该句中的“no matter + 疑问词”引导让步状语从句。例如:
No matter how clever you are。you must work hard.
引导让步状语从句的"no matter + 疑问词”常常可以与
“疑问词 + ever"互换。课文中的句子可以换成“Wher—
ever we are or whatever we are doing.”例如:
Wherever he went, he received a warm welcome. 无论
【考例3】(2004湖北) You should try to get a good
night's sleep ____ much work you have to do.
      A. however            15. no matter
      C. although            D. whatever
[答案与解析]A  根据句子意思“不管你有多少工作要
【考点4】...and do everything Q12 tells them to. 惟Q12
Her parents hoped she would study chemistry, but she
didn't want to.
-- Would you love to see the filnl with me tonight?
-- I'd like to, but I have to do my homework.
-- You should have thanked her before you left.
-- I meant ____, but when I was leaving I couldn't
   find her anywhere.
      A. to do             B. to
      C. doing              D. doing it
[考查目标] 动词不定式省略。
[答案与解析]B  mean作为“打算”讲,后接动词不定
1. The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in
  touch with friends and family no matter where we are
  or what we ale doing.
  no matter的用法
  no matter是连词词组,作“无论,不管”解,常用于引
  ① No matter whal (who, when, how, where 等)... +
  句子。(= whatever, whoever, whenever... + 句子)
  No matter how proud he was, he was afraid to face
  No matter whether you have time or not, you must go
  ② 在“no matter + 特殊疑问词”引导的让步状讲从句
  No matter bow hard he works, he will never caleb up
  with her.
  ③ “No matter + 特殊疑问词”结构引导的从句,可以
  Don't open the door, no matter who knocks it.
  (= No matter who knocks the door, don't open it)
  No matter whose box it it, it will be kept until the
  owner returns. (= It will be kept until the owner
  returns, no matter whose box it is.)
2. The cellphone helps her do whatever she wants to do.
  (1) whatever 引导名词性从句,在句中作主语、宾语、
  Whatever he did was right.
  I'll send whatever is needed.
  【比较】whatever 和 what 引导名词性从句的区别。
   whatever 相当于 anything that,语气很强,侧重泛指。
   what 相当于 all that,everything that, the thing(s)
  that, 侧重特指。
  What he said was right.
  (2) whatever 等于 no matter what 引导让步状语从
  Whatever Wilson says, I'll post the letter.
  = No matter what Wilson savs, I'll post the letter.
   however = no matter how 无论怎样
   whenever = no matter when 无论何时
   whoever ① = no matter who 无论准
           ② 引导名词性从句,等于anyone who
3. We human beings could not survive without all the
    plants and animals around us.
    You cannot learn Chinese well without making great
    One cannot make bricks without straw.
    There will be no rain without wind.
4. We may be able to take measures before it is too late.
  从属连词 before 最基本的含义足“在……之前”,但
  He measured me before I could get in a word.
  I waited a long time before he came.
5. Steve Jones tries to keep animals and plants from
  becoming endangered.
  keep…from doing sth.“阻止……做某事”
  Please keeD the children from swimming in the sea.
  [联想] stop / prevent...from...为keep...from...
  from却不可省(如若省去from,则成为keep sb.
  doing sth. “使某人一直做某事”)。
  Nothing can prevent her (from) doing so.
  [提醒] 若表示“阻止做某事”,sth. 作动词的宾语,
  则 from 后应跟动名词的被动语态,即“阻止某事被
    Nothing can stop the plan from being earried out.
[牛刀小试3]    .
1. -- You haven't lost the ticket, have you?
   -- _____. I know it's not easy to get another one
      at the moment. (2004 江苏)
      A. I hope not          B. Yes, I have
      C. I hope so           D. Yes, I'm afraid so
2. She is one of the new girls who ____ in the kin-
   dergarten. (1994 上海)
      A. is well paid         B. are well paid
      C. is paying well      D. are paying well
3, You can eat food free in my restaurant ____ you
   like. (2004 重庆)
      A. whenever           B. wherever
      C. whatever           D. however
4. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but
   his mother told him ____. (NMET 1995)
      A. not to             B. not to do
      C. not to it            D, do not to
【考点1】Expressing agreement and disagreement 同意与
-- I beliece we've met somewhere before.
-- No, ____.
    A. it isn't the same  B. it can't be true
    C. I don't think so    D. I'd rather not
[答案与解析]C  本题主要考查同意与不同意的功能
① Sure / Certainly.
② Of course.
③ AIl right.
④ I agree.
⑤ No problem.
⑥ That's a good idea.
⑦ Yes, I think so.
⑧ No way. (不可能)
⑨ Of course not.
⑩ I don't agree.
⑧ I don't think so.
⑩ I'm afraid not.
① Absolutely.
② That's exactly what I was thinking.
③ That's a good point.
④ That's just how I see it.
⑤ That's worth thinking about.
⑥ You can't be serious.
⑦ Well, it depends.
⑧ I would have to disagree with that.
⑨ Well, I'm not so sure about that.
【考点2】Asking if somebody agree 询问某人是否同意
(2001上海) I don't suppose anyone will volunteer, ____?
    A. dO I    B. don't I
    C. will they    D. won't they
[答案与解析]C  本题看似考查反意问句,实际上运用
① Don't you agree?
②(~)Don't you think she is a bright student?
③(~)Don't you think so?
④(~He's quite old, isn't he?
⑧(8-)Do you agree with me?
⑨(9_)1 wonder if you would agree with argument?
【考点3】Talking about causes and effects谈论原因和结
--How is it that you are late for school again?
      A. By bus and then on foot
      B. Because I missed the bus
      C. It's quite all right
      D. It's far from school
[答案与解析]B  本题主要考查表达原因和结果的用
语。题干中How is it that... 意为“是什么使得(某事发
 ① Why...?
 ② Because of..., I...
 ③ As a result of...
 ④ Because / As / Since...
 ⑤ If..., then...
 ⑥ It follows that...
 ⑦ It will lead to...
1. -- I'm sorry I can't go with you.
   -- ____? Haven't you agreed?
      A. How is it
      B. What is it
      C. Why don't you
      D. What do you think
2.-- Do you happen to have twenty dollars with you?
    -- ____?
   -- I want to buy a dictionary.
      A. How do you want it
      B. How much
      C. What for
      D. When can you pay me hack
3. -- I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to
   --  ____. It was her fault.
      A. No way           B. Not possible
      C. No chance         D. Not at all
4.-- Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
    -- ____.
      A. I don't believe     B. I don't believe it
      C. I believe not so     D. I believe not
5. -- Go for a picnic this weekend, OK?
   -- ____. I love getting close to nature.
      A. I couldn't agree more
      B. I'm afraid not
      C. I believe not
      D. I don't think so
(    )1. He tried his best to solve the problem, ____
    difficult it was. (2005 天津)
    A. however    B. no matter
    C. whatever    D. although
    【解析】选A however = no matter how引导让步状语
(  )2. -- Brad was Jane's brother!
    -- ____ he remlnded me∞mHch()f Jane!
    (2004 浙江)
    A. No doubt    B. Above all
    C. Nowonder    D. Of course
    【解析l选C   no wonder“难怪”,因为Brad是Jane的
(  )3. -- How long are you staying?
  -- I don't know ____. (2004 江苏)
  A. That's OK    B. Never mind
  C. It dedends    D. It doesn't matter
    【解析】选C   根据上文I don't know.,可确定要选
(    )4. -- It's cloudy outside. Please takc an ubrella.
  -- ____.  (2005湖南)
  A. Yes, take it easy
  B. Well, it just depends
  C. OK, just in case
  D. All right, you're welcome
    【解析】选C   just in case = in case it rains 带把雨伞以
(    )5. The American Civil War lasted four years ____
    the North won in the end. (2005 广东)
    A. after    B. when
    C. before    D. then
    【解析】选C before“过了(四年)才……”。:
(    )6. I wonder how he ____ that to the teacher.
    A. dared to say    B.dare~ying
    C. dares say    D. dared say
    【解析】选A   dared在此是情态动词的过去式。
(  )7. The poor young man is ready to accept ____
    help he can get. (2005 全国)
    A. whichever    B. however
    C. whatever    D. whenever
    【解析】选C   whatever引导的宾语从句。whatever
help = any help that...。
(  )8. -- The cars give off a great deal of waste gas into
    -- Yes. But I'm sure something will be done to
    -- ____ air pollution.
A. reduce              B. remove
C. collect             D. warn
【解析】选A  reduce pollution 减少污染。
9. Although the working mother is very busy, she
   still ____ a lot of time to her children. (NMET
   A. devotes             B. spends
   C. offers              D. provides
【解析】选A   devote...to为固定搭配。
10. -- Dad, I've finished my assignment.
   -- Good, and ____ you play or watch TV, you
   mustn't disturb me. ( 2003 上海)
A. whenever           B. whether
C. whatever           D. no matter
【解析】选B  whether...or...引导让步状语从句;=
no matter whether ... or
(     ) 11. The chairman thought ____ necessary to invite
            Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. (2005 全国)
A. that             B. it
C. this                D. him
【解析】选B   it作形式宾语,代替不定式。
  Thanks to your help, passed the test.
4. power, strength, force
  strength 指某人或某物所具有的内在力量,可指体
  力、力气;force 也可指物质或精神力量。多指为做成
  Knowledge is power.
  The boy gathered his strength to get up.
  It took him great force to lift the big stone.
5. real, true
  (1) real表示“真的”、“真实的”,“名符其实的”,指的
  Is this real gold?
  I'm learning to skate on real ice.
  (2) true意为“真的、真正的”,表示的是和事实及实
  It is quite true.
  He is true to his name.
  [注意] ① true 还可作“忠实的”解。试比较:
  true friend (comrade,friendship) 忠实的朋友(同志,友
  real friend (comrade,friendship)真正的朋友(同志,友
  ② 在词组come true (实现) 和 be true 中,不能用real
6. such…as…,such as,such…that…
  (1) such...as...作“像……那样的”,“如……之类
  I want t0 buy such books as are about science and
  Don't read such books as you can't understand.
  Such books as this are too difficult to beginners.
  省略的从句“as this(is)”,as在从句中作表语)
  (2)such as 是短语连词,意为“诸如”,“例如”,引出的
  John likes to make furniture,such as chairs and tables.
  (3) such…that…作“如此……以致……”解。that
  The teacher asked such a difficult question that no one
  could answer it. (结果状语从句)
  The teacher asked such a difficult question as no one
  could answer. (定语从句)
1. Where do you think the music comes from?
  动词有think, believe, guess, suggest, suppose,
  hope, say, imagine等,此类句型常用来征询对方对
  What do you think Inade Mary so upset?
  Who do you suppose would believe that story?
  How high do you,say this mountain is?
  When do you think he will be back from abroad? (=
  When will he be back from abroad, do you think?)
  Which way, do you imagine, he went?
  (2) 这种混合疑问句以know, tell, ask, hear等作谓
Chapter 6 SBI  Units 11 - 12
1. What do you think the music comes from?
  do you think 作插入语
2. You want to find a good sang to dance to.
3. If only they could find a way to get to the room.
  If only 的用法
4. He was just about to say something when Peter turned around.  when 的用法
5. What do you have in mind?  表示“心里想着某事”
6. The next time you look for a tape, don't just look for Chinese or American music.   名词引导时间状语从句
7. It looked as if the creature had moved.    as if 的用法
1. traditional adj. 传统的
2. instrument n. 工具,器械
3. perform vt. / vi. 表演,执行
4. characteristic n. 特点
5. contain vt. 包含
6. intelligence n. 智力
7. spread vt. / vi. 传播,伸展
8. variety n. 多样性,种类
9. universal adj.通用的,世界的
10. record vt. / vi. / n. 记录,录音,唱片
11. satisfy vt. 满足
12. desire n. / vt. 心愿,期望
13. emotion n. 情感
14. musician n. 音乐家
15. express vt. 表达
16. literature n. 文学,文艺
17. comedy n. 喜剧
18. power n. 能力,力量
19. habit n. 习惯
20. whisper v. / vt./ vi. 耳语,低声说
21. treat v. / n. 对待,请客
22. entertain v. 使人快乐
1. have much in common 有很多共同之处
2. turn...into... 把……变成
3. a series of 一连串的,一系列的
4. in trouble 在困境中
5. turn around 转过身
6. believe in 信任,信仰
7. come across 偶然遇到
8. take turns 轮流
9. on the other hand 在另一方面
10. make a decision做决定
11. make fun of 取笑
12. think well of 高度评价
13. be similar to与……相似
14. compare...with...把……和……比较
15. make suggestions 提出建议
16. the latest style 最新的式样
17. make money 赚钱
18. dance to 和着……的节奏跳舞
19. be satisfied with 对……感到满意
20. pick up 捡起,接收
21. make a record 制作唱片
22. play a trick on sb. 捉弄某人
1. ____ common 共同(的);共有(的)
2. turn...____ 把……变成
3. a ____ of 一连串的;一系列;一套
4. ____ trouble 处于困境中;有麻烦
5. come ____ 偶然遇见,碰上
6. believe ____ 信任;信仰;支持,赞成
7. turn ____ 转过身;转过来
8. ____ a decision 作决定
9. ____ easy 感到舒心
10. ____ instruments 演奏乐器
11. ____ one's inner desire 满足内心的欲望
12. ____ an arts festival 举办艺术节
13. ____ the same goals 有共同的目标
14. get ____ 到达;做完;通过;度过;打通
15. ____ sb badly 虐待某人
16. ____... with / to 和……作比较
17. ____ magic tricks 看魔术
18. have... ____ mind想到;想着
19. dance ____ music / a song / a tune 按音乐/歌曲/曲调的节拍跳舞
20. a world ____ 无数……,大量……,许多……
 1. Why not have another try?
2. What/How about going out for a swim this Sunday afte- rnoon?
3. In my opinion, you should [ had better wait another ten minute.
4. Maybe it would be better to ...
5. That's a good idea.
6. I'd love to, but ...
7. What can you suggest?
8. Nothing can stop me from ...
9. Well, that's settled.
10. Personally, I believe ...
【考点2】common 的用法
▲ 搭配:
① the commons 普通人.老百姓
② out of (the) common 不寻常的,特殊的
③ have nothing in common (with) (与……)没有共同
【考例2】[2004辽宁] In the early days of the American.
West, gun fights were not ____ for the water re—
sources, and laws...
    A. unlawful    B. unacceptable
    C. unpopular    D. uncommon
[考查目标]本题考查 common 等派生词的用法和词义。
[答案与解析]D  uncommon 的意思是“不寻常的,不常
见的”’而 unlawful 的意思是“不违法的”;unacceptable
“不接受的”;unpopular “不受欢迎的”“不普遍的”。
15. compare v. 比较,比作
  [拓展] comparison n. 比较
  [词组] compare...with 把……和……相比较
  Compare this with that, and you'll see which is better.
  Life is often compared to a stage.
  He compared young people to the rising sun.
  compared to / with...(与……相比)用于句首或句未
  Compared to / with many others, you're really a lucky
【考点9】contain 的用法
▲ 构词:container n. 容器(箱、盆、罐、壶、桶、坛子),集
▲ 搭配:
① be contained between / within 含于……间,(夹)在
② contain oneself 自制
▲ 辨析:contain;include;hold 都含“包含”、“容纳”的
contain 着重“其中确实包含有,侧重全部”;而include
The bottle contains water. 这个瓶子里有水。
Three students went there, including my English teach—
hold 指“能容纳”。例如:
The house holds 20 people. 这房子能住下20人。
【考例9】[2005太原模拟] They also ____ the very
worst parts of a society: violent crime, racial discrimi—
nation and poverty.
    A. maintain    B. obtain
    C. contain    D. sustain
[考查目标] 本题考查contain的意思。
[答案与解析] C  contain的常见意思是“包含”。
6. desire vt. 希望得到,[U]渴望,[C]一种强烈的欲望
  We all desire happiness and health.
  I have long desired to meet you.
  The people expressed their desire that the war (should)
  come to an end soon.
  Your parents always try their best to satisfy aIl your
  [词组] have desire for sth. 渴望得到……
  sarisfy one's desires 满足某人的欲望/愿望
  desire for sth. 渴望得到……
  desire to do sth. 渴望做……
  desire sb. to do sth. 渴望某人做……
① discoverer n. 发现者
② discovery n. 发现.发明的东西
Despite her great age, she was very graceful indeed,
but so far, the archaeologists have been unable to dis—
cover her identity. 尽管她的年代离现在已经很久远了,
disclose 表示把未宣布的事情“透露”出来。例如:
She disclosed that she had been married for a month.
【考例5】[2004北京] I continued playing football at
school and ____ my love for it I joined a private
team coached by my school coach.
    A. reconsidered    B. rediscovered
    C. reformed    D. replaced
[考查目标] 本题考查discover派生词的意思。
[答案与解析] B  rediscover的意思是“重现,再现”。
▲ 搭配:
① offer sb. sth / sth. to sb 向某人提供/提出……
②offer (sb) some money for sth (向某人)出价……购
③ offer to do sth 主动提出干某事
(1) 把某物拿出来给对方,对方可能接受,也可能拒绝。
(2) 提出某事让对方考虑。
(3) 给某人某物,基本上相当于give的含义。例如:
He offered a few ideas to improve the plan. 他提出了一
The servant presented sandwiches to each guest. 仆人把
【考例7】[2004湖南] They've ____ us £150,000
for the house. Shall we take it?
    A. provided    B. supplied
    C. shown    D. offered
[考查目标] 本题考查offer与其近义词之间的区别。
[答案与解析] D  offer为“(善意的)提供”,从句意可
▲ 构词:performance n. 履行,执行,成绩.性能,表
▲ 搭配:
① put on / give a perform 表演
② perform one's duties 尽责任
【考例8】[2005广西模拟] The operations are ____
with different tools.
    A. preferred    B. performed
    C. provided    D. practiced
[考查目标] 本题考查perform的词义。
[答案与解析]B  perform 除了有“表演”的意思以外,
1. perform vt. / vi. 演出,表演,演奏,执行
  performance n. 表演
  give / put on a performance 演出;上演(节目)
  He also performed a part in a play.
  The five-year-old girl performed perfectly on the piano.
  One should always perform what he promises.
  Which doctor performed the operation?
▲构词:pick-pocket n. 扒手
① pick and steal 小偷小摸
② pick out 挑出,拣出;辨别出,区别出;弄明白,领
  会 (文章等的意义)
③ pick up 拾起;(车、船)在途中搭人、带货;(未经正式
④ pick oneself up (跌倒后)再爬起来;振作精神
⑤ pick up (health) 恢复健康
⑥ pick up speed 加速
⑦ pick up with sb 结识,与……交朋友
choose 强调在“选择”某物时的意愿,特别是当供挑选
He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and
is fully aware of the consequences. 他故意地选择了他
They will hardly know which facts to select from the
great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. 大量
But, of the vertebrates, unpredictable Nature selected
only snakes (and one lizard).
pick 在用作“挑选”时,不强凋鉴别,也不强调意愿。例
On the village green,where you pick up sides and no
feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to
play simply for the fun and exercise. 在一块乡村草坪
【考例4】[NMET 1992] ____ the kettle (水壶) of
boiling water, she moved quietly towards the door.
    A. Putting down    B. Laying aside
    C. Picking up    D. Taking away
[考查目标] 本题考查pick up的意思。
[答案与解析] C pick up的常见意思是“捡起,拿起”。
8. power [U]权力,功率,动力
  powerful adj. 强大的,有力的
  powerless adj. 无能的
  [词组] come into power 掌权
  in power 掌权
  beyond / out of power 不能胜任的
  power plant / station 发电厂
  Which Party is in power?
  The power of the governments has increased greatly
  over the past century.
  He turned on the power and the machine worked.
10. record [C] 记录,唱片 vt. / vi. 记录下来,记载,录制
  He still holds / keeps the record of the high jump.
  His records are popular with young students.
  Her diary records all the happenings of the day.
  The programme was recorded.
  [词组] make records 制作唱片
  write a record of 记载下
  break a record 打破一项记录
  set a new record 创新记录
  keep a record of 记录着
5. satisfy vt. 使人满意,满足
  satisfied adj. 满意的
  satisfactory / satisfying adj.令人满意的
  satisfaction n. 满意
  [词组】be satisfied with 对……满意
  be satisfied to do sth. 满意做某事
  a satisfied smile / look 满意的微笑/神色
  a satisfying ending / result / meal 令人满意的结局/结
We must satisfy (= meet) the people's needs /
  All this information was not enough to satisfy them.
  From his satisfied look I know he is satisfied to work
  Working with her was our most satisfying activity.
▲ 构词:
① satisfaction n. 满意,满足;令人满意的事物;补偿/报
  复 (的机会)
② satisfactory adj. 令人满意的 (to),圆满的,良好的
③ satisfying adj. 令人满足的。令人满意的
④ satisfied adj. 感到满意的
▲ 搭配:
① satisfy sb with sth 使……对……感到满意;使……
② be satisfied with 对……感到满意
③ satisfy sb that—clause / of sth 使……对……感到信
④ feel satisfaction at / in对……感到满意
⑤ receive / get satisfaction from 对…感到满意
⑥ to sb's satisfaction = to the satisfaction of sb 令某人
⑦ with satisfaction 满意地
【考例3】[2000京皖春招] Nick is looking for another
job because he feels that nothing he does ____ his
    A. serves    B. satisfies
    C. promises    D. supports
[考查目标] 动词s,atisfy的词义。
[答案与解析] B   satisfy 的意思是“令人满意”。本句
比较复杂,nothing 是 satisfy 的主语,he does 是定语从
4. similar adj. 相似的
  similarly adv. 相类地,similarity 类似
  be similar to sb. / sth. in... 在……与某人/某物相似
  We have similar tastes in music.
  Gold is similar in colour to brass.
  Your views on education are similar to mine.
▲ 构词:soundless adj. 无声的
▲ 搭配:
① in / within (the) sound of 在能听见……的地方
② sound in mind and limb 身体健全的
【考例6】[2005 宜昌模拟] It caughl him right on the
ground without a ____.
    A. word    B. voice    C. noise    D. sound
[考查目标] 本题考查 sound 和其近义词的区别。
[答案与解析] D  sound为普通的“声音”,noise为“噪
① spread out 张开,伸开,铺开,扩大/张,展开,伸长
② spread A on / over B = spread B with A 把 A 铺/敷
【考例10】After a short time, the bad news had ____
    all over the city and everybody knew it.
    A. scattered    B. spread
    C. covered    D. announced
[考查目标] 本题考查动词 spread 的词义。
[答案与解析] B  spread 的词义是“蔓延;传播开采”,
【考点1】suggest 的用法
▲ 构词:suggestion n. [C] 提议,意见,暗示,微量
▲ 搭配:
① suggest sth to sb 向某人提议/建议某事
② suggest (to sb) that-clause
③ suggest doing sth 提议 / 建议做某事
④ make / offer a suggestion 提议,建议
【考例1】[NMET 1 994] Jane's pale face suggested that
 she ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she
____ a medical examination.
    A. be; should have    B. was; have
    C. should be; had    D. was; has
[考查目标] suggest的宾语从句特点。
[答案与解析] B  suggest表示“建议”时,从句用虚拟
  somebody badly 虐待某人;treat somebody / something
  as... 把某人/某物看作是……。
  She treats me aS her closest friend.
  The doctor treated his fever with pills.
  treat sb. to dinner 请某人吃饭
  Whose turn is it to treat next time?
  This is my treat. 这次我请客。
  It's a treat to meet you. 见到你真高兴。
  [拓展] treatment n. 治疗
3. variety [vo'raioti] n. 多样(性),种类,变化
  He left for a variety of reasons.
  We should give variety to the programme.
  [拓展]various adj. 各种各样的;vary v. 改变,变化
(spread, satisfy, contain, common, suggest, perform,
pick, offer, sound)
1. His face ____ he was badly ill, but his uncle
   suggested we not send him to the hospital.
2. Our chemistry teacher ____ the experiment
   while we sat in front of her.
3. We should ask the children to eat more vegetables
   which ____ a lot of vitamins
4. We realized that all of the sheep were lost in the for-
   est, according to our ____ knowledge.
5. With the news ____, all the peasants left their
   hometown for the beach.
6. The young man was fired because everything he did
  in the company couldn't ____ his boss.
7. What the professor said ____ reasonable.
8. They were too tired, so they waited on the side of the
  road, waiting for someone to ____ them up.
9. We waited for a long time and then were ____
  some coffee.
① come up with 找到,提出(答案、解决办法)
② come across 碰上,偶然碰上,被理解,发现
③ come along 进展,进步,一道来
④ come down 下来,降低,下降,着陆
⑤ come true 实现
⑥ come over 过来,顺便来访
⑦ come in 进来
⑧ come to oneself 苏醒,恢复知觉
⑨ come on 来吧,跟着来,赶快
⑩ come out 出来,出版,发(芽),开花
⑩ come about 发生
⑧ come back 回来.流行
⑩ come to 共计,达到,达成,恢复知觉,苏醒
⑩ come round 来,过访
⑩ come through 经历 (困难等)
[例句] She came up with a new idea for increasing
sales. 她想出了增加销售量的新主意。
It came out that he'd been telling a pack of lies. 后来才
Why don't come over t0 Beidaihe for a holiday in sum—
mer? 你怎么不在夏天到北戴河来度假呢?
The price of petrol is coming down thanks to the in—
crease of production. 由于产量的增加,石油的价格在下
He spoke for a long time but his meaning didn't come
across. 他讲了很长时间,但他的意思没有人真正理解。
The crocuses came out late this year because of the cold
weather. 因为天气寒冷,今年藏红花开得晚。
It suddenly came to her that she had been wrong all
along. 她突然想到她一开始就错了。
【考例l】(1996上海) We are all going to the games.
Why don't you come ____?
    A. up    B. across
    C. along    D. to
[考查目标] 此题主要考查come构成的短语的用法。
[答案与解析] C  come up 升起,被讨论,出现;come
across 被理解,被传达,碰见,偶然遇到;come along 进
展,进步,一道来;come to 共计,达到,达成。本句话意
13. come across
  (1) come across作“碰到”,“(偶然)发现或遇见”解。
  In the course of the experiment, they canle across some
  new problems.
  (2) come across 有时可作“穿过”、“越过……而来”解
  The Eighth Route Army easily came across the enemy
  run across  meet with     happen to meet
  run into     meet…by     chance to meet
2. in common 公用,共有;共同
  These two houses have a COUrt in common.
  Hip-hot and rap have much in common with blues and
  In common with everyone else I hold that he is right.
14. in trouble意为“处于困境中,有麻烦”。介词in表示
  A person with good manners never laughs at people
  when they are in trouble.
  He was in trouble with the customs.
  [联想]be a great trouble to 对……来说很麻烦
  ask for trouble 自找麻烦
  have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事困难
  get into trouble 陷入困境
  there be trouble (in) doing sth. (同上)
  make trouble 制造麻烦
  take trouble to do sth. 费心做某事
  save / spare trouble 省事,避免麻烦
  put sb. to the trouble of doing 麻烦某人做某事
  put sb. to trouble 给某人添麻烦
7. on the other hand 另一方面的
  I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I
  ought to be studying.
  [拓展】on (the) one hand..., on the other hand...,
  On one hand the hotel is near the sea, but on the other
  hand it costs a lot.
  [词组] by hand 手工制作的
  at hand 在附近,在手头,即将发生
  from hand to hand 从一人之手转到另一人之手
  hand in hand 手拉手
  All the work had to be done bv hand.
  The note Was delivered bv hand.
  He lives close at hand.
  The examination is at hand.
  Buckets of water were passed from hand to hand to put
  the fire out.
  Dirt and disease go hand in hand.
11. play music 演奏音乐
  [相关短语] enjoy the music 欣赏音乐
  read music 识乐谱
  have no ear for music 无音乐鉴赏力
  perform music 演奏音乐
  listen to (the) music 听音乐
  face the music 临危不惧
9. take turns doing sth. 轮流做某事
  Since we took turns driving, we didn't find the trip
  [短语] by turns 轮流地
  in turn 依次地
  at every turn 到处
① turn on 打开,使感兴趣
② turn off 关掉
③ turn down 关小,凋低,拒绝,转入
④ turn around 转过身,转过来
⑤ turn...into... 把……变成
⑥ turn to 开始干,求助于
⑦ turn over 转身,翻转,把某人交给,移交,营业额达
⑧ turn up 调大,出现,使某物朝上
⑨ turn out 结果是,证明是,出席
⑩ turn against 背叛
[例句] Mozart's music always turns me on. 莫扎特的音
Be sure to turn off the lights when you leave the room.
I applied for the job but they turned me down because I
didn't know German. 我申请了这份工作,但是因为我
He turned around to find a policeman eyeing him suspi—
ciously. 他转过身发现警察在怀疑地看着他。
A vast crowd turned out t0 watch the match. 大群的观
The car skidded, turned over and burst into flames. 那
【考例2】(2004 浙江) We wanted to get home before
dark, but it didn't quite ____ as planned.
    A. make OUt    B. turn out
    C. go on    D. come up
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析] B make out 弄明白;turn oat 结果是,证
明是;go on 继续进行;come up 上来,过来,来吧。本句
【考例3】(2004四川) The forest guards often find camp-
fires that have not been ____ completely.
      A. turned down           B. put out
      C. put away               D. turned over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 turn 与 put 构成的短语的用
[答案与解析] B turn down关小。调低,拒绝。转入;
turn over 翻转,移交,营业额达……;put out 扑灭;put
away 收拾,整理,本句话意思是“森林看护人员经常
16. turn around (同turn round) 转过身,转回身
  When the teacher turned around, they began to
  [链接]tum back 折回;翻回
  turn in 上交,交回
  turn away 不理;撵走
  turn out 结果是;生产;出来
  turn down 不接受;调小/低
  turn up 调大;出现;到达
  turn on 开(灯等)
  turn off 关(灯等)
  turn to 转向……/向……求助
  turn...into... 把……变成
  turn against背叛
 【考点3】含“动词 + in”的短语
① believe in 相信.信任,信仰
② bring in 引进,引来
③ come in 进来
④ give in 让步。投降
⑤ hand in 交上来
⑥ get in 收获,进入
⑦ take in 欺骗.摄取
⑧ join in 加入,参与
⑨ take part in 参加
⑩ turn in 交上来
[例句] You can believe in him; he'll never Iet you
down. 你可以相信他,他是不会让你失望的。
The sale brought us in over $200. 这次销售使我们赚
I kept inviting Mrs. Smith to stay for lunch, and finally
she gave in. 我不断邀请史密斯夫人留下来吃午饭,最
We were completely taken in by his story. 我们完全被
She handed in her resignation because of dissatisfac—
tion. 因为不满她递交了辞呈。
They all joined in singing the Christmas carols. 他们一
【考例4】(2004湖北)We have to ____ the wheat as
 soon as possible because a storm is on the way.
    A. get away    B. get across
    C. get through    D. get in
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 get 短语。
[答案与解析] D  get away 逃脱,离开;get across 通
过,把……讲清楚;get through 到达,办完,花光;get in
1. -- How did you find him out?
  -- I ____ his name by chance on the list.
    A. came down    B. came about
    C. came uD    D. came across
2. I simply couldn't understand how it ____ that
  you did so much work within SUCh a short time.
    A. came back    B. came up
    C. came about    D. came along
3. A coldwind beganto blow and he ____ his collar
  to keep out the cold.
    A. turned down    B. turned off
    C. turned over    D. turned up
4. Her parents had had a very anxious moment but
 everythmg ____ all right in the end.
    A. turned up    B. carried out
    C. turned out    D. carried away
5. During the break she began to sing an English song,
  and we all ____.
    A. take part in    B. joined
    C. joined in    D. together
1. contain,include
  (1) contain: have or hold (sth.) with in itself 包含,容
  This book contains forty interesting pictures.
  (2)include: have (sb. / sth.) as part of a whole 包括,
  The tour included a visit to the Science Museum.
2. pick,pick up,pick out
  (1) pick vt. & vi. 采,摘;挑选
  They showed us how to pick tea leaves.
  The students have to pick three courses from a list of
    (2) pick up的含义很多,最基本的含义是“拾起”、“拿
    Please pick up aIl the pieces of paper.
    My radio can pick up VOA very clearly.
    The train stopped to pick up passengers.
    He picked up some knowledge of physics.
    (3) pick out 意思是“挑出;选出”、“分辨”
    We decided to pick out the best players to join in the
    [注意] 这两个短语中 up 和 out 都是副词,如果宾语
    You dmpped the book on the floor; now you should
    pick it up.
3. because of,owing to,due to,on account of,as a (the)
  result of,thanks to
  (1) because of,owing to,on account of 意为“因为,由
  Because of / Owing to / On account of my absence,
  they had to put off the classmeeting till next week.
  The train arrived late because of / owing to / on account
  of a heavy snow.
  (2) due to 意为“由于”,它引导的短语在句中一般用
  作表语和定语。但在很多场合,可与 owing to 通用,
  owing to那么严谨罢了。
  He was injured due to (=owing to) a car accident,
  His failure is due to the fact that he lacks experience.
  (3) as a (the) result of意为“由于……的结果”,一般
  As a result of the war the lives of many people were
  (4)thanks to 这一短语介词,含有“幸亏、多亏、亏得、
-- Do you know bow much the room costs?
-- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
-- How much do you think the room costs?
-- I think the room costs 300 dollars.
2. You want to buy a CD for your friend's birthday but
  you are not sure what to buy.
  be sure 后可接不定式及从句。如:
  John is sure to pass the exam.
  He is sure that the party will be a success.
  [注意] be sure 后接名词、代词、动名词时需用介词of
  You may be sure of his honesty.
  I think he lives at No. 23 West st., but I'm not sure
  about the number.
  [比较]be sure to do 与 be sure of doing
    John is sure to pass the exam.
    John is sure 0f passing the exam.
  [提示] be not sure后常用whether / if, what, when,
  where 等引起从句,有时也用that。如:
  I'm not sure whether / if he will come to see me.
  I was not sure what I ought to do.
  [辨析] sure 与 certain
  certain 一般可与sure换用,但在It is certain that...
  It is certain that our team will win the game.
3. You want t0 find a good song to dance to.
  ① to dance to 是不定式作定语,修饰名词song,并与
  New York is a nice place to visit.
Could you find me a chair to sit on?
② dance to中的to表示“伴随,按照”。如
He likes to sing to the piano.
Please add salt to taste.
The map was drawn to scale.
4. If only they could find a way to get to the room,
  behind the wall.
  if only虽然是从属连词,但它引导的从句却能单独
  成句,且能表达完整的意思:要是……该多好 --
  ① 表示已过去了的不能实现的愿望,常含有后悔、惋
  惜之意。谓语动词应使用had done形式。
  If only I had taken his advice!
  ② 表达现在不可实现的愿望,谓语动词用一般过去
  If only I could swim!
  ③ 表达将来难以实现的愿望,谓语动词用would /
  could + 动词原形或一般过去时。
  If only she would help me!
  [注意] if only 除以上用法外,它还相当于if,引导条
  ④ If only he gets the job, it will make a great deal of
  [辨析] if only与only if
  if only 多用于虚拟语气;only if 多用于陈述语气,
  only 修饰 if,表示惟一的条件。
5. He was just about to say something when Peter turned
  be about to do sth. 正要做某事,表示该动作马上就
  [误] He was about to leave in five minutes.
  [正] He would leave in five minutes.
  when 在此表示“正在这时 / 那时,突然”(具体用法详
  见Chapter 1“词汇短语”)
6. It looked as if the creature had moved.
  as if / though 仿佛,好像(引导表语/方式状语从句,
  (1) 引导表语状语从句
  It looks as if it is going to rain.
  (2) 引导方式状语从句
  He talks as if he were / was an expert.
  (3) As if / though 引导的从句中若用虚拟语气,其谓
  表示与现在事实相反:did / were (口语中单数也用
  when a pencil is partly in water, it looks as if it were /
  was broken.
  表示与过去事实相反:had done
  He is talking as though he had been to Beijing many
  表示与将来事实相反:could / would do
  He acts as if he would fly to the moon tomorrow.
(    )1. One of the sides of the board should be painted
    yellow, and ____. (2000北京)
    A. the other is white  B. another white
    C. the other white    D. another is white
    【解析】选C  不能选A。white在句子中做主语的补
语。"The other sides should be painted white." 这是完整的
(  )2. There are five pairs____, but I'm at a loss
    which to buy.
    A. to be chosen    B. to choose from
    C. to choose    D. for choosing
    【解析】选B choose from"从……中挑选”。
(  )3. Look at the trouble I'm in! If only I ____ your
    advice. (2003 上海)
    A. followed    B. would follow
    C. had followed    D. should follow
    【解析】选C  If only I had followed your advice. 要是
(     ) 4.-- How do you ____ we go to Beijing for our
            -- I think we'd better fly there. It's much more
                comfortable. (2004 福建)
            A. insist              B. want
    C.suppose    D.suggest
    【解析】 选D  这也是个混合疑问句。根据宾语从句
(  )5。 They started off late and got to the airport with
    minutes to ____.(2005湖北)
    A. spare    B. catch
    C. leave    D. make
(    )6. Allow children the space to voice their opinions,
    ____ they are different from your own. (2005
    A. until    B. even if
    C. unless    D. as though
    【解析】选B even if即使;as though = as if仿佛,好
(    )7. ____ two exams to worry about, I have to
    work really hard this weekend. (2004北京)
    A. With    B. Besides
    C. As for    D. Because of
    【解析】选A “with + 宾语 + 宾补”常表示原因或理
常刻苦地学习。because of也表示原因,但后面不能带宾
(  )8. Quite a few people used to believe that disaster ____
    if a mirror was broken. (2002上海)
    A. was sure of striking
    B. was sure of having struck
    C. was sureto be struck
    D. was sure to strike
    【解析】选D  be sure to do 表示说话人认为一定会发
(  )9. This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder
    if you can ____ my father. (2005湖北)
    A. find out    B. pick out
    C. look out    D. speak out
    【解析】选B  pick out分辨出。
(  )10. What he has done is far from ____. (2000 上
    A. Satisfactory    B. satisfied
    C. satisfaction    D. satisfy
    【解析】 选A   far from“远远不是”,后常跟形容词短
语。far from (being) satisfactory 意为“离满意还差得远”。
类似的说法还有:far from perfect / pleasant / happy /
Chapter 7 SBI Units 13- 14
1. Our eating habits have changed, as has our way of life.
2. Only in this way will we be ready for the challenges and
   opportunities in life.
3. Each time we celebrate a festival it change a little.
4. It is not a sad day, but rather a time to celebrate the
   cycle of life.
5. Not all of them are bad for us.
6. Some food does have nutrients.
7. There seems to be no other choice.
1.examine vt. 检查
2. energy n. 精力,能量
3. fuel n. 燃料,营养物
4. diet n. 日常饮食
5. product n. 产品
6. mineral n. 矿物
7. function n. & vi. 功能,作用,起作用
8. chemical n. & adj. 化学制品,化学的
9. balance vt. & vi. 平衡
10. supplement  n. 补充
11. fit adj. 健康的,适合的 v.适合
12. digest vt. 消化,领会
13. gain vt. 增加,获得
14. sleepy adj. 困乏的
15. tasty adj. 可口的
16. symbol n. 象征
17. conflict n. 冲突
18.argument 7j.争论
19. honour n. & vt. 荣誉,给以荣誉
20. ancestor n. 祖先,祖宗
21. respect vt. 尊敬
22. celebration n. 庆祝
23. light vt. 点燃,照亮
24. faith n. 信任,忠实
25. creativity n. 创造力
26. purpose n. 目的,意图
27. principle n. 法则,原则
28. commercial adj. 商业的,贸易的
29. similar adj. 相似的
30. advise vt. 建议,劝告
1. make a choice  做出选择
2. now and then  有时,偶尔
3. dross up 盛装,打扮
4. in one's opinion 按照……的看法
5.play a trick on sb.开某人的玩笑
6. take in 欺骗,摄取
7. in the future 未来
8. lose weight 减肥
9. keep up with 与……保持一致
10. be good for 对……有好处
11. be based on 以……为基础
12. be careful with 小心,警惕
13. look into the eyes 坦然地正视某人
14. care about 关心
15. lead / live an unhealthy life 过着不健康的生活
16. be rich in 丰富
17. combine...with... 结合
18. a new cycle of life 轮回转世
19. in other words 换句话说
20. be short of 短缺
1. ____ food 垃圾食品
2. ____ to 应当,应该
3. plenty ____ 许多,大量的
4. keep ____ with 跟上;赶上
5. ____ a choice 作出选择
6. now ____ then 时而,不时;偶尔
7. roll ____ (使)成卷(或筒、球)形
8. dress ____ 盛装;(乔装)打扮;装饰
9. ____ one's opinion按照……的看法
10. ____ a trick on sb. 开某人玩笑;欺骗某人;捉弄
11. take ____ 欺骗;摄取
12. (be) short ____ 缺乏……
13. ____ fit 保持健康
14. lose (some) ____ 减肥
15. be harmful ____ 对……有害
16. be careful ____ 小心,警惕,当心
17. in ____ words换句话说
18. make ____ with与……交朋友
19. care ____ 关心
2O. get ____ 下车
21. go ____ 适用于;应用于
22. ____ purpose故意地
23. as ____ as和一一样好;也
24. ask (...) ____ (向某人)要求得到某物
25. be prepared ____ 为……做准备
1. I've got a pain here. This place hurts.
2. There is something wrong with ...
3. I don't feel well.
4. Lie down and let me examine you.
5. Drink plenty of water and get some rest.
6. In my opinion, we should ...
7. I hope we can make a decision.
8. I don' t think it is necessary to ...
1. balance vt. / vi. / n. 平衡;使平稳
  balanced adj. 平衡的;均衡的
  I found it hard to keep my balance on the icy path.
    When you learn to ride a bike you must learn to
    [词组]lose / keep one's balance 失去/保持平衡
    be in the balance 悬而未决;犹豫
    on balance 考虑周全
    strike a balance 力求公平
    balanced diet 均衡的饮食
2. fit v. 适合 adj. 健康的,适合的
  This dress doesn't fit me.
  Your theory fits all the facts.
  It would be months before he was fit for the job.
  You look very fit, Mike.
  [词组] keep fit 保持健康
  Martha goes to keep fit classes and does exercises every
3. light vt. / vi. 点燃;照亮;发出喜悦的亮光
  light adj. 轻的
  light n. 光线;灯
  lighted adj. 点燃了的
  He lighted his cigarette,said good night and went out.
  One large lamp lit the room.
  [词组] light up 点燃;照亮;变得高兴起来
  bring / come to light 为人所知
  shed / throw light on 使明白,解释 (to make clear;
4. advise vt. 劝告;建议;忠告
  advice [U] 劝告;
  adviser n. 顾问;劝告者
advise  sth. 建议某事/ sb. (not) to do sth. (劝告某人) / doing sth. 建议做某事 / sb. + 疑问词 + 不定式
    建议某人怎么样 / (sb.)that + 主语 + (should) do sth. 建议某人应做某事
He advised    an early start./ me to start early./ starting early./ (me) that I (should) start early.
  Could you advise me what to do next?
5. dress vt./ vi. / n.
  (1) vt. A. 给……穿衣服。表穿的动作,用于dress
  sb. / oneself 结构
  She hurriedly dressed her son and took him to the
  B. 用过去分词作表语,表示穿着的状况。
  The man is poorly dressed.
  C. be / get dressed in 表示穿着……的衣服,后面接表
  The two foreign students were both dressed in Chinese
  style clothes.
  (2) vi. A. 穿衣;穿(夜)礼服,后面常接副词或表示
  I'll be ready in a moment; I'm dressing.
  Few people dress for dinner now.
  They all dressed well (badly).
  B. dress up 穿上盛装,乔装打扮(指欧美人在化装舞
  Don't bother to dress up. Come as you are.
  (3) n. 女服;礼服;服装
  dress 作“女服”、“礼服”解时是可数名词,作“服装”讲
  At the palace ball, all the women wore their smartest
1. pain, ache, hurt
  I have pains (a pain / pain) in the arm.
  His head aches when the weather is hot.
  I was hurt at his words.
  Does your leg still hurt?
2. a bit, a little
  (1) a bit 和 a little 在肯定句中修饰动词、形容词、副
  The speaker spoke up a bit / a little so as to make himself heard more clearly.
  (2) a bit 和 a little 在否定句中,意思正好相反。
  not a bit = not at all
  not a little = very much / extremely
  I'm not a bit tired. = I'm not tired at all.
  I'm not a little tired. = I'm very tired.
  (3) a little 可直接作名词的定语,而 a bit 则要在后面
  加 of 构成短语才能作定语,二者都只能修饰不可数
  There's only a little / a bit of food left for lunch.
  [注意] a bit of 的复数是 bits of,而a little不能变复
3. in a / one word, in other words, in words
  (1) in a / one word意思是“简言之,总之”。一般作
  In a word, we must learn English well.
  (2) in other words 意思是“换句话说”“换言之”,常位
  You failed the exam this time.In other words, you
  didn't pass the exam this time.
  (3) in words 意思是“用语言,口头上”,也可以写为
  with words,通常位于句末。
  I do not want you simply to promise me with / in words
  that you will be good.
  I can't describe it in / with words.
4. allow, permit, let, promise
  (1) allow 和 permit 都表示“允许某人做某事”,后面
  We don't allow smoking here.
  Who allowed you to do that?
  Permit me to say a few words.
  Smoking is not permitted here.
  (2) let 表示“让”,多用于口语,“允许”的意味较淡,后
  Who let the man enter the room?
  (3) promise “答应某人做某事”
  I promise you to leave.
  [比较] I allow you to leave. 我允许你走。
1. Our eating habits have changed, as has our way of
  在此句型中 as 相当于 so,表示前一种情况也同样适
  义上相当于 too 和 also 的副词,但常常出现在肯定
  He is a student, so is she.
  "I have made up my mind." "So have I."
  如果是否定的形式,常用 nor 和 neither.
  "I don't like opera." "Neither / Nor do I."
  [比较] so l do 和 so do I (用于对上文进一步肯定或
  确认。意为indeed, certainly)
    You asked me to leave, and so I did.
    You asked him to leave, and so did I.
    -- You have spilled coffee on your dress.
    -- Oh dear, so I have.
    You have spilled coffee on the table, and so have I.
  [注意] so it is/ was with...句型的用法。
  时态混杂时,我们常用so it is / was with sb.
  Mr. Smith came to China five years ago and he is used
  to living in China now. So it is with his wife.
2. Only in this way will we be ready for the challenges
  anti opportunities in life.
  “Only + 状语 + 谓语 + 主语 + 谓语的另一部分 + 其
  Only by studying hard can you improve your study.
  Only when you are 18 can you have the right to vote.
  [注意] Only teachers can use this computer. 不是倒装
3. Each time we celebrate a festival, it changes a little.
  Each time 引导一个时间状语从句。
  Each time / Every time / The first time / The last time / The moment / The minute + 从句 + 主句
    Each time / Every time I meet him, he always carries a
    The last time I saw the boy, he was reading by the
    The moment / The minute you see him, please tell him
    the exciting news.
4. It is not a sad day, but rather a time to celebrate the
  cycle of life.
  not…but 意为“不是……而是”,即否定前者,肯定后
  者,not 所连接的成分和 but 所连接的成分要对等,即
  You should pay attention not to what they say but to
  what they do.
  Not you but I anl to blame.
5. Not all of these are bad for us.
  当all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及
  every + 名词都表示全部肯定;no one, none,
  nobody, nothing, not...any,以及no + 名词都表示
    Both of them haven't read this story.
    = Only one of them has read this story.
    All bamboo doesn't grow tall.
    = Not all bamboo grows tall.
    = Some bamboo grows tall, but some doesn't.
    [注意] ① any所修饰的名词或由 any 构成的复合小
    Anything can't stop him going there. ×
    Nothing can st()p him going there. √
    ② 总括性副词,如 everywhere,always,altogether (全
    Such a thing can't be found everywhere.
    Such a thing can be found nowhere.
  6. There seems to be no other choice.
    在 There be 的句型中,可用其他的动词。如:
     There used to be曾经有... / happen to be 碰巧有……
   There seem / appera to be 似乎有……
    There happened to be a traffic jam, so I was twenty
    minutes late this morning.
    There seems to be raining, for there is black cloud in
    the sky.
    ☆ 精典题例 ☆
(    )1. -- ____ David and Vicky ____ married?
    -- For about three year. (2003北京)
    A. How long were; being
    B. How long have; got
    C. How long have; been
    D. How long did; get
    【解析】选C  本题考查1. 延续性动词的用法。2. 动
词短语 be married,get married 的区别。根据回答"For
about three years." 可知应提问两人结婚(到现在)已多久
状语连用,不能用How long来提问。Be married 表示延续
(    )2. It is believed that if a book is ____, it will
  surely ____ the reader. (2003 上海)
A. interested; interest
B. interesting; interested
C. interested; be interesting
D. interesting; interest
    【解析】选D  本题考查动词interest及它的非谓语
(     ) 3. -- When shall we start?
            -- Let's ____, it 8:30. Is that all right? (2002
            A. set                 B. meet
            C. make              D. take
    【解析】选C  本题考查固定词组“make it”。意思为
(     ) 4. All the people ____ at the party were his
            supporters. (2002 北京)
            A. present            B. thankful
            C. interested          D. important
    【解析】选A  本题考查形容词短语present at the
(     ) 5. ____ you call me to say you're not coming,
            I'll see you at the theatre. (2004 全国)
            A. Though            B. Whether
            C. Until               D. Unless
    【解析】选D  此题考查连词的非谓语形式的用法。
根据上下文的意思及逻辑关系,可知答案为D (Unless = If
(     ) 6. Let's keep to the point or we ____ any
            decisions. (2004 全国)
            A. will never reach     B. have never reached
            C. never reach         D. never reached
 ,;   【解析】选A句型“祈使句 + and / or + 陈述句”中,
(     ) 7. I like ____ in the autumn when the weather is
            clear and hright. (2004 全国)
            A. this              B. that
            C. it                  D. one
【解析】选C it指代天气。
(     ) 8. -- You forgot your purse when you went out.
            -- Good heavens ____. (2002 上海)
            A. so did I            B. so I did
            C. I did so            D. I so did
  【解析】选B   本题主要考查选项A和选项B的区
(     ) 9. Mrs Black doesn't believe her son is able to design
            a digital camera, ____? (2002  上海)
            A. is he               B. isn't he
            C. doesn't she         D. does she
    【解析】选D   本题要考查的是考生能否找出句中的
主语是谁:Mrs Black doesn't believe这是主句的主语和谓
语。而her son is...是宾语从句,所以反意疑问句应根据主
来提出。如:I think / believe / suppose / guess / wonder则:
I think we are out of danger, aren't we?
(     )10.Some passengers complain that it usually ____
            so long to fill in travel insurance documents.
            (2003 上海)
            A. costs                B. takes
            C. spends             D. spares
    【解析】选B  cost常用物来做主语。表示“花费”或
“代价”,"spend" 和 "spare" 的主语,通常都为人,分别为“花
费”和“匀出”之意,而 take 做花费解时,主语通常都为it,
Chapter 8 SBI Units 15 - 16
1. There is no doubt that ...
2. It is dangerous or bad for your health.
3. I would rather not tell you.
4. Pierre and I did have a good time at the ball.
5. It was worth five hundred francs at most.
6. The money would be better spent building more roads or railways in other parts of China.
7. Fasten a key to the end of the long string.
1. recognize / recognise v. 认出;识别
2. surely adv. 确实
3. franc n. 法郎
4. lovely adj. 好看的;可爱的
5. debt n. 债务;欠款
6. besides prep. 除……之外;adv.此外
7. outline n. 轮廓;要点
8. alien adj. 外国的;n. 外星人
9. earn v. 赚得;挣得
10. prove v. 证明
11. quality n. 质量;品质
12. tear v. 撕扯
13. advantage n. 优点;优势
14. disadvantage n. 不利;弊端
15. charge v. 使充电;控告;攻击
16. successful adj. 成功的;胜利的
17. experiment n. 实验;试验
18. continue v. 继续
19. attend v. 出席
20. shock v. 打击;震动
21. doubt n. 怀疑
22. comfort n. 舒适;安慰
23. positive adj. 肯定的;积极的
24. economy n. 经济
25. unnecessary adj. 不必要的
26. sharp adj. 锐利的;锋利的
27. foot n. 英尺,足feet(复数)
28. electrical adj. 电的
29. precious adj. 贵重的;宝贵的
30. cruel adj. 残酷的
1. bring back 拿回来;使恢复
2. come up with 想出或提出(答案、办法)
3. pay off 还清;付清
4. test on 在……(身上)做实验
5. take up 从事于;占据(时间或空间)
6. protect...from... 保护;免受
7. make use of 利用
8. pay for sth 付……钱;受到惩罚
9. break the laws 犯法
10. make a list of 列出
11. in my opinion 依我之见
12. pick out 辨别出;挑出
13. stop sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事
14. a great deal of 大量的;很多的
15. protect...from... 保护……免受……
16. play a role 扮演角色
17. pull...from 从……拉/拖
18. fall asleep 入睡
19. get killed 丧命;被杀
20. a waste of 浪费……
 1. It can't be tree.
 2. I would rather not tell you.
 3. Does that matter?
 4. It is good for the economy.
 5. It can help many people in the future.
 6. It is clean and does not pollute the air.
 7. It is important for science.
 8. It brings people comfort.
 9. It is too expensive.
10. It is dangerous or had for your health.
4. attend vt. 出席,参加;照顾;注意
  attendance n. 出席
  attendant n. 服务员
  They attended our affairs during our absence.
  So many people attended the meeting.
  The old lady has a good nurse attending her.
  He attended my every word in class.
① attraction n. 吸引,吸引力,吸引人的事物
② attractive adj. 吸引人的,有魅力的
③ attractively adv. 动人地,迷人地
▲ 搭配:attract sb's attention 引起…注意
【考例6】[2004全国IV] Finally, I was ____ by his
lively sense of humor.
    A. disturbed    B. moved
    C. attracted    D. defeated
[答案与解析]C  句意是“我被他的幽默感所吸引”。
3. besides prep. 除……之外(还有) adv.此外
  besides 具有附加性质,用于否定句中可以与except,
  Besides English, he knows three other languages.
  Nobody knows it besides / except / but me.
5. charge v. 充电;索价;攻击;控诉
  Does your car battery charge easily?
  How much do you charge for your old car?
  Suddenly the tiger charged at me.
  John was charged with murder.
  相关词组:free of charge 免费的
  in charge of 负责;掌管
  in / under the charge of 由……管理
▲ 搭配:
① charge sb. some money for 为……向某人索取/收取
② charge oneself with 承担(工作),接受(任务)
③ at one's own charge(s) / expenses 自费,用自己的钱
④ put…down to sb's charge 把……记在某人账上
⑤ in charge 主管,负责;在拘留中
⑥ in charge of 负责,经管,照顾
⑦ in / under the charge of sb 由某人负责,由某人照
⑧ take charge (of) 负责,照料,保管等;掌管,接办
12. conduct n. 行为,操行
    the rules of conduct 行为准则
    foolish conduct 愚蠢的行为
    He was scolded because of his bad conduct.
    v. 引导,管理,指挥,售票
    Copper conducts electricity better than other materials
    She's conducted on buses for 10 years.
【考点 3】conduct的用法
▲ 构词:
① conduction n. 传导,导电;输送,传播,引流
② conductor n. 领导者,经理,乐队指挥,(电车或公共
  汽车) 售票员,列车员
▲ 搭配:conduct oneself well行为端证
▲ 辨析:conduct;guide;lead
conduct具体名词conductor (①向导②公共汽车等的
The policeman eventually had his hands tied up and
conducted him to a shelter. 警察最后把他的双手绑了
guide (抽象名词 guidance,具体名词guide “向导”) 是通
Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding
the dead on their return journey to the other world. 数
He is now studying under the guidance of Professor
Green. 他现在正在格林教授的指导下学习。
lead (抽象名词leadership “领导”,具体名词 leader “领
Our guide led us through a series of caves. 我们的向导
【考例3】[NMET 2003·完形] ...when I'd have predic-
ted the score to be about 9 to 1 in my favor, it was in-
stead 7 to 9 -- and Ed was ____.
    A. leading    B. coming
    C. waiting    D. counting
[考查目标]本题考查 conduct 以及近义词的用法。
[答案与解析]A leading在本句中有形容词性,意思
① continuous adj. 连续的.持续的
② continuously adv. 不断地,连续地
▲ 搭配:
① continue doing sth / to do sth 继续做某事
② continue (with) sth 继续做某事
▲ 辨析:continue,last 都含“继续”、“延续”的意思。
continue 指“持续而无终止”,通常强调“不间断”。例
如:continue one's work 继续工作
last 指“持久”、“延续”。例如:
The rain will not last long. 这雨不会持续很久。
【考例2】[2003北京春招] They ____ to see each
other around school, had lunch together once or two,
and then both ended up from the same high school.
    A. continued    B. agreed
    C. forced    D. offered
 [考查目标] 本题考查 continue 的词义。
[答案与解析]A  continue 的宾语多种多样,它的意思
▲ 构词:
① controlled adj. 受约束的.克制的
②controller n. 管理员,控制器
▲ 搭配:
① in control (of) 控制
② under control 受控制
③ out of control 失控,不能操纵
④ have / keep control (of / over) 可以控制
⑤ lose control (of) 失去(对……的)控制
⑥ take controls (of) 管辖,管理,控制
【考例7】[2004重庆] Everyone was too afraid to go in
because the fire was ____, so I went in.
    A. out of control    B. under control
    C. in control    D. over control
[考查目标] 本题考查control搭配的用法和意思。
[答案与解析]A  out of control的意思是“失去控制”。
16. doubt n. 怀疑 vt. 怀疑
  [拓展] doubtful adj. 令人生疑的
  I don' t doubt that he'll come.
  There is no doubt that you'll succeed.
  [搭配] without (a) doubt 毫无疑问地,确实地
  in doubt 感到怀疑 no doubt 无疑;很可能
【考点5】doubt 的用法
① doubtful adj. 怀疑的,疑心的;不能确定的,可疑的
②doubtfully adv. 怀疑地,含糊地
③ doubtless adj. 无疑的,确定的
  adv. 无疑地.确定地
▲ 搭配:
① beyond / past (all) doubt (常作插入语)毫无疑问
② cast / throw doubt on... 对…产生怀疑,使人对…产
③ hang in doubt 悬而未决。还不能确定
④ in doubt 感到怀疑,拿不准;被怀疑,悬而未决
⑤ no doubt 无疑地,很可能
⑥ without (a) doubt 无疑地
⑦ be / feel doubtful of / about... / that-clause怀疑
主句为疑问句和否定句时,从旬常用连词that, but
that。主句为旨定句从句一般用连接词whether, if
what, when 等。如主句为肯定句而从句用连词that,
【考例5】(2005广东)Some researchers believe that
there is no doubt ____ a cure for AIDS will be
    A. which    B. that    C. what    D. whether
[考查目标] doubt 的用法。
[答案与解析]B no doubt后为同位语从句,that作为
2. earn vt. 赚得;挣得;赢得
    I had not earned one penny with it up to the moment.
    His victories in the wars earned him the title of "The
    [拓展]earn one's living 谋生
    earnings 赚得的钱
    She earned a living by singing in a night club.
14. prove vt. 证明,证实
  How did you prove that he was the thief?
  The finger prints on the knife can prove him the murdurer.
   [注意] prove 还常用作系动词,意为“证明是,结果
    The drug proved (to be) highly effective.
    What he said proved (to be) true.
1. reeognise vt. 识别,认出;承认,认可
  reeognisable adj. 可认出的;可识别的
  recognition n. 认识,认出;承认
  I recognized her by her red hat.
  He recognized his lack of qulifacation for the post.
  I recognise him to be cleverer than I am.
  = I recxgnise that he is cleverer than I am.
▲ 构词:recognition n. 赞誉,承认,重视,公认,赏识,
▲ 搭配:
① recognize sb as / to be... 承认/公认某人……
② beyond / out of recognition 完全改了模样,面目全非
③ escape recognition 使人认不出
【考例1】[2002北京] One of the processes of growing
uD is being able to ____ and overcome our fears.
    A. realize    B. remember
    C. recognize    D. recover
[考查目标] 本题考查recognize的意思。
[答案与解析]C  在本句中recognize的意思是“认
13. shock n. 打击,震惊,震动 vt. 使震惊,使惊愕
    [拓展] shocking adj. 令人震惊的
    She was white with shock.
    The news of her husband's death was a terrible shock
    to her.
    It shocked me to see how my neighbours treated their
    [注意] be / get shocked
    Mr Smith got shocked when he touched the wire.
15. tear (toretorn) vt. & vi. 撕碎
  He tore the letter into pieces.
  She was so angry that she tore the picture in half.
  This cloth tears easily.
  [搭配] tear sth. down 拆除;拆毁 tear sth. up 撕碎
① worthless adj. 无价值的,无益的
② worthwhile adj. 值得做的.值得出力的
③ worthy adj. 应得某事物;值得做某事;有价值的,可
▲ 搭配:
① be worth notice / the trouble (抽象名词)值得注意/
② be (well) worth doing某事(很)值得一做
▲ 友情提示:此时worth后的动名词的主动式具有被
③ It's (well) worth doing sth 做某事是(很)值得的
④ worth it 值得花费时间/精力,值得一千,有必要
-- How much is the T-shirt ____?
-- 65 dollars.
    A. worth    B. cost    C. worthy    D. paid
[考查目标] 本题考查 worth 的基本用法。
[答案与解析]A  加 worth 的后面可以接表示价格的
名词,就可以用how much来提问。
(recognize, continue, conduct, charge, control, at—
tract, worth, doubt)
1. I meant to buy the clock, but the seller ____ too
2. You have cut your hair so short that I can hardly
   ____ you.
3. ____ by the beauty of nature, they stayed in
   Hangzhou for another three days.
4. They are too weak. I ____ whether they can bear
   the bad climate.
5. The plane out of ___, crashed in the valley at
6. I will ask Mr. Brown to ____ our company in-
   stead of my uncle.
7. Nobody knows how much the portrait is
8. We two left but the meeting still
1. because, since, as, for, now that
  (1) because 语气最强,一般指事情发生的直接原因,
  Because he was ill, he was late for school.
  We must stay at home because it rained.
  (2) since 较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原
  Since you don't like it, I'll put it away.
  (3) as “由于,鉴于”,指客观事实,常与since互换使
  As there was no answer, I wrote again.
  (4) for 是并列连词,不说明直接原因而是对某种情
  He must be ill, for he is absent today.
  (5) now that 用来说明一种新情况,然后加以推论。
  Now that you are ready, we'll start at once.
2. continue, go on
  (1) continue to do / doing sth. 表示“不停地做某事”,
  go on to do sth. 则表示“接着做另一件事情”,go on
  doing sth. 表示“继续做同一件事情”,它可指中断后
  (2) continue后可直接跟名词,而go on后须加介词,
  (3) continue可用作系动词,go on不可。
  (4) continue后可接介词短语,表示仍在某地或某个
  职位,而go on不可。
  The baby continued to cry / crying all night.
  It's time for class. Let's go on learning Lesson 5.
  He continues a good friend of mine.
  [拓展] to be mntinued 待续 (用于报刊上连载的文章等)
3. worth, worthy, worthwhile
  表语或定语,作表语时,构成以下词组:be worthy of
  being done / be worthy to be done。worthwhile作“值
  The problem is worth discusaing / discussion.
  The problem is worthy of being discussed / to be
  The problem is worthy of discussion.
  It is worthwhile to discuss / discussing the problem.
10. act...out 把……表演出来;把……付诸行动
  Everyone laughed when he acted out the episode.
  They actually acted out their ideal.
  act against 违反
  act as 担任;充当
  act on 奉行;对……起作用
  act up 出毛病;捣乱
7. after all 毕竟;终究
    理由,在表这个意思时,一般把after all放在句首。
    该词组还表示“终究”,在表示这层意思时,after aIl
    I think we should let her go on holiday alone. After
    all, she is fifteen and she isn't a child any more.
    Mathilde thought it was a diamond necklace, but it
    wasn't a real one after all.
11. at (the) most最多;至多
    I can pay only fifteen pounds at the most.
   This is worth 3000 yuan at the most.
    [拓展] at (the) least 至少;最少
8. bring back 拿回来;使恢复
  If you are going shopping, please bring back a tube of
  His words brought the whole event back.
  bring out 生产;制造
  bring up 养育;教育
  bring about 引起;致使
  bring down 使落下
6. call on / upon 访问,看望,拜访,要求,号召
    Last night I called on Mr. Black and had a long talk.
    The salesman called on our company twice a month.
    Mr. Read called on us to learn from Peter.
    call after 以……的名字而命名
    call at 访问,拜访
    call for 要求;需求
    call out 大声喊叫
    call up 提醒
9. pay off 还清(债务);付清
    It took us six years to pay off that judgment.
    I'll certainly pay you back for what you did to me.
① pick out 挑出,辨认出
② pick up 拾起,捡起,(用车)接,恢复(健康),中途搭载
③ pick off 摘下来
④ pick at 少量地吃,老是挑剔(某人)
⑤ pick & choose 挑三拣四
[例句] My sister is going with me to help me pick out a
new suit. 我姐姐要陪我去挑一件新衣服。
They showed their displeasure by continually picking at
her. 他们不断挑剔她,表明了他们不满。
Henry's been ill, but he's picking up again now. 亨瑞病
【考例3】(NMET 1997) She ____ his number in
the phone book to make sure that she had got it right.
    A. looked up    B. looked for
    C. picked out    D. picked up
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。
[答案与解析]A  look up向上看,查找,查寻;look for
寻找;pick out 挑出来;pick up 拾起。本句话的意思为
17. pick out 挑出;辨别出;使显眼
  I can pick out my sister in the crowd.
  The houses in the painting were picked out in white.
  [注意]与pick搭配的词组有:pick up 拿起,拾起,恢
  复;pick over 检查
【考点1】含“介词at + (冠词) + 名词短语”
① at the head of 在……最前头
② at midnight 在半夜
③ at present 现在,目前
④ at once 立刻,马上
⑤ at breakfast 早餐时
⑥ at first 起先,首先
⑦ at school 在学校,在上学
⑧ at home 在家
⑨ at night 在晚上
⑩ at the moment 此刻
⑩ at the end of 在……结尾.到……尽头
⑩ at the same time 同时
⑩ at times 有时,偶尔
⑩ at all 一点也不
⑩ at last 最后,起码
⑩ at sea 在海上,茫然.奠名其妙
⑥ at the age of 在……岁数时
⑩ at the beginning of... 起初,开始
⑩ at (the) most 至多
④ at a time 每次
① at one time 过去有段时间,曾经
◎ at work 在工作
④ at a loss 茫然
⑨ at hospital 住院
④ at (the) least 至少
[例句] A policeman drove at the head of the procession.
At first he was a little shy in class, but now he acts
more naturally. 起初在班里他有点害羞.但是现在自然
If you find anything not to your liking you will tell me
at once? 如果你发现你不喜欢的东西,马上告诉我好吗?
At one time 1 used to play a lot of sport, but I seem to
have lost interest now. 我曾经喜爱运动,但是现在好像
I feel a little nervous at times. 有时我的确感到有些紧
The meal came to an end at last, and Mr. Li rose. 这顿
I don't understand politics: I'm at sea when people talk
about the government. 我不懂政治,当人们谈论政府
【考例l】(NMET 1994) Don't all speak at once!
____ please.
    A. Each at one time
    B. One by one time
    C. One for each time
    D. One at a time
[答案与解析]D at a time 每次;one at time 每次一
个;“一个接一个”应该用one by one, 不可以在后面加
lime;at one time过去有段时间,曾经。本句话意思是
① a few 一些,几个
② a series of 一连串的。一系列
③ a bit (of) 少量的,一点,也不
④ a pairr of 一对,一双
⑤ a bottle of 一瓶
⑥ a glass of 一杯
⑦ a piece of 一件
⑧ a kind of 一种
⑨ a little 一点
⑩ a lot of / lots of 许多
⑥ plenty of 许多,大量的
⑥ a number of 许多
⑩ the number of... …的数量
⑩ a great deal of 许多,大量
⑩ a basin of 一盆
⑩ a bowl of 一碗
⑥ a basket of 一篮
⑩ a bucket of 一桶
⑩ a handful of 一把
⑩ a mouthful of 一口
[例句] A series of rainy days spoiled our vacation. 一连
There lay a pair of glasses on the desk. 在课桌上放着一
There was plenty of work for girls of her age. 对于她这
A great number of civilians were murdered in the war.
She thought that her friend must have been through a
great deal of trouble. 她想她的朋友肯定经历了许多麻
【考例2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited
____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent
for different reasons.
    A. were; was    B. was; was
    C. was; were    D. were; were
[考查目标] 此题主要考查主谓一致。
[答案与解析]C “the number of + 复数名词”作主语
时,谓语动词用单数形式;“a number of + 复数名词”作
1. 她费尽力气想看懂那些说明文字,却全然不知所云。
  She tries to understand the instructions,but she was ____ ____ ____.
2. 不要什么事情都一块儿干,要一次做一点儿。
Don't try to do everything ____; take
 it a bit ____.
3. 这家出版社出版了一套新的英语学习读物。
  The publishing house has published ____ ____ ____ ____English learning materials.
4. 这裤子花了30美元,比预料的要贵得多。
These trousers ____ $30 ____ ____,
which was much more expensive than ____.
5. 病人在医院住了好长一段时间,人们建议他去海边
  恢复健康。    .
  After staying in hospital for long, the patient was
  ____ to go to the seaside to ____ ____  his health.
1. 英语句型中的否定前移
  在英语中,如果主句的动词是think, suppose,
  expect, believe, imagine 之类的动词,而且主语又是
  I don't think you're right.
  I don't suppose I shall be back until 9 o'clock.
  I don't think your answer is right, is it?
2. 助动词 do 强调谓语动词的用法
  You do look nice today.
  We did need help those days.
3. be (was / were) to do
  You are to be baek bv 11 o'clock.
  I am to inform you that the meeting will be held in
  A knife is to cut with.
  They were never to meet again.
  If there is to be peace, we must try in every way to
  prevent war.
4. 祈使句 + and + 陈述句结构
  果,它相当于If you..., you will...,另外,祈使句 +
  or + 陈述句结构表示:If (not)..., you will,有时候,
  Work harder, and you'll find it not difficult to learn.
    Hurry up, or you will be late.
    More effort, and you can finish it in time.
【考点1】Pierre and I did have a very good time at the
ball. 皮埃尔与我确实在舞会上玩得很开心。
在“助动词do / does / did + 动词原形”结构中,助动词
do / does / did意思是“确实,的确,一定”。常常用在
Do send me e-mail immediately you arrive at Beijing. 你
He does smoke two packs of cigarettes every day. 他确
The company earned much more this month than it did
last month. 公司本月赚的钱要比上个月多得多。
【考例1】(NMET 2000) An awful accident____,
however, occur the other day.
    A. does    B. did
    C. was to    D. had to
[考查目标] 对句子中谓语的强调。
[答案与解析] B  助动词do (does用于第三人称) 用于
【考点2】In the eighteenth century, Benjamin Franklin
conducted a number of experiments in which he showed
what electricity is. 18世纪。本杰明·富兰克林做了一系
注意:该句子中的 a number of 作主语,谓语动词用复数
A number of children play video games online. 很多的
a number of意思是“许多,数目”,作主语时,谓语动词
用复数形式。the number of意思是“数量”,作主语时,
A number of people prefer to sending e-mail each other
t0 writing letters. 许多人更愿意发电子邮件,而不愿意
The number of milu deer is increasing year by year. 麋
【考例2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited
____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent
fnr different reasons.
    A. were; was    B. was; was
    C. was; were    D. were; were
[考查目标] 主谓一致。
[答案与解析] C  根据以上的解释,应该选was;were。
【考点3】Having realized that I could use a kite to attract
Iightning, I decided to do an experiment. 意识到可以用
该句中的having realized是v-ing形式的完成式在句中
v-ing形式在句中的主要作用是作状语,having done表
ing done;非谓语与句子主语之间存在着被动关系时,
用having been done;其否定形式是在v-ing前加not。
Having finished his homework, the boy decided to play
football for a while. 做完了作业.他决定去踢一会儿
Not having cleaned the classroom, they couldn't go
home. 还没有打扫完教室,他们还不能回家。
Having been praised in class, the girl felt very happy.
【考例3】(2001上海春招) ____ from heart trouble
for years, Professor White has to take some medicine
with him wherever he goes.
    A. Suffered    B. Suffering
    C. Having suffered    D. Being suffered
[答案与解析]C  v-ing形式的逻辑主语是Professor
White,Professor White和suffer之间存在着主动关
系,而且根据,for years,表示 suffer 的动作持续换了
1. He ____ to the railway station, only to find the
  train had been away for 5 hours.
     A. did go               B. had gone
     C. had to go            D. has gone
2.  ____ careful while crossing the street.
     A. Your being          B. To be
     C. Do be                D. Being
3. ____ of deaths from heart disease will be reduced
  greatly if people are persuaded to eat more fruit and
     A. The number         15. A number
     C. A lot of            D. Many
4. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom sudden-
  ly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (2004)
     A. To wait              B. Have waited
   C. Having waited    D. To have waited
【考点 1】Asking for permission 征求许可
(2004 广东)
  Do you mind if I open the window?
…    I feel a bit cold.
    A. of course not.
    B. I'd rather you didn't.
    C. Go ahead.
    D. Why not?
[答案与解析]B  本题考查对征求许可的应答用语。
根据所提供的情景“I feel a bit cold”,说明对方不愿意
① Could We / I...?
② May / Can I...?
③ Shalll / we...?
④ Is it possible...?
⑤ Do / Would you mind...?
⑥ Is it all right if l sit here?
⑦ I wonder if I could smoke here.
① Yes, please.
② Sure / Certainly.
③ That's all right.
④ Of course, you can / may.
⑤ Please do.
⑥ Go ahead, please.
⑦ I'm sorry, it's not allowed.
⑧ I'm afraid not.
⑨ You'd better not.
【考点2】 Giving instructions 发出指令
(2004湖北) ____ follow the instructions given at
the top of the page.
    A. You're sure    B. Be sure to
    C. Sure to    D. Sure about
[答案与解析]B  本题考查表达指令的功能意念。此
句Be sure to do意为“务必做……”,所以B项正确。
① Build the frame of the kite by making...
② Tie the corners of the handkerehief to the points of
  the cross...
③ Add a tail to the frame and tie a Iong string to the
④ First, fix a sharp piece of metal...Second, fasten a
  key to the end of the long string...Third, tie a silk
  ribbon to the string...
⑤ Fly the kite when...
Don't touch anything unless your teacher tells you to.
【考点3】Discussing and evaluating pros and cons 讨论和
-- It's more expensive to live in the city than to live in
  the country, I think.
-- ____. Living in the city brings people more con—
  venience, though.
    A. You're wrong
    B. I'm sorry to hear that
    C. I couldn't agree more
    D. That's all right
[答案与解析]C  本题考查讨论和评估赞成与反对的
功能项目。根据所提供的情景“living in the city
brings people more convenience, though.”,时话一方
阐述优点 (advantages) 时:
① It's good for the economy.
② It can help many people in the future.
③ It is cleaning and does not pollute the air.
④ It is important for science.
⑤ It brings people more comfort.
① It is too expensive.
② It is dangerous or bad for your health.
③ It is bad for the environment.
④ It is unnecessary.
⑤ Some people wm use it for other things.
      B. OK !
      C. Is that really necessary?
      D. That's it.
4. -- Don't make any noise. My child is sleeping.
    -- ____.
      A. No, I don't
      B. Oh, I'm sorry
      C. Yes, I know
      D. I didn't do that thing
(  )1. Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there
    because there wasn't always ____ much to do.
    (2004 广东)
    A. such    B. that
    C. more    D. very
(  )2. "We can't go out in this weather," said Bob,
    ____ out of the window. (2004全国卷)
    A. looking    B. to look
    C. looked    D. having looked
(  )3. Do let your mother know all the truth. She
    appears ____ everything.
    A. tell    B. to be told
    C. to be telling    D. to have been told
(  )4. Yes. ____ more words and expressions and you
    wm find it easier tO read and communicate.
    A. Know    B. Knowing
    C. To know    D. Known
(  )5. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If
    not, you may ____ run over by a car. (2002
    A. have    B. get
    C. become    D. turn
    【解析】选B本题考查get + 过去分词的用法,get +
(  )6. Mr Smith, ____ of the ____ speech, started
    to read a novel.
    A. tired; boring    B. tiring; bored
    C. tired; bored    D. tiring; boring
    【解析】选A   tired of表示“对……感到厌烦”,作原
饰speech,和speech是主动关系,等于the speech which
was boring。
(  )7. -- Do you mind if I open the window?
    -- ____. I feel abit cold. (2004广东)
    A. Of course not    B. I'd rather you didn't
    C. Go ahead    D. Why not
    【解析】选B在回答Do you mind...时,如果表示反
(    )8. I'd like to buy a house - modern, comfortable,
    and ____ in a quiet neighborhood.
    A. in all    B. above all
    C. after all    D. at all
    【解析】选B   above all意为“最重要的是”,其它短语
(    )9. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom
    suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at
    home. (2004  北京)
    A. To Wait    B. Have waited
    C. Having waited    D. To have waited
    【解析】选 C 现在分词的完成式表示此动作在主句
(  )10. I do every single bit of housework ____ my
    husband Bob just does the dishes now and then.
    (2004  全国卷)
    A. since    B. while
    C. when    D. as
    【解析】选B while“然而,却”,表示对比关系。
Chapter 9 SBI Units 17- 18
1. What is to be done when something gets into your eyes?
2. It is much too expensive.
3. It's fast and clean and it does.
4. I was beginning to, think that the experiment would
    not work.
5. Tie the corner of the handkerchief to the points of the
   cross and you will have a nice strong kite.
6. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is.
7. For women it sometimes seems twice as much.
8. I had traveled only two hours one day when the winds
   increased so much that I had to put my tent up before
   the winds became too strong.
  1. scholarship n. 奖学金;学问
  2. graduation n. 毕业
  3. surround  v. 包围;围绕
  4. central adj. 中心的;中央的
  5. mild adj. 温和的
  6. settle vt. 使定居;解决;使平静
  7. harbour n. 海港
  8. volcano n. 火山
  9. surface n. 表面
10. ship v. 用船运
11. export v. 输出
12. agricultural n. 农业的;农艺的
13. possession n. 拥有;占有
14. secretary n. 秘书;文书
15. conference n. 会议;讨论会
16. cattle n. 牛;牲畜
17. inspire v.鼓舞;启示;激发
18.admire v. 钦佩;羡慕
19. generous adj. 慷慨的;大方的
20. mean adj.吝啬的;卑鄙的
21. dishonest adj. 不诚实的
22. champion n. 冠军;得胜者
23. stormy adj. 暴风雨的
24. threaten vt. 威胁
25. bottom n. 底部
26. optimistic adj. 乐观的
27. somehow adv. 以某种方式;不知怎么地
28. regret v. 遗憾;悔恨
29. value v. 重视;评价
30. bother v. 烦扰;打扰
1. increase to... 增加到……
2. become of sb. / sth. 某人 / 某物发生……情况
3. be about to do sth. 马上要做某事
4. struggle to one's knees 挣扎站起来
5. around the comer 即将来临;就在附近
6. refer to 涉及到;谈到;查阅
7. clear up (天气)放晴;整理
8. die down (风、火、光)等渐弱,(声音)静下来
9. come to terms with 甘心忍受,妥协
10. rise to fame 出名
11. take possession of 占有,占领
12. sign an agreement with 和……签定协议
13. turn to doing 转为做……
14. in relation to 与……有关;关于
15. as it is 以现在的样子
16. lie in / to / on 位于……
17. the majority of 大多数……
18. at the top of one's voice 高声地
19. drop out 脱离;退出
20. compare...with 和……比较
1. (just) ____ the corner即将来临;在拐角处;就
2. die ____ 变弱;平息;消失
3. come ____ terms with 甘心忍受(不愉快的处
4. ____ possession of占有;占领
5. make ____ 组成,构成;编造;虚构
6. turn ____ 开始干;求助于;转向;翻到多少页
7. go ____ 驾船航行;进行帆船运动
8. go ____ 宿营
9. ____ high quality质量很高
10. sign an ____ with与……签订协议
11. have a population ____有多少人口
12. ____ relation to关于;涉及;与……有关
13. rise to ____ 出名
14. drop ____下沉;沉落;掉落;退出;不参加
15. be thankful ____ 因……感谢
16. _,___ the top of one's voice高声地
17. be ____ good health身体状况良好
18. struggle ____ one's knees / feet 挣扎着站起来
19. struggle ____ 挣扎着渡过(难关)
20. blow ____ 吹走
21. become ____ 某人(某事物)发生……情况;
22. be known ____ 因……而著名
23. ____ far到目前为止
24. hang ____ 紧紧握住某物
25. be marked ____ 以……为特征
1. She seems to me to be the kind of women who...
2. The impression she makes on me is...
3. I think she is the kind of person who...
4. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is.
5. It sometimes seems twice as difficult.
6. New Zealand is an important agricultural country, with
cattle farming on the North Isle.
7. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer.
【考点2】admire 的用法
▲ 构词:
① admiration n. 钦佩,赞美,羡慕
② admirer n. 羡慕者,赞赏者,敬慕者
▲ 搭配:
① admire sb. for sth. 赞赏/钦佩某人……
② express admiration for 对……表示钦佩
③ in admiration of 赞美,赏识
④ with admiration 羡慕地
【考例2】[NMET 1993] And Mrs. Clarke was greatly
    ____ at the club for the successful self-protectton.
    A. surprised    B. admired
    C. inspired    D. supported
[考查目标] 本题考查admire的词义。
[答案与解析]B  这句话说的是“由于Mrs. Clarke的
【考点7】affect 的用法
▲ 构词:
① affection n. 友爱,爱情
② affective adj. 情感的.表达感情的
③ affected adj. 受到影响的,受(疾病)侵袭的,假装
▲ 搭配: be affected by 受……影响;被……感动;患
【考例7】[2005成都模拟] He probably didn't know how
much the car was going to  ____ American culture.
    A. affect    B. afford    C. effort    D. effect
[考查目标] 本题考查affect的词义。
[答案与解析]A affect 具有动词词性词义是“影响”,
【考点5】bear 的用法
▲ 搭配:bear in mind牢记在心
▲ 辨析:bear; suffer; endure; stand
bear 和 suffer 可以表示“对强加的任何东西的忍受”,
bear 侧重于表示“忍受沉重或堆办的事”。而suffer侧
In the end, I could not bear it. 最后,我受不了啦。
When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a ciga—
rette, it was more than I could bear. 当老朋友布赖恩怂
endure 强调“长时间的忍受痛苦而不屈服”。例如:
What can't be cured must be endured. 治不好的病就必
Travelers in space have to endure many discomforts in
their rockets. 宇宙旅行家不得不在火箭中忍受许多不
stand 表示“忍受令人生厌的事”。例如:
Considering his home situation, he had to tolerate his
wife. 考虑到家中的情形,他不得不忍让妻子。
stand 常与 bear 通用,如果用词确切,stand 总包含着
He can stand more pain than anyone else I know. 他比
He stood the test of war. 他经受住了战争的考验。
【考例5】[NMET 1999] Harry Fields also studying bi—
ology said they wanted to make as much noise as possl-
ble t0 force the government officials to realize what
 everybody was having to  ____.
    A. stand    B. accept    C. know    D. share
[考查目标] 本题考查bear的近义词stand的词义用法。
[答案与解析]A bear和stand在很多场合可以换用,
3. inspire vt. 鼓舞,激励,启示
  inspiring 鼓舞人心的
  His advice insoired her to greater efforts.
  The memory of her childhood inspired her first novel.
  [词组] inspire sb. to sth. 赋予某人灵感
▲ 构词:promising adj. 有希望的,有前途的
▲ 搭配:
① break one's / a promise 违背诺言,违约
② make / give a promlse 答应,许诺
③ keep one's / a promise遵守诺言,守约
④ I promise you. 我敢肯定;说句老实话;我警告你。
⑤ promise oneself决心,指望,期待
⑥ promise well 很有希望,前景很好
【考例4】[2004湖南]I drove Dad into Mijas, and
 ____ to pick him up at 4 pm, then dropped off the
car at the garage.
    A. agreed    B. planned
    C. determined    D. promised
[考查目标] 本题考查promise的词义。
[答案与解析] D  从上下文来看,这句话说的不是“同
4. regret vi. 遗憾,惋惜,悔恨 n. 遗憾,抱歉
  regretful adj. 后悔的
  I regret to do sth. 遗憾地做某事
  I regret doing sth. 后悔做了某事
  I regret spending so much money on a computer.
  How I regretted having wasted so much time playing.
  I regret to say I can not come.
【考点3】regret 的用法
▲ 构词:
① regretful adj. 后悔的,抱歉的,惋惜的,遗憾的
② regretfully adv. 懊悔地,抱歉地
③ regretless adj. 无悔的,不后悔的,没有遗憾的
▲ 搭配:
① to one's regret 令某人遗憾的是
② regret (to tell you / say) that... 遗憾……;很抱歉
③ It is to be regretted that... 使人遗憾的是……;真可
④ regret doing sth 后悔干了某事
【考例3】[2004重庆] This scar will be lasting, but to
this day, I have never ____ what I did.
    A. forgot    B. recognized
    C. considered    D. regretted
[考查目标] 本题考查 regret 的词义。
[答案与解析] D regret 的意思是“后悔”。从本句的
【考点1】run 的用法
▲ 构词:
① running n. 奔跑,赛跑。转动.运转
② runner n. 赛跑者
▲ 搭配:
① run for 竞选
② run sb off sb's feet 使疲于奔命
③ run across 偶然遇到
④ run after 追逐,追踪
⑤ run into 碰撞;遇上.偶然遇到;陷于。碰上(困境、麻
⑥ run out 用光,耗尽(不及物)
⑦ run out of 用光/耗尽……
【考例1】[2004北京] All we did during practice was
    A. jump    B. play    C. run    D. shoot
[考查目标] 本题考查run的词义。
[答案与解析]C  在本句中run作was的表语。这是
2. settle vi. 安放,安居,定居 vt. 解决
  My son has settled in Beijing.
  After years 0{travelling, they decided to settle down
  They settled the dispute among themselves.
  [词组] settle down 安下心来
  settle into 习惯于
  settle up 结清
▲ 构词:
① settled adj. 固定的,不变的,永久的;(账单上)付讫.
② settlement n. 殖民,移民;定居点;和解,解决,决
③settler n. 定居者
▲ 搭配:
① That settles it! (口)事情就这样定了!这就完了!
② settle down (使)平静下来;(活动一段时间后)舒舒
③s ettle (down) to sth 安下心来做某事
④ settle to do sth 决定去做某事
【考例6】[2004辽宁]..., and laws had to be made to
 protect the water rights of the ____ and the use of
the water resources accordingly.
    A. winners    B. settlers
    C. fighters    D. supporters
[考查目标] 本题考查 settle 派生词的用法。
[答案与解析]B settle的名词形式之一是settler,意思
1.surround vt. 包围,环绕
  be surrounded by / with 被……围住
  The village is surrounded on all sides by hill.
  She has always been surrounded with fashionable friends.
  [拓展] surrounding adj. 附近的;四周的
  The students in our school come from the surrounding
  surroundings n. 常用复数形式,意为“环境”。
  The surroundings a child grows up in may have an
  effect on his development.
5. value n. 价值;重要性
  You must realise the value of the dictionary.
  be of (no) value 有(无)价值
  [拓展] value n. 评价,重视,珍视,估价
  How do you value him as a teacher?
  We valued the house at $30,000.
  I value your friendship very highly.
(run, admire, regret, bear, promise, settle, affect)
1. The noise was so great that most of the children
   couldn't ____.
2. --Jackie won't come to see you this afternoon.
   -- But he ____.
3. The company my cousin ____ was closed last
   year, leaving a lot of debt.
4. I only ____ that I have too little money to buy a
   house for you.
5. A group of tourists from Taiwan ____ the view
when it began to rain.
6. At last they           in the west of America and
   started their hard life.
7. It is the bad weather that __ the goats' life in
   this area.
1. jommey, voyage, tour, travel, trip
  (1) journey n. “旅行,旅程”,指陆地的远程旅行。
  At first I was afraid the long joumey was too much for
  I wish you a good journey. 祝你一路平安。
  (2) tour n. 常指观光、考察等的环游旅行。
  They fire on a wedding tour. 他们正在新婚旅行。
  (3) trip n. “旅行”,指来往有定的短距离旅行。
  I enjoy our trip to the seaside.
  I can't afford a trip to Korea.
  (4) voyage n.“旅行”,指距离较长的漫长旅行,也可
  He made a long voyage t0 Africa.
  (5) travel泛指旅行各地,表示“旅行的路途远,时问
  He came home after years 0f foreign travel.
2. alone, lonely
  (1) alone 既可用作形容词,又可用作副词,意为“独
  ① alone 用作形容词时,一般与be动词连用,在句中
  She is alone at home. 她一个人在家。
  He is not alone in this idea.
  ② alone 用作副词时,修饰动词,放于动词后面作状
  Han Mei was reading alone when the teacher came into
  the classroom.
  ③ alone用作副词也可作定语,意为“只有,仅仅”,但
  He alone was in the street.
  This year alone, we've already planted ten thousand
  (2) lonely只用作形容词,它在句中既可作定语,又可
  ① lonely 用作定语时,意为“孤单的,无伴侣的,荒凉
  At heart, I'm a lonely man. 内心深处,我很孤独。
  That's a lonely island. 那足个孤岛。
  ② lonely用作表语时,可以表示“孤寂的,寂寞的”意
  We never feel lonely in America.
  I was alone, but I didn't feel lonely.
3. almost, nearly
  (1) almost一般指事实的陈述,而nearly则带有一定
  The book cost me almost 30 yuan. (只陈述事实)
  The honk costme nearly 30 yuan. (指嫌贵的意思)
  (2) almost 后可跟never, no, none, nobody, nothing
  Almost noone got to school on time yesterday.
  (3) 在more than, any, too之前通常用almost,而不
  Almost more than ten students failed in the exam.
  (4) nearly之前可用very, not, pretty修饰,而almast
  It's very nearly dark. Let's go home.
  [注意] 有时almost与nearly町以互换,但如果要表
7. around the corner 就在附近,即将来临,发生
  Victory is just around the comer; make one more
  The bank is around the comer, you can't miss it.
  [拓展] cut corners 偷工减料
  cut the corner 抄近路
6. die down 变弱,渐熄,逐渐消失
  The excitement died down as time went by.
  The noise has died down. 喧闹声小下来了。
  The wind has died down obviously. 风已明显减弱了。
  [拓展] die out 死光,灭绝,消失
  The fire died out. 火灭了。
  die away 指(风,声音) 逐渐消失
  The noises of the bovs died away.
  die for 为……而死;渴望;切望
【考点l】含"make + 介词/副词”的短语
① make for 走向,有助于
② make into 把……制成
③ be made from / of / in / by / out of 由……制成
④ make up 弥补,拼凑成,组成,铺(床)。捏造.虚构
⑤ make out 填写,完成,设法应付,领悟,弄明白,发现
⑥ make over 转让,改造
[例句] How did he make out while his wife was away?
We made up the bed in the spare room for our guest. 我
I couldn't remember a story to tell the children, so I
 made one up as I went along. 我想不出有什么故事可给
We are making our attic into an extra bedroom. 我们正
Constant arguing doesn't make for a happy marriage. 经
【考例1】(2003北京春招) The idea puzzled me so much
that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____.
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it up    D. make it over
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析]A  make out领悟。弄明白。发现真相;
make off连忙跑掉;make up弥补。打扮,组成;make
9. make up 组成,构成,补充,编造
  The workers and peasants make up the majority of the
  populationn of our country.
  We must make up his loss somehow.
  The whole story is made up.
  The actor made himself uD as an old peasant.
8. take up 对……产生兴趣;从事;占用
  Her time is fully taken uD with writing.
  This table takes uD too much room.
  [拓展] bring up 抚养,教育come up 上来,抬头
  eat up 吃光  end up 结束  keep up 保持  make up
  组成,弥补  pick up 拣起  put up 张贴  stay up 熬
  夜,挺住  set up 建立  turn up 出现  wake up 醒来
【考点2】含 “with构成的动词短语”
① be fed up with 厌倦
③ be filled with 充满
③ catch up with 赶上
④ come up with 找到,提出(答案、解决办法等)
⑤ get on well with 与……相处融洽
⑥ quarrel with 吵架
⑦ stay / keep / be in touch with 与……保持联系
⑧ end up with 以……告终
⑨ keep up with 跟上,赶上
⑩ come to terms with 甘心忍受。使自己顺从于某事物⑨ talk with 与某人交谈
⑥ agree with 同意……意见(想法),符合,一致
⑩ disagree with 不同意
⑩ struggle / fight with 和……战斗/斗争
⑩ work with 用……干,和……工作
⑩ put up with 忍受
[例句] Filled with smoke, the room is not pleasant to
stay in. 房间里烟雾弥漫,在里面呆着不舒服。
She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. 她想
You'll just have to come to terms with the fact that you
are fired. 你不得不接受的现实情况是你被解雇了。
The child was fed up with listening to tim same story.
I can't keep up with all the changes in computer tech-
【考例2】(2001京、蒙、皖春招)Would you slow down a
bit, please? I can't ____ you.
      A. keep up with        B. put up with
      C. make up to          D. hold on to
[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的意思。
[答案与解析]A  keep up with 跟上;put up with 忍
受;make up to 是错误搭配;hold on to 坚持。本句话意
① be afraid of 害怕
② be proud of 以……自豪
③ be full of 充满
④ hear of 听说
⑤ make use of 利用
⑥ speak highly of 称赞
⑦ think highly of 对……高度评价
⑧ take care of 照顾,照料
⑨ think of 认为,想起
⑩ take possession of 占有,占领
⑩ be sure of 对……有把握
⑩ rob...of... 抢劫……
⑩ think of...a...认为……是……
[例句]I didn't menti’on it because I was afraid of upset—
ting him. 我没有提起那件事,因为我怕他心烦意乱。
He felt very proud of having a friend with such noble
ideas. 他非常自豪的是有这样一位思想高尚的朋友。
Make full use of every chance you have to speak Eng—
lish. 要充分利用一切机会说英语。
His work is highly thought of by the critics. 他的作品
I did think of resigning, but I decided not to. 我原来确
【考例3】(NMET 1988) The passengers were robbed ____
    all their money.
    A. of    B. off
    C. from    D. away
[考查目标] 此题主要考查 rob的 用法。
[答案与解析]A rob 构成短语rob sb. of sth“抢夺某人
1. In Britain today women make ____ 44% of the
   workforce, and nearly half the mothers with children
   are in paid work.
2. They were standing so far away that 1 couldn't make
    ____ their faces clearly.
3. -- What do you think ____ Andrew?
   -- There are some things that are not easy to put
       ____  ____, and his coldness is one.
4. In order to improve her skill, she make full use
    ____ her chance to practise.
5.-- What do you think of Linna?
   -- She is a good person that is easy to get  ____ ____.
1. It has often been said that life is difficult as it is
  (1)It is said that...是常见句型,意思是“据说;人们
  It is thought that / It is reported that / It is believed
  that / It is hoped that...
  此句型也可变成sb. is said to do sth.
  (2) as it is是固定结构,表示“根据现在情况看;就以
  I thought things would get better, but as it is they
  were getting worse.
2. Talk about the reasons why we admire great women.
  why we admire great women 是同位语从句,用来解
  只有that。whether, when, where, how, why都可用来引导同位语从句。
  He can't answer the question how hc got the money.
  I have no idea when he will he back.
  The suggestion where we should build our new factory
  should be considered.
  We must face the fact that we had spent all the money.
3. For women it sometimes seems twice as difficult.
  (1) 倍数 + (形 / 副) 比较级 + than…
  This hall is five times bigger than ours.
  The car runs twice faster than the truck.
  (2)倍数 + as + (形 / 副) 原级 + as...
  Asia is four times as large as Europe.
  The plane flew ten times as high as the kite.
  (3) 倍数 + the size (length / width / height...) + of
  This street is four times the length of that one.
  The hill is twice the height of that hill.
4. I found myself spending a whole day in my tent.
  find oneself...意思是“发现自己(处于某种状态);不
动}司有:see / watch / catch / notice / hear / listen to /
   I found myself in hospital when I woke up.
   Then I found myself surrounded by a group of boys.
   When I came in, I found him &ring his homework.
5. New Zealand is an important agricultural country,
    with cattle farming on the North Isled, while the
    hilly South Island has more sheep farms.
with + 名词 + 现在分词/过去分词/介词短语 /副词/
动词不定式/形容测构成 with 的复合结构,这种结
He likes sleeping with the windows open.
He gave his seat to a woman with a baby in her arms.
With Tom to help us we're sure to complete the task.
He stood there with a group of children surrouilding
With a lot  of difficult  problems to be settled, the
newly-elected president is having a hard time.
【考点l】What has become of her. 她的情况怎么样了?
该句中的 become of 常常构成这样的同定句型。例如:
What has become of the injured driver? 那位受伤的司
“What has / will become of sth / sb?”means“what
happened / will happen to sth / sb?”
What will become of her children if their mother dies?
【考例】】What would ____ my child if I were on
    A. look after    B. care about
    C. become of    D. attend
[考查目标] 考查动词短语。
[答案与解析] C  根据句子的意思是“如果我去出差,
我的孩子情况会怎么样呢?”应该填hecome of。
【考点2】On the third day I was struggling through
stormy weather and during the next week the wind grew
stronger and I found myself spending a whole day in my
tent. 第三天,我与暴风雨天气拼搏。接下来的星期里,
The music grew faint as the band marched away. 音乐
系动词常常分为五类:①  有be;② 感官:feel, smile,
taste, look, sound;③ 变化:become, grow, get, turn,
go, fall, come;④ 好像:appear, look, seemt ⑤ 保持:
keep, remain, stay, lie等等,系动词没有被动语态。很
Please keep still while taking photos. 照相时,请保持安
The mixture tasted very terrible. 这种混合物尝起来很
【考例2】(2004湖北) On hearing the news of the acei—
dent in the coal mine, she ____ pale.
    A. got    B. changed
    C. went    D. appeared
[考查目标] 考查系动词。
[答案与解析] C   A是持续变化过程;B是实义动词,
【考点3】I had fallen into a hole and was hanging on the
ropes tied to the sled. 我掉进了雪洞,挂在绑着雪橇的
This is the latest book written by the famous professor
— Stephen Hawking. 这就是那位著名的教授--斯
【考例3】(2004浙江) Linda worked for the Minnesota
Manufacluring and Mining Company,  ____ as 3M.
    A. knowing    B. known
    C. being known    D. to be known
[考查目标] v-ed作定语。
[答案与解析]B  过去分词作定语,表示过去分词与所
【考点4】Oprah Winfrey is not just a very successful TV
personality in the US, she is also a woman who has in-
spired millions.欧普拉·温弗丽不仅仅是美国一位成
该句中的not just / only...(but) also... 为并列连词。连
Singers of the country music do not just come from the
States also from all over the world. 乡村音乐的歌手不
注意:在并列连词not just / only...(but)also...连接同
Not only Mr. Smith but also his children were invited to
New Year's Party. 不但是史密斯先生,而且他的孩子
Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor. 莎
Not only is he fond of doing exercises but also his wife
joins him in it. 不仅是他喜欢运动,而且他的妻子也喜
【考例4】(2002上海春招) Not only ____ interested
In football but ____ beginning to show an interest
in it.
    A. the teacher himself is; all his students are
    B. the teacher himself is; are all his students
    C. is the teacher himself; are a11 his students
    D. is the teacher himself; all his students are
[考查目标] not just / only...(but)also...一的部分倒装。
[答案与解析]D  根据以上的解释,第一分句需要部分
【考点5】New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold
aIJ over the world. 新西兰的酒质量很高。畅销全世界。
该句中的be + of + n. 为一个固定结构。例如:
I think listening to English every day is of great help to
learners. 我认为每天听英语,对初学者来说,非常有帮
be + of + n. 意思是“具有……”。其中的名词多为抽象
名词,如: use,help,importance等;这时be+ of + n. =
be + adj. (相对应的形容词)。名词也可以为具体名
词.如:age, weight, height, length, width, size。这种
The suggestion he made at the meeting is of great use.
(作表语) 他在会上提的建议很有用。
The young guy of average height is our new chemistry
teacher. (作定语)那位中等身材的年轻人是我们的新
We found the dictionary of no use. (作定语)我们发现
【考例5】(NMET 1998) You'll find this map of great
 ____ in helping you to get round London.
    A. price    B. cost
    C. value    D. useful
[考查目标]be + of + n. 作宾语补足语。
[答案与解析]C  根据句子的意思“你会发现在你在伦
1. Don't use words, expressions, or phrases ____
  only to people with specific knowledge. (2004 上海)
     A. being known         B. having been known
     C. to be known         D. known
2. I don't know what will ____ us if the company
  gocs bankrupt (破产).
     A. happen              B. strike at
     C. become of            D. occur
3. I wonder ____ became ____ the neighbor
   who lived next door.
     A, what; to            B. what; of
     C. if; of               D. whether; to
4. Do you think the lecture is ____ to students be-
   fore NMET comes?
     A. very help            B. very helpful
     C. great helpful         D. whether helpful
5.  ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought
   cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the
   forest. (2004 上海)
     A. Not only they brought
      B. Not only did they bring
     C. Not only brought they
     D. Not only they did bring
【考点1】Describing people描述人物
-- Do you like Nack?
     Yes, Nack is good, kind, hard-working and intelli-
  gent; ____, I can't speak too highly of him.
     A. as a result           B. in a word
     C. by the way           D. on the contrary
[答案与解析]B  本题考查在描述人物的语境中短语
的正确使用。根据所提供的情景“ Ican't speak too
highly of him.”(我无论怎么称赞他都不为过)可判断
① She seems to me to be the kind of woman who...
② The impression she makes on me is...
③ I think she is the kind of person who--.
④ She could be...
⑤ She looks as if...
⑥ She might be...
⑦ You can see that...
⑧ People like her.-.
⑨ She doesn't seem'"
⑩ It is (not) like him to do...
It was just Iike him to think of himself first. 凡事都先
【考点2】Describing location and direction 描述方位和方
-- Can you tell me about Shanghai, l.iu Mei?
-- Of course. Shanghai lies ____ the west of the Pa
  cific Ocean,  where you can't find many islands
   ____ the coast.
     A. on; off             B. to; along
     C. in; off               D. on; along
达方法。on the west of,在……的西面(强调接壤),Dff
the (east) coast 在(东部)沿海,所以A项正确。
① It is / lies in the north / south / east / west of...它位
② It is / lies to the north / south / east / west of...它
③ It is / lies on the north / south / east / west of... 它
④ It is / lies in the northern / sourhern / eastern /
  western part of…
⑤ It's / lies in the northeastern/northwestern / south—
  eastern / southwestern Sichuan…
1. There are many islands ____ the northwest coast
  of Scotland, which lies ____ the north of Eng-
     m. to; on              B. on; to
     C. off; in              D. off; to
2. -- Ann has ____; you can't trust her with any
  -- Really? Then I will be more careful next time.
     A. quick mouth         B. big mouth
     C. a poor mouth        D. a big mouth
3.-- What do you think of the picture ____
  -- I must say it is really very good.
     A. of     B. on        C. in     D. at
4. -- What is your new teacher like?
     -- ____.
     A. She likes singing'
     B. She doesn't like sports
     C. She seems very kind to us
     D. She's fallen ill
(     ) 1. -- Do you like ____ here?
            -- Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of
                life. Everything is so nice. (NMET 2004)
            A. this               B. these
            C. that               D. it
    【解析】选D    本题考查it的特殊用法,it在这里指
(     ) 2. ____ two exams to worry about,  I have to
            work really hard this weekend. (2004 北京)
            A. With              B. Besides
            C. As for               D. Because of
    【解析】选A  本题考查with结构的用法,在句中
(     ) 3. For the sake of her daughter's health, she
             decided to move to a warm ____.
             A. weather            B. temperature
             C. season               D. climate
    【解析】选D    这道题考查几个名词的用法,句意是
(     ) 4. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found
           ____ in the kitchen.
            A. smoke              B. smoking
            C. to smoke            D. smoked
    【解析】选B   这道题考查find的用法,动词find后
(     ) 5. All the employees except the manager ____ to
            work online at home. (2004 广东)
            A. encourages          B. encourage
            C. is encouraged        D. are encouraged
    【解析】选D   本题考查主谓一致与时态,本句的主
(     ) 6. When and where to go for the on-salary holiday
         ___ yet. (2003 上海春招)
            A. are not decided
            B. have not been decided
            C. is not being decided
            D. has not been decided
    【解析】选D  由what,who,why,how,when等
(     ) 7. The flu is believed ____ by viruses that like to
            reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and
            throat.  (2004 上海)
            A. causing              B. being caused
            C. to be caused         D. to have caused
    【解析】选C  根据flu和介词by可知应该用被动语
态,所以排除A、D项,再根据is believed,可知C项为最佳
选项,因为sth. is believed / considere / thought是英语中
(    ) 8. There were dirty marks on her trousers
     she had wiped her hands. (2004 全国)
     A. where               B. which
     C. when               D. that
    【解析】选A   本题考查定语从句的关系词,本句意
(     ) 9. Don't leave the water ____ while you brush
            your teeth. (2004 天津)
            A. run                B. running
            C. being run           D. to run
    【解析】选B   本句考查leave + 名词 + 现在分词/过
(     ) 10. -- Is this raincoat yours?
            -- No, mine ____ there behind the door.
            A. hangs              B. has hung
            C. is hanging           D. hung
    【解析】选C   这道题考查动词hang的用法,当hang
Chapter 10 SBI Units 19-20
1. What do you think causes these changes?
2. It is on this arable land that the farmers produce food
   for the whole population of China.
3. To make as much use of the land as possible, two or
   more crops are planted each year where possible.
4. Not only is food production important but also taking
    care of the environment.
5. Much of the wisdom discovered by early Chinese
   scientists is still useful for farming.
6. Acting our stereotypes of people from different countries
   can be very funny.
7. What comedians have in common with the players in a
    comedy is their way of playing with words.
8. Typical for China is the crosstalk show, where a pair of
    comedians entertain the audience with word play.
1. protection n. 保护;防卫
2. technique n. 技术;技巧
3. irrigation n. 灌溉;冲洗
4. import n. & v. 进口;输入
5. production n. 产品;总产鼍
6. sow v. 播种;散布
7. wisdom n. 智慧;学识
8. firstly adv. 首先
9. remove vt. 移动;搬开
10. depend v. 依靠;依赖
11. insect n. 昆虫
12. discovery n. 发现;被发现的事物
13. humor n. 幽默;诙谐
14. practical adj. 实际的;实用的
15. fortunately adv. 幸运地
16. intend vt. 打算;想要
17. nationality n.国籍
18. fluent adj. 流利的;流畅的
19. amuse vt. 使发笑;使愉快
20. laughter n. 笑;笑声
21. accent n. 口音;腔调
22. typical adj. 典型的
23. actually adv. 事实上
24. appreciate vt. 欣赏;感激
25. operate v. 运转;操作
26. silence n. 寂静;沉默
27. confuse vt. 使迷惑;混淆
28. applaud v. & n. 拍手喝彩;赞同
29. exist vi. 存在
30. direction n. 方向;指示
1. bring in 引进
2. depend on 依靠
3. protect from 保护……免受……
4. make use of 利用
5. make fun of 取笑;嘲笑
6. drive off 赶走;开走
7. date back to 追溯到……
8. look on as 把……看作
9. be on good terms with 和……关系好
10. go against 违背;违犯
11. have an effect on 对……有影响
12. at the right time of the year 在适当季节
13. year after year 年复一年
14. pass on 传递下去
15. the first time 第一次
16. enjoy a long life 健康长寿
17. in great surprise 大吃一惊
18. add to 增添
19. from generation to generation 一代代
20. be different from 与……不同
1. depend ____    信赖;依靠;取决于
2. and ____ on 等等(表示列举未尽)
3. twister 绕口令
4. make fun ____ 取笑;嘲笑
5. date ____ (to) 回溯到;追溯到
6. make use ____ 利用某事物(某人)
7. be ____ good terms (with sb)(与某人)关系好
8. drive ____ 把(车)开走;赶走;击退
9. look on...____ 把……看作
10. ____ the 1980s在20世纪80年代
11. have an effect ____ 对……产生影响
12. bring ____ 引进
13. not only…but ____   不仅……而且……
14. ____ good money 赚大钱
15. go ____ 违背;违犯
16.     a wide audience得到广大观众的欢迎
l7. play ____ words玩弄词藻
18. be fluent ____ English英语说得流利
19. act ____ small sketches演小品
20. ____ sunset(在)黄昏
21. pass ____ 传递下去
22. ____ a long life健康长寿
23. ____ great surprise大吃一惊
24. all ____ China 全中国
25. act the ____ of 演……角色
1. In my opinion you should...
2. If I were you...
3. We can't do both, so...
4. As far as I can see the best thing would be to...
5. Wouldn't it be better if...
6. I hope (wish) to…
7. I intend to...
6. amuse vt. (1) ……娱乐(消遣) (2) 使……喜欢
  (高兴) (3) 逗……乐(笑)
  amusement n. 娱乐;消遣;娱乐活动
  amused adj. 愉快的;开心的;好玩的
  amusing adj. 有趣的
  His story amuses me.
  The children amused themselves by playing hide-and-
  seek games.
  [词组] be amused at 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣
  be amused by 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣(好笑)
  be amused with 以……为乐;对……觉得有趣(好笑)
  amuse oneself with 以……自娱
7. appreciate vt. 鉴赏,欣赏;感谢;意识到  vi. 涨价;
  appreciator n. 鉴别(赏)者;赏识者
  appreciation n. 欣赏;评价;了解;感激
  appreciative adj. 赞赏的;有欣赏力的;感激的
  We all appreciate the holiday after a year of hard work.
  A musician can appreciate small differences in sounds.
  We shall appreciate hearing from you again.
  I don't think you appreciate the danger of this job.
  I appreciate your kindness.
  Houses in this area have all appreciated since the new
  road was built.
  【注意]appreciate 后接动词的-ing形式,不能接不定
【考点2】certain 的用法
① certainly adv. 的确,(口语)当然·行
② certainty n. 确实.确定(性);确知,确信;必然的事;
① It is certain that... ……”是肯定无疑的
② be certain of / about确信,深信
③ be certain to do sth必然,一定
④ be not certain whether...不能确定是否……
⑤ for certain 肯定地,确凿地
⑥ make certain of / about把……弄清楚,把……弄确
⑦ make certain that... 保证……
【考例2】[NMET 1997] Wait till you are more
____. It's better to be sure than sorry.
    A. inspired    B. satisfied
    C. calm    D. certai,n
[考查目标] 本题考查certain的词义。
[答案与解析]D  从下文的sure可以得到印证,句意是
5. develop v.
  (1) vt. 发展,养成;形成,培养
  The little boy developed an interest in music.
  Fresh air and exercise develop healthy bodies.
  (2) 成长,形成
  James has developed into a charming young man.
  (3) 冲洗 (胶卷)
  Let's have these pictures developed.
  (4) 开发,建设
  We should develop the natural resources of our country.
  [拓展]developed adj. 发达的
  developed country / society 发达国家/社会
  developing adj. 发展中的
  developing country / society
  development n. 发展,进步,成长,开发
2. guide vt. 指导;带领 vi. 任向导 n. 领路人,导
  guidance n. 指导;领导
  guided adj. 有领导的;指导的
  guiding n. 导向;控制
  They guided us to the office.
  Be guided by your feeling.
  This book is a guide to Ennglish Grammar.
4. intend vt. (1) 想要,打算;企图  (2) 设计;计划
  (3) 意指;意思足
  intending adj. [主英] 预期的;未来的
  intended adj. 预期的;有意的;已订婚的
    n. 未婚妻/夫
  I intend to go home.
 The book is intended for beginners.
  What do you intend by that remark?
  Is that what you intended?
  [词组] be intended to (do) 使;是用来
  be intended to be 规定为;确定为
  it is intended that 企图;意图是
  intend for 打算供……使用;打算送给……;打算使
▲构词:intention n. 意图,打算,目的;意义,用意
▲ 搭配:
① intend that... 打算……
② intend doing sth / to do sth 打算……
③ intend...for...打算供……使用,打算把……送给
④ intend sb to do sth 打算让某人做某事
⑤ be intended / meant for 专门为/专门给
⑥ have no intention of doing…无意做……
⑦ with the intention of 抱有……目的,打算
⑧ without intention 无意中,不是故意地
【考例1】[2004北京]Younger people shouldn't be doing
exercises ____ for 18-year-olds.
    A. used    B. intended
    C. made    D. described
[考查目标] 本题考查intend的基本用法。
[答案与解析]B intend与for的搭配表示“打算供某
【考点6】mind 的用法
▲ 构词:
evil-minded 存心不良的
low-minded 卑鄙的
research-minded 富于研究精神的
small-minded 气量小的
strong-minded 意志坚强的
absent-minded 心不在焉地
▲ 搭配:
① against one's mind 违反某人的心愿,没有得到某人
② apply bend / give / pay / set one's mind to 专心
③ be in / have a good mind to do sth 极想,极有意
④ be of / in a / one mind 意见一致
⑤ be out of one's mind 精神不正常,发疯;忘记
⑥ bear / keep...in mind 记住,记在心里
⑦ bring / call...to one's mind 想起,回忆起
⑧ change one's mind 改变想法/主意;变卦
⑨ come to / into one's mind 浮现在某人的脑海中
⑩ give one's (whole) mind to 一心一意地……,专心于
⑨ make up one's mind 决心,打定主意;接受,承认
⑩ read sb's mind / thoughts 看出某人的心思,知道某
⑩ to sb's mind 在某人看来;合某人的心意
⑩ with one mind 全体一致地;同心间德
⑩ mind (sb / sb's) doing sth介意/反对(某人)做某事
⑩ never mind 别难过;没关系;不重要
【考例6】[2004山西模拟] To most of us,friendships
are considered very important, but we need to have
clear in our ____ the kinds of friends we want.
    A. hearts    B. thought
    C. actions    D. minds
[考查目标] 本题考查mind的意思及其他和一些近义
[答案与解析]D  in one's mind 意思是“在某人的心目
中”,in one's heart 则常表示“在某人内心深处”,二者使
① operating-table n. 手术台
② operation n. 运转,操作,实施,作用,业务,工作,
③ operaUve adj. 运转着的,有效的,手术的,起作用
▲ 搭配:
① operate on / upon sb 给某人动手术
② be in operation 在运转中;在行动中;在实施中;在
③ come / go into operation 开始工作/运转;生效
④ perform an operation on sb for a disease 给某人动手
⑤ put / bring into operation 实施,施行
【考例3】I was wondering why suddenly the lift was not
____ properly.
    A. operating on    B. operating
    C. managing    D. controlling
[答案与解析]B  operate可作不及物动词,意为“(机
1. remove vt. 移动,拿开;脱掉,摘掉;去掉,开除。
  He removed his desk to another office after argument.
  Please remove your baggage from the seat so that the
  old man can sit down.
  I recognised Tom after he removed his dark glasses.
▲ 搭配:
① in relurn (for) 作为……的报答/回礼,交换
② (Wish you) many happy returns!(祝你)福寿无疆,
③ write in return 写回信
④ return sb a visit 回访某人
⑤ return ticket 来回票
⑥ in return for 报答……
⑦ make a return 作报告/汇报
⑧ small profits and quick returns 薄利多销
【考例4】[2004湖北]Two weeks later, she ____ to
find her old car cleaned inside and out with three new
tires and the radio fixed.
    A. shocked    B. happened
    C. returned    D. came
[答案与解析]C  根据上下文.本空白所需要的意思是
▲ 搭配:
① Please have a seat. 请坐。
② take a seat 坐下
③ take one's seat 就座,坐在自己的座位上;(当选为议
④ seat oneself (=be seated) 坐下
【考例7】[2003北京西城模拟] At dinner, he was
____ beside a woman full of dignity.
    A. seated    B. placed
    C. arranged    D. kept
[考查目标] 本题考查seat作为动词时的用法。
[答案与解析]A  作为动词的seat意思是“给某人安排
8. suffer vt. 遭受;忍耐 vi. 受苦();受损失;吃亏;
  受罚 (for);患病 (from)
  sufferer n. 受苦的人;受害者;患者
  suffering n. 苦楚;受难 adj.受苦的;患病的
  I will not suffer such conduct.
  His business suffered greatly during the war.
  He suffered for his carelessness.
  The child suffers from measles.
  [词组] suffer for 为……而受苦
  suffer from 患……病;受……苦
▲ 构词:
① used adj. 用过的,旧的
② usable adj. 可用的,适于使用的
③ user n. 使用者,用户
④ useful adj. 有用的,有助益的
⑤ useless adj. 没用的,无价值的
▲ 搭配:
① use up 用完,耗尽;(口)使筋疲力尽
② make (full) use of (充分)利用,使用
③ of (no) use (没)有用
④ out of use 不再使用了,不通用,作废
⑤ in use 正在用,通用
⑥ bring / put sth into use 开始使用(某物)
⑦ come into use 开始被使用
【考例5】[2004辽宁] With special equipment, some
scientists are studying the ways in which the mountain
snow can be____, and with the help of a repeater
    A. taken care of    B. made use of
    C. piled up    D. saved up
[考查目标] 本题考查use构成的短语make use of的意
[答案与解析]B  make use of 的意思是“利用”,在本
(intend, certain, return, operate, use, seat, mind)
1. Some of the projects are ____ by the women who
  were left in the village.
2. Would you ____ if they smoked in the next carri-
3. Lisa was that the new film was to be hold
  in our city next month.
4. "Be please," the organizer said to us.
5. Two hours passed but no children ____ to their
6. I ____ to act in a film directed by Miss Swift.
7. A good ____ should be made of the computer to
  solve the problem we have been facing these years.
9. date back to / from 追溯到……;始于……
  In China needle treatment dates back to ancient times.
  This document dates from 1789.
  [词组] break the date 不遵守约会;失约
  bring sth. up to date 使……现代化;使……达到最新
  研究成果 (水平)
  make / have a date with sb. [口](与某人)约会(常指
  out of date 过时的;废弃的
  up to date 直到最近的;新式的;现代的
  closing date for entries报名截止日期
10. look on...as ……看作
    They all look on him as a member of their family.
    Don't look on him as a child. He is old enough to look
    after himself.
    [词组] look after 照料
    look back (与on, to连用) 回想;记起;停滞不前
    took down on 轻视;看不起
    look forward to 盼望;期待
    look in 顺便看望;短暂访问
    look on (常与as连用)旁观;看作(=look upon)
    look out 注意;找出;挑选出
    look over 翻阅;浏览;检查
    look up 好转;在书中查到;寻访到;探访(某人)
    look up to 尊敬
① look the same 看起来一样
② look after 照料,照看
③ look at 看
④ look for 寻找
⑤ look over (仔细)检查
⑥ look up 向上看,查找,查寻,改善
⑦ look on...as... 把……看作
⑧ look out 留神,注意
⑨ look like 看起来像
⑩ look through 浏览,细看
⑩ look on 旁观
⑩ look into 调查
⑩ look (a) round 环顾四周
⑩ look down 俯视
[例句] He looked over the food in the refrigerator and
found that he had eaten up all the eggs and butter. 他查
The weather is looking up, so we may go out this
coming Sunday. 天气在好转,所以我们这周日也许能出
There were signs everywhere warning people to look
OUt for falling rocks. 到处都有牌子,提醒人们当心岩石
We look on Kong Fansen as a model for us to learn
from. 我们把孔繁森当作我们学习的楷模。
【考例1】(NMET 1 990) ____ this book and tell me
what you think of it.
    A. Look through    B. Look on
    C. Look into    D. Look up
[答案与解析]A  look through 浏览,细看;look on 旁
观;look into 调查;look up 向上看,查找,查寻,改善。
3. make use of 利用;使用
  He made use of every secx)nd to learn his lessons every
  If better use is made of your spare time, you will make
  great progress in it.
【考点3】含“动词 + on”的短语
① carry on 坚持下去,继续下去
② come on 来吧,跟着来,赶快
③ call on 访问,号召,邀请
④ go on 继续
⑤ go on doing 继续做
⑥ get on 上(车)
⑦ hold on 等一等,不挂断
⑧ live on 继续存在,继续活着.以……为主食,以……
⑨ knock on 敲(门、窗)
⑩ pass on 传递,转移到
⑩ put on 穿上,上演
⑥ turn on 打开
⑩ try on 试穿,试戴
⑩ depend on 依赖,依靠,取决于
⑩ test on 在……(身上)做试验
⑩ be on good terms 关系好
⑩ play a trick on sb 开某人玩笑,欺骗某人
[例句]Though tired and hungry, we carried on until we
reached camp. 尽管又累又饿,我们还是坚持到了宿营
As the years go on, we grow both wiser and sadder. 随
He put on an air of innocence, but it didn't deceive us.
Several pairs of shoes were tried on, but none of them
were satisfactory. 试穿了几双鞋,但是没有令人满意
The southerners in China mainly live on rice. 中国南方
Don't play a trick on me — I want to know the truth. 不
I call on the people of the country to work hard for na—
tional unity. 我号召本国的人民为了国家的统一而努
【考例3】(2005辽宁) Could you please tell me where
you bought the shoes you ____ yesterday?
    A. tried on    B. put on
    C. had on    D. pulled on
[考查目标] 此题主要考查“动词 + on”的短语用法。
[答案与解析]C   句子的意思明显是表达“穿”的意思
(表状态)。而try on 的意思是“试穿”,put on 的意思是
“穿”。但强调的是动作,pull on 也表穿戴的意思,表动
① come back 回来
② bring sb back 送回某人
③ bring...back to life 使苏醒,使生动,使活泼
④ bring back 拿回来,使恢复。使回想起
⑤ go back 回去
⑥ get...back 退还,送回去,取回
⑦ get back 回来,取回
⑧ date back to 回溯至,追溯到
⑨ take back 收回,取回
⑩ keep back 隐瞒不讲,扣留,阻止
⑩ hold bac k阻止
[例句] Her stay among the mountains brought her back
to health. 她在山中逗留使得她恢复了健康。
This custom dates back to the Tang Dynasty. 这种风俗
I apologize to you, now I will take back what I said. 我
He may be telling the truth but he is keeping something
back. 他也许在说实话,但是他在隐瞒什么。
His story brought back our happy childhood together.
【考例2】(2004 全国卷I) You can take anything from
the shelf and read, but pleas ____ the books when
you've finished with them.
    A. put on    B. put down
    C. put back    D. put off
[考查目标] 此题主要考查put短语的用法。
[答案与解析]C   put on 穿戴,上演;put down 记下,放
下;put back 放回原处;put off 推迟。本句话的意思是“从
1. product, production, produce
  product 是最普通的词,多指某种自然或人工的产品
  production 指产品时,常限于人工产品,包括智力和
  produce 是个集合名词,指自然产品,特别是农业产
  She is the product Of talented parents.
  Production of iron has increased in the last few years.
  The farmers brought their produce to town early each
2. guide, conduct, lead
  区别在于:guide (抽象名词guidance;具体名词guide
  “向导”) 是通用词,可以用于“为别人带路”“指导别
  到危险。而conduct (抽象名词conductance“传导
  票员”) 在表示“指导、引导”时含有明显的主从关系,
  即被引导者不服从是不可以的。lead (抽象名词
  Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding
  the dead on their return journey to the other world.
  At the top of the bank my guide paused and looked
  back at me.
  He is now studying under the guidance of Professor
3. happen, take place, breakout, occur
  (1) happen 往往表示偶然性的没预料到的事情的“发
  How did the accident happen? You'd better let me
  (2) take place 表示必然性的“发生”或指是布置或策
  Great changes have taken place in our country these
  (3) break out 表示地震、战争、火灾、疾病等“突然发
  A fire broke out in the neighborhood last night.
  (4) occur 相当于 happen
  It is said that the traffic accident OCCUlTed at midnight.
  [联想] 主语 (人) + happen + 动词不定式
  It (形式主语) + happen + that从句 (真正的主语)
  I happened to see him in the street. (碰巧、恰巧)
4. sure, certain, confident
  的”。certain 指“有充分根据或理由而相信的”。
  confident 强调“对某人(物)坚信的或满怀信心的”。
  be sure to 中的sure 不能改为certain。
  I'm sure you don't mean it.
  This letter made me certain 0f his innocence.
  He's confident he will win.
  [词组] be certain of 确信;深信
  be certain to 必然;一定
  be not certain whether... 不能确定是否……
  for certain 肯定地;确凿地
  make certain (of, that) 把……弄清楚;把……弄确
5. late, later, latest, lately
  late 是形容词或副词,表示“晚,迟”;later 是副词,表
  latest 是形容词,表示“最近的”;lately 是副词,表示
  He went to bed late last night.
  I shall call again later.
  People want to buy the latest newspaper, nobody wants
  to buy yesterday's.
  Have you seen him lately?
6. deep, deeply
  deep 既可作形容词,又可作副词,表示动作与事物的
  具体深度,注意习惯搭配。deep into, go deep, be
  buried deep,drink deep(痛饮);deeply为副词,常用
  Our teacher often work deep into the night.
  Her faith goes very deep.
  We are deeply moved by what she said and did.
  I'm deeply grateful for the advice you gave me.
7. year after year, year by year
  year after year 意为“年复一年地”,常用来表示每年
  重复,在句中作状语,类似的结构还有:day after day;
  month after month; one after another; letter after
  letter;而 year by year 表示逐渐的变化过程,类似的
  结构还有:day by day; little by little (逐渐地)。
  My grandfather grows older year by year.
  We call on our teachers on Teachers’Day year after
1. What do you think causes these changes?
  What effects do you think the changes in eating habits
  will have on agriculture and nature?
  句中 do you think 是插入语,经常位于疑问词(组)
  Where do you think our English teacher comes from?
  Who do you think the old lady is?
  What is it, do you think?
2. To make as much ase of the land as possible, two or
  more crops ale planted each year where possible.
  句中 as possible和 where possible 是 as it is possible 和
  where it is possible的省略形式,在类似结构中it is /
  was常常被省略。as...as possible是固定的结构,表
  We need to send the letter off as soon as possible.
  Hold your breath for as long as possible.
  Fill the words in the blanks where necessary.
3. Not only is food production important but also taking
  care of the environment.
  (1)当 not only...but (also)... 连接两个并列分句
  以省略。(2) 当not only...but (also)...连接两个主
  Not only did he speak more correctly but he spoke more
  Not only the students but also the teacher is interested
  in the TV play.
4. Much of the wisdom discovered by early Chinese
  scientists is still useful for farmers and gardeners.
  句中 discovered by early Chinese scientists是过去分
  词短语作后置定语,相当于which was discovered by
  The system used in this school is very successful.
  There is a red car parked outside the house.
  The window broken in the stoml has now been
5. What comedians have in common with the players in a
  comedy is their way of playing with words.
  common (with) 表示“和……有共同之处”的意思。
  OUt of common 则表示“异乎寻常;不平常”的意思。
  They have a lot in common.
  I haven't a thing in common with my father.
  He had noticed nothing out of common.
  6. I remember that the last time we met I did most of the
    talking, so perhaps I should Iet you do the talking this
    句中 the last time 为连词引导时间状语从句。引导
    时间状语从句的词组有as soon as, hardly...when,
    no sooner...than, the moment, by the time, every
    time, each time 等。
    The moment I saw him, I recognised him.
    He had hardly finished the article when the light went
    No sooner had she arrived than she went away again.
【考点l】It is on this arable land that the farmers produce
food for the whole population of China. 就在这些耕地
It was from the early 1990s that scientists started to de-
velop new techniques to increase agricultural production
without harming the environment. 90年代初,科学家开
调。强调的基本句型结构为:It is / was + 被强调部分
+ that + 句子的剩余成分。
It was at Christmas that Jack gave Jane a beautiful red
rose. 就是在圣诞节。杰克送给简一朵漂亮的红玫瑰。
1. 强调人时,that可以换成who。
2. 当被强涮部分较复杂时,特别记住不能漏写了that。
  It was not until he came back at midnight that I left.
3. 强调句型用于疑问句时,注意语序。例如:
  When and where was it that Liu xiang broke the
  Olympic record? 到底在何时何地。刘翔打破了奥运
【考例】】(2003上海) It is these poisonous products
 ____ can cause the symptoms of the flue, such as
headache and aching muscles.
    A. who    B. that
    C. how    D. what
[考查目标] 强调句型。
[答案与解析]B  根据以上的解释.本句强调主语,又
【考点2】What do you think is the most important thing
in yourjob7你认为在你工作当中最重要的是什么?
殊句式。在由 do you think / believe / suppose / expect
/ imagine 等词引导宾语从旬时,需要把宾语从句的引
导阋位于句首,构成一种特殊的疑问句“疑问词 + do
you think / believe / suppose / expect / imagine + 宾语
When do you suppose he came back to his motherland?
Which team do you think will Wi’ll the World Cup?你认
-- We haven't heard from Jane for a long time.
-- What do you suppose ____ to her?
    A. was happening    B. to happen
    C. has happened    D. having happened
[考查目标]疑问词 + do you think / suppose / believe
[答案与解析]C  根据以上的解释,需要填what的谓
语动词,所以用has happened。
【考点3】Dating back to the Qin Dynasty (221—207BC),
the traditional crosstalk shows, or xiangsheng shows,
have made people all over China roar with laughter for
centuries. 传统的相声表演可以追溯到秦朝(公元前
该句中的“dating back to...”在句中作定语,相当于定语
从句which dated back to或which dated from。
被动关系,则用being done。例如:
Do you see the girl dancing with your brother? (定语)
The building being built now is our lab. (定语)正在修
【考例3】(2000上海)Will those ____ the children
from abroad come the headmaster's office?
    A. teaching    B. teach
    C. who teaches    D. who teaching
[答案与解析]A   根据以上解释,用非谓语动词。teach
【考点4】It's their clothes, makeup and the way they talk
that makes people. 逗人笑的是他们的衣着,装扮和走
该句中的 they talk 作 the way 的定语从句。
the way充当先行词时,一定要注意“顾后”,即the way
在定语从句中所作的成分。如果 way 是作宾语或表
要用that,in which或不填。例如:
This is the only way that you can find. 这是你能找到
She is fond of the way the famous Japanese actor
smokes. 她喜欢那位日本男影星抽烟的姿势。
I don't like the way that (in which) he speaks to his
mother. 我不喜欢他对他妈妈说话的方式。
【考例4】(2004湖北) What surprised me was not what
hc said but ____ he said it.
    A. the way    B. in the way that
    C. in the way    D. the way which
[答案与解析]A  not…but…连接两个表语成分;the
1. I can't understand the way ____ you worked out
  the math problem.
    A. in which    B. with which
    C. how    D. which
2. It was ____ back home after the experiment.
    A. not until midnight did he go
    B. until midnight that he didn't go
    C. not until midnight that he went
    D. until midnight when he didn't go
3. Why!I have nothing to confess. ____ you want
  me to say?(2004上海)
    A. What is it that  B. What it is that
    C. How is it that    D. How it is that
4. Reading is an experience quite different from watc—
hing TV; there are pictures ____ in mind instead
 0f before your eyes. (2004广西)
    A. to form    B. form
    C. forming    D. having formed
【考点1】Giving advice and making decisions 提建议 (劝
告) 和作决定
(2005 浙江二模)
-- Since you can't find a better job,why don't you stick
  to the present one?
-- Well, ____.
    A. I believe not    B. I don't care
    C. Never mind    D. I might as weIl
[答案与解析]D  本题考查对提出劝告的应答用语。
“I might as well (stick to the present one)”表示“那我
还是坚持做目前的工作”。may / might as well do不
妨做,无妨做(比had better更委婉)。
① You'd better go to see the doctor.
② You should listen to and read English every day.
③ You need to buy a Chinese-English dictionary.
④ Don't rush / hurry / push.
⑤ Please stand in line.
⑥ If I were you, I'd phone him now.
⑦ In my opinion you should...
⑧ The other idea sounds better to me...
⑨ As far as I can see the best thing would be to...
⑩ Wouldn't it be better if...?
⑩ I think he is right...
⑩  We can't do both, so...
⑩ We have to make a choice...
【考点2】Expressing intentions and plans 表达打算和计
-- Hi, I hear you're going to the World Park this week—
-- ____, I was going to, but l changed my plan.
    A. Actually    B. Finally
    C. Usually    D. Normally
[答案与解析]A  本题考查谈论计划的交际用语。根
① Are you going to leave for Singapore?
② Do you mean / plan to apply for the position?
③ Have you decided to support him?
④ What do you mean / intend to do?
⑤ What are you doing this evening?
⑥ Will you be there?
⑦ What are you going to do?
① I will...
② I'm going to...
③ I intend to...
④ I hope to...
⑤ I plan / want to...
⑥ I wish to...
⑦ I've decided (not) to...
⑧ I hope not to...
⑨ I'm thinking of...
1. -- I think the company may not offer you a good pay.
-- ____, I won't take the job.
    A. That is to say    B. What is more
    C. In other words    D. In that case
2. -- When are you leaving for London?
-- My plan ____ at three tomorrow afternoon.
    A. is taking off    B. is about to take off
    C. takes off    D. will take off
3. -- I hear that Bai Shan can't afford his schooling this
-- ____, let's do something for him.
    A. If so    B. Where possible
    C. When necessary  D. What a shame
4. -- I'm going downtown.
-- Come on. ____.
    A. You're welcome  B. I'll give you a lift
C. Don't do that    D. Come with me
(  )1. ____ straight on and you'll see a church. You
    won't missing it. (2004湖北)
    A. Go    B. Going
    C. If you go    D. Wheng going
    【解析】选A  “祈使句 + and + 陈述句”的句式相当
(  )2. ____ the programme,they have to stay there
    for another two weeks. (2004  广东)
    A. Not completing
    B. Not completed
    C. Not having completed
    D. Having not completed
    【解析】选C  not having completed是分词的完成式
(  )3. The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a
    few seconds to try to ____. (2003北京春季)
    A. make it out    B. make it off
    C. make it uD    D. make it over
    【解析】选A   make out意为“理解”。
(    )4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the
    govemment knows ____. (NMET 2003)
    A. it what to do with  B. what to do it with
    C. what to do with it  D. to do what with it
    【解析】选C  what + 不定式在句中做know的宾语。
(  )5. Americans eat ____ vegetables per person today
    as they did in 1910. (2002上海)
    A. more than twice
    B. astwice asmany
    C. twice asmany as
    D. more than twice as many
(   ) 6. -- Do you like ____ here'?
     -- Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of
     life. Everything is so nice.  (2004  全国II)
     A. this                B. these
     C. that               D. it
(     ) 7. Tony is going camping with ____ boys.
            A. little two other      B. two little other
            C. two other little      D. little other two
    【解析】选C  本题考查多个形容词修饰一个名词的
(     ) 8. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf,
        ____ five are mine.  (2004  全国)
A. on which           B. in which
C. of which            D. from which
(     ) 9. They had a pleasant chat ____ a cup of coffee.
            (2003  北京)
            A. for               B. with
            C. during              D. over
【解析】选D。 over在此意为“一边……,一边……”
(     )10. The conference had been held to discuss the
             effects of tourism ____ the wildlife in the
             area. (2003  上海)
             A. in                 B. on
             C. at                D. with
【解析】选B此题考查固定搭配“have effects on sth.”。

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